The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
The Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, or California Delta, is an expansive inland river delta and estuary in Northern California. The Delta is formed at the western edge of the Central Valley by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and lies just east of where the rivers enter Suisun Bay; the Delta is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. The city of Stockton is located on the San Joaquin River on the eastern edge of the delta; the total area of the Delta, including both land and water, is about 1,100 square miles. The Delta was formed by the raising of sea level following glaciation, leading to the accumulation of Sacramento and San Joaquin River sediments behind the Carquinez Strait, the sole outlet from the Central Valley to San Pablo and San Francisco Bays and the Pacific Ocean; the narrowness of the Carquinez Strait coupled with tidal action has caused the sediment to pile up, forming expansive islands. Geologically, the Delta has existed since the end of the last Ice Age.
In its natural state, the Delta was a large freshwater marsh, consisting of many shallow channels and sloughs surrounding low islands of peat and tule. Since the mid-19th century, most of the region has been claimed for agriculture. Wind erosion and oxidation have led to widespread subsidence on the Central Delta islands. Much of the water supply for central and southern California is derived from here via pumps located at the southern end of the Delta, which deliver water for irrigation in the San Joaquin Valley and municipal water supply for southern California; the Delta consists of 57 reclaimed islands and tracts, surrounded by 1,100 miles of levees that border 700 miles of waterways. The southwestern side of the Delta lies at the foothills of the California Coast Ranges, while to the northwest sit the lower Montezuma Hills. Most of the Delta lies within Contra Costa, San Joaquin and Yolo Counties; the total human population of the Delta was 515,264 as of 2000. Altogether, the Delta covers 1,153 square miles, with 841 sq mi, or nearly 73 percent, devoted to agriculture.
About 100 sq mi of the Delta area is urban and 117 sq mi. The rivers, streams and waterways of the Delta total about 95 sq mi of surface, although this fluctuates with seasons and tides. Geologically, it is not considered a true river delta, but rather an inverted river delta, as it formed inward rather than outward; the only other major river delta in the world located this far inland is the Pearl River Delta in China. The main source rivers include the Sacramento River from the north, the San Joaquin from the southeast, the Calaveras and Mokelumne Rivers from the east; the Calaveras and Mokelumne are both tributaries of the San Joaquin River. The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers join at the western end of the Delta near Pittsburg, at the head of Suisun Bay, although they are linked upstream by the Georgiana Slough, first used by steamboats in the 19th century as a shortcut between Sacramento and Stockton; the southwestern part of the Delta is transected by the Middle River and Old River, former channels of the San Joaquin.
These rivers transport more than 30 million acre feet of water through the Delta each year – about 50 percent of all California's runoff. Nearby cities include Lodi and Stockton to the east and Manteca to the south, Brentwood to the southwest, Pittsburg and Antioch to the west; the state capital, Sacramento, is located just to the north of the Delta. The Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel connects the Delta to the Port of Sacramento, with its terminus located near Rio Vista, on the northwestern side of the Delta; the Stockton Ship Channel is a dredged and straightened section of the San Joaquin River cutting directly through the Delta from the Port of Stockton to the San Joaquin's confluence with the Sacramento near Antioch. The Delta was located at the bottom of a large inland sea in the Central Valley, which formed as the uplift of the California Coast Ranges blocked off drainage from the Sierra Nevada to the Pacific. About 560,000 years ago, water breached the mountains, carving out the present-day Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay.
The drainage of all the water through this narrow gap formed a bottleneck in the Central Valley's outflow. The Delta in its contemporary state began to form about 10,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age. During the Ice Age global sea levels were about 300 ft lower than today, the Delta region, as well as Suisun Bay, the Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay, were a river valley through which the continuation of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers flowed to the Pacific Ocean; when sea levels rose again, ocean water backed up through the Carquinez Strait into the Central Valley. The early delta was composed of shifting channels, sand dunes, alluvial fans and floodplains that underwent constant fluctuation because of rising seas – one inch per year. About 8,000 years ago, the rate of sea-level rise slackened, allowing wetland plants to take hold in the Delta, trapping sediment. Th
Pyramid Dam is a dam on Piru Creek located in northern Los Angeles County, north of Castaic and south of Gorman. Its reservoir, Pyramid Lake, stores water from the West Branch California Aqueduct for Ventura County and Los Angeles County, they are smaller than Castaic Dam and Lake, the other artificial water storage facility in the area, 7 miles to the south. Construction of the dam was made possible by California voter approval in 1960 of the California Aqueduct project referred to as the Feather River project. State bonds were issued to finance the project. Pyramid Dam, which first began construction in 1968, is 386 feet high, it lies directly behind the mountain rock giving the dam and lake its name - Pyramid Cut - which before the Ridge Route Alternate was built through the area in the 1931 to 1933 time period, was just another ordinary mountain. The highway construction of the Ridge Route Alternate caused this mountain to have part of its mass "shaved" off - reduced in size - and after the work to accommodate highway traffic was finished, the shape of the cut was found to resemble a pyramid, hence the name.
Pyramid Dam holds 171,196 acre feet of water. Its maximum capacity is 180,000 acre feet of water; the lake behind the dam, shaped like a Triceratops tooth, has been used for boating and camping since 1974. The dam and lake were built by the state of California Department of Water Resources, who maintains them today; the water stored there serves residents and farmers in Ventura County and LA County. During the construction of Pyramid Dam, US 99 vehicle traffic was rerouted to Interstate 5 beginning in 1968. In the 1968-9 time period, motorists could still drive US 99 from Violin Summit to Hungry Valley Road. After completion of the dam in 1970 Feather River water began to fill the area behind the dam, a plan conceived of before the construction of the Ridge Route Alternate. By 1972 the Ridge Route Alternate was submerged under the lake's water. Since its southern border with the lake continues to serve as a boat ramp; the lake's northern border portion of US 99 is closed to motorists. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of the tallest dams in the United States Jerry Reynolds.
"History of the Santa Clarita Valley". Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society. Retrieved 2002-02-04. US 99 - Piru Gorge: Pyramid Rock and Dam
A cobble is a clast of rock defined on the Udden–Wentworth scale as having a particle size of 64–256 millimeters, larger than a pebble and smaller than a boulder. Other scales define a cobble's size in different terms. A rock made predominantly of cobbles is termed a conglomerate. Cobblestone is a building material based on cobbles. Cobbles called cobblestones, derive their name from the word cob, meaning a rounded lump; the term is further related to the German Kopf. Chester Wentworth referred to cobbles as cobble bowlders in his 1922 paper that would become the basis for the Udden–Wentworth scale. Within the used Krumbein phi scale of grain sizes, cobbles are defined as clasts of rock ranging from −6 to −8 φ; this classification corresponds with the Udden–Wentworth size scale which defines cobbles as clasts with diameters from 64–256 millimeters. On this scale, cobbles are larger than pebbles which measure 4–64 millimeters in diameter and smaller than boulders, whose diameters range from 256–4,096 millimeters.
On the Udden–Wentworth scale, an unlithified fraction of cobbles is classified as gravel while a lithified sample composed of cobbles is a conglomerate. The Committee on Sedimentation of the US National Research Council has recommended that in situ cobbles be identified by their process of origination, if possible. In the late 1800s and early to mid-1900s, prior to the Udden–Wentworth scale's widespread adoption, size classifications tended to group all particles larger than 2 millimeters together as gravel or stones. Other scales have defined the size of a cobble differently than the Udden–Wentworth. Various attempts have been made to refine the Udden–Wentworth scale, including its definition of cobbles. In 1968, D. J. Doeglas proposed subdividing the cobble designation into two fractions, small cobbles and large cobbles. A 1999 paper by Terence C. Blair and John G. McPherson argued that the Udden–Wentworth and Krumbein scales betrayed a historical emphasis on the study of sand grains while ignoring larger gravel grains.
They proposed defining fine cobbles as those with diameters from 64–128 millimeters and coarse cobbles as those with diameters from 128–256 millimeters. In 2012, Simon J. Blott and Kenneth Pye suggested that the cobble designation be eliminated altogether, replaced by small boulder and small boulder designations equivalent in size to Blair and McPherson's fine and coarse cobbles, respectively; when occurring in streams, cobbles are to be found in mountain valley streambeds that are moderately steep. Cobbles are transported by glaciers and deposited as with other grades of sediment as till. If the till is water-laid, finer particles like sand and pebbles may be washed away, leaving a deposit of only boulders and cobbles. Glacially transported cobbles tend to share several identifying features including a tabular shape and downward diagonal striations on lateral facets. Cobble conglomerates may be alluvial in origin or the product of "stone avalanches", a type of debris flow resulting from unconsolidated cobbles and gravel.
In such stone avalanches, well-rounded cobbles may travel the farthest on account of their low rolling friction. When the product of alluvial processes, the cobble conglomerate's matrix consists of gravel and coarse sand. In contrast, the matrices of flow-deposited conglomerates are mud. Bunte, K.. Sampling Surface and Subsurface Particle-Size Distributions in Wadable Gravel- and Cobble-Bed Streams for Analyses in Sediment Transport and Streambed Monitoring. Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fort Collins, CO: United States Forest Service. Doi:10.2737/RMRS-GTR-74. Retrieved March 18, 2016. Hsü, K. J.. Physics of Sedimentology: Textbook and Reference. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-20620-0. Pettijohn, F. J.. Sedimentary Rocks. New York City: Harper and Row. ISBN 978-0-06-045191-2
Castaic Creek is a 25.0-mile-long stream in the Sierra Pelona Mountains, in northeastern Los Angeles County, California. It is a tributary of the Santa Clara River. Castaic Dam on the creek forms Castaic Lake, but most of the water comes from the West Branch of the West Branch California Aqueduct, part of the California State Water Project; the 323,700 acre foot lake is the terminus for west branch of the aqueduct. The aqueduct delivers water to the lake by a pipeline from Pyramid Lake. Besides storing drinking water, Castaic Lake is the lower reservoir in a pumped-storage hydroelectric system. During times of peak electricity demand, water is released from Pyramid Lake and run through the turbines at Castaic Power Plant. At night, when demand and electricity prices are lower, water is pumped from Castaic Lake to Pyramid Lake; the income from the electricity sold offsets a portion of the cost for pumping the water in some parts of the aqueduct, such as over the Tehachapi Mountains. Some water is released into Castaic Lagoon downstream of the dam.
The lagoon provides Groundwater recharge of the recreation. Downstream of the lagoon, water continues in Castaic Creek through the eastern Sierra Pelona Mountains to its confluence with the Santa Clara River, a few miles west of Santa Clarita; the rest is distributed to the northern Greater Los Angeles Area by pipelines. "The California Water Plan Update, October 1994". California Department of Water Resources. Archived from the original on 2009-06-05. "California Public Utilities Commission". Santa Clara River topics San Francisquito Creek St. Francis Dam List of rivers of California
Orange County, California
Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States, more populous than 21 U. S. states. Its county seat is Santa Ana, it is the second most densely populated county behind San Francisco County. The county's four largest cities by population, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange County's cities are on the Pacific Ocean western coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, San Clemente. Orange County is included in Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated towns and cities are in the county. Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870 when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city with a large downtown central business district, Orange County has no single major downtown / CBD or dominant urban center.
Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine all have smaller high-rise CBDs, other, older cities like Anaheim, Huntington Beach, Orange have traditional American downtowns without high-rises. The county's northern and central portions are urbanized and dense, despite the prevalence of the single-family home as a dominant land use, its southern portion is more suburban, with limited urbanization. There are several "edge city"-style developments, such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, South Coast Metro. Orange County is part of the "Tech Coast"; the county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, several popular beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. Throughout the 20th century and up until 2016, it was known for its political conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have resulted in a shift in political alignments.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Members of the Tongva, Juaneño, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively; the Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.
A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr. James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature; such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, subsequently on June 4th, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer.
In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum and elected right leaning officers, with some, including one of the primary lobbyists for the creation of the county, Henry W. Head, elected to the Board of Supervisors while being a member of the Ku Klux Klan, with Head’s son, Horace Head, elected as District Attorney of the soon to be county, known to, as stated by the OC Weekly, threaten “...any Mexicans who walked in front of their homes with shotguns when not burning crosses on front lawns,” along with Horace Head supporting and defending his fathers affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was incorporated on August 1st, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks.
The county is said to have been named for the
The Governor Edmund G. Brown California Aqueduct is a system of canals and pipelines that conveys water collected from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and valleys of Northern and Central California to Southern California. Named after California Governor Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. the over 400-mile aqueduct is the principal feature of the California State Water Project. The aqueduct begins at the Clifton Court Forebay at the southwestern corner of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta; the aqueduct heads south splitting into three branches: the Coastal Branch, ending at Lake Cachuma in Santa Barbara County. The Department of Water Resources operates and maintains the California Aqueduct, including one pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, Gianelli Power Plant. Gianelli is located at the base of San Luis Dam, which forms San Luis Reservoir, the largest offstream reservoir in the United States; the Castaic Power Plant, while similar and, owned and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, is located on the northern end of Castaic Lake, while Castaic Dam is located at the southern end.
The aqueduct begins at the San Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta at the Banks Pumping Plant, which pumps from the Clifton Court Forebay. Water is pumped by the Banks Pumping Plant to the Bethany Reservoir; the reservoir serves as a forebay for the South Bay Aqueduct via the South Bay Pumping Plant. From the Bethany Reservoir, the aqueduct flows by gravity 60 mi to the O'Neill Forebay at the San Luis Reservoir. From the O'Neill Forebay, it flows 16 mi to the Dos Amigos Pumping Plant. After Dos Amigos, the aqueduct flows about 95 mi to where the Coastal Branch splits from the "main line"; the split is 16 mi south-southeast of Kettleman City. After the coastal branch, the line continues by gravity another 66 mi to the Buena Vista Pumping Plant. From the Buena Vista, it flows 27 mi to the Teerink Pumping Plant. After Teerink it flows about 2.5 mi to the Chrisman Pumping Plant. Chrisman is the last pumping plant before Edmonston Pumping Plant, 13 mi from Chrisman. South of the plant the west branch splits off in a southwesterly direction to serve the Los Angeles Basin.
At Edmonston Pumping Plant it is pumped 1,926 ft over the Tehachapi Mountains. Water flows through the aqueduct in a series of abrupt rises and gradual falls; the water flows down a long segment, built at a slight grade, arrives at a pumping station powered by Path 66 or Path 15. The pumping station raises the water, where it again flows downhill to the next station. However, where there are substantial drops, the water's potential energy is recaptured by hydroelectric plants; the initial pumping station fed by the Sacramento River Delta raises the water 240 ft, while a series of pumps culminating at the Edmonston Pumping Plant raises the water 1,926 ft over the Tehachapi Mountains. The Edmonston Pumping station requires so much power that several power lines off of Path 15 and Path 26 are needed to ensure proper operation of the pumps. A typical section has a concrete-lined channel 40 feet at the base and an average water depth of about 30 ft; the widest section of the aqueduct is 110 feet and the deepest is 32 feet.
Channel capacity is 13,100 cubic feet per second and the largest pumping plant capacity at Dos Amigos is 15,450 cubic feet per second. From its beginning until its first branch, the aqueduct passes through parts of Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Merced and Kings counties; the aqueduct divides into three branches: the Coastal Branch in the Central Valley, the East and West Branches after passing over the Tehachapi Mountains. The Coastal Branch splits from the main line 11.3 mi south-southeast of Kettleman City transiting Kings County, Kern County, San Luis Obispo County, Santa Barbara County to deliver water to the coastal cities of San Luis Obispo, Santa Maria, Santa Barbara. Coastal Branch is 116 mi and five pump stations. Phase I, an above ground aqueduct totals 15 mi from where it branches from the California Aqueduct, was completed in 1968. With construction beginning in 1994, Phase II consists of 101 mi of a 42–57-inch diameter buried pipeline extending from the Devils Den Pump Plant, terminates at Tank 5 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in Santa Barbara County.
The Central Coast Water Authority extension, completed in 1997, is a diameter pipeline that travels 42 mi from Vandenberg through Vandenberg Village, Lompoc and Solvang where it terminates at Lake Cachuma in Los Padres National Forest. Las Perillas Pumping Plant Badger Hill Pumping Plant Devil's Den Pumping Plant Bluestone Pumping Plant Polonia Pass Pumping Plant Polonio Pass Water Treatment Plant Cuesta Tunnel Santa Ynez Pumping Facility The aqueduct splits off into the East Branch and West Branch in extreme southern Kern County, north of the Los Angeles County line; the East Branch supplies Lake Palmdale and terminates at Lake Perris, in the area of the San Gorgonio Pass. It passes through parts of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside counties. Pearblossom Pumping Plant Alamo Power Plant Mojave Siphon Power Plant San Bernardino Tunnel Devil Canyon Power Plant Greenspot Pump Station Crafton Hills Reservoir Crafton Hills Pump Station Cherry Valley Pump Station The West Branch continues to head towards its terminus at Pyramid Lake and Castaic Lake in the Angeles National Forest to supply the western