Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Pumped-storage hydroelectricity, or pumped hydroelectric energy storage, is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing. The method stores energy in the form of gravitational potential energy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost surplus off-peak electric power is used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines to produce electric power. Although the losses of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall, the system increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of peak demand, when electricity prices are highest. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity allows energy from intermittent sources and other renewables, or excess electricity from continuous base-load sources to be saved for periods of higher demand; the reservoirs used with pumped storage are quite small when compared to conventional hydroelectric dams of similar power capacity, generating periods are less than half a day.
Pumped storage is the largest-capacity form of grid energy storage available, and, as of 2017, the United States Department of Energy Global Energy Storage Database reports that PSH accounts for over 95% of all active tracked storage installations worldwide, with a total installed nameplate capacity of over 184 GW, of which about 25 GW are in the United States. The round-trip energy efficiency of PSH varies between 70%–80%, with some sources claiming up to 87%; the main disadvantage of PSH is the specialist nature of the site required, needing both geographical height and water availability. Suitable sites are therefore to be in hilly or mountainous regions, in areas of outstanding natural beauty, therefore there are social and ecological issues to overcome. Many proposed projects, at least in the U. S. avoid sensitive or scenic areas, some propose to take advantage of "brownfield" locations such as disused mines. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the upper reservoir.
When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine, generating electricity. Reversible turbine/generator assemblies act as a combined turbine generator unit. In open-loop systems, pure pumped-storage plants store water in an upper reservoir with no natural inflows, while pump-back plants utilize a combination of pumped storage and conventional hydroelectric plants with an upper reservoir, replenished in part by natural inflows from a stream or river. Plants that do not use pumped-storage are referred to as conventional hydroelectric plants. Taking into account evaporation losses from the exposed water surface and conversion losses, energy recovery of 70-80% or more can be achieved; this technique is the most cost-effective means of storing large amounts of electrical energy, but capital costs and the presence of appropriate geography are critical decision factors in selecting pumped-storage plant sites. The low energy density of pumped storage systems requires either large flows and/or large differences in height between reservoirs.
The only way to store a significant amount of energy is by having a large body of water located near, but as high above as possible, a second body of water. In some places this occurs in others one or both bodies of water were man-made. Projects in which both reservoirs are artificial and in which no natural inflows are involved with either reservoir are referred to as "closed loop" systems; these systems may be economical because they flatten out load variations on the power grid, permitting thermal power stations such as coal-fired plants and nuclear power plants that provide base-load electricity to continue operating at peak efficiency, while reducing the need for "peaking" power plants that use the same fuels as many base-load thermal plants and oil, but have been designed for flexibility rather than maximal efficiency. Hence pumped storage systems are crucial. Capital costs for pumped-storage plants are high, although this is somewhat mitigated by their long service life of up to 75 years or more, three to five times longer than utility-scale batteries.
Along with energy management, pumped storage systems help control electrical network frequency and provide reserve generation. Thermal plants are much less able to respond to sudden changes in electrical demand causing frequency and voltage instability. Pumped storage plants, like other hydroelectric plants, can respond to load changes within seconds; the most important use for pumped storage has traditionally been to balance baseload powerplants, but may be used to abate the fluctuating output of intermittent energy sources. Pumped storage provides a load at times of high electricity output and low electricity demand, enabling additional system peak capacity. In certain jurisdictions, electricity prices may be close to zero or negative on occasions that there is more electrical generation available than there is load available to absorb it, it is likely that pumped storage will become important as a balance for large scale photovoltaic generation. Increased long distance transmission capac
Pyramid Lake (Los Angeles County, California)
Pyramid Lake is a reservoir formed by Pyramid Dam on Piru Creek in the eastern San Emigdio Mountains, near Castaic, Southern California. It is a part of the West Branch California Aqueduct, a part of the California State Water Project, its water is fed by the system after being pumped up from the San Joaquin Valley and through the Tehachapi Mountains. In 1843, gold was discovered near what is now Pyramid Lake, in the Santa Feliciana Canyon, just south of what is now Pyramid Dam; the small find failed to trigger a rush to the mountainous countryside. Only Francisco Lopes, owner of Rancho Temescal, a Mexican land grant, a handful of ranchers attempted to settle the region; this lake was created in 1972, completed in 1973, as a holding reservoir for the California State Water Project. The lake was named after a pyramid-shaped rock carved out by engineers building U. S. Route 99. Travelers between Los Angeles and Bakersfield christened the landmark “Pyramid Rock,” which still stands just adjacent to the dam.
Pyramid Lake is the deepest lake in the California Water Project system, built up along the steep canyon walls surrounding Piru Creek. The 180,000 acre⋅ft reservoir lies on the border between the Angeles National Forest and the Los Padres National Forest, in the northwestern portion of Los Angeles County, it is to the west of Interstate 5 south of Tejon Pass. The former alignment of US 99 is below the waters here, replaced by I-5. Just below the dam, Piru Creek returns to its natural state as it winds down through the Topatopa Mountains to feed into the Lake Piru reservoir and the Santa Clara River. Pumps carry water from Pyramid Lake to Castaic Lake, the terminus of the west branch of the aqueduct. Pyramid and Castaic act as the upper and lower reservoirs for a 1,495-megawatt pumped storage hydroelectric plant; the 118 m earth and rock dam was built by the California Department of Water Resources and was completed in 1973. Pyramid Lake is part of the California Aqueduct, part of the California State Water Project.
Outflow goes downstream to Castaic Lake, the terminus of this West Branch aqueduct line. Pyramid and Castaic act as lower reservoirs for the Castaic Power Plant, it is the deepest lake in the California Water Project system. Its name comes from the Pyramid Rock, created when a ridge was cut through in 1932 by the Ridge Route Alternate. Pyramid Rock still exists directly in front of the dam. Pyramid Lake offers boating, jet skiing, picnic areas, courtesy docks. Vista del Lago Visitors Center overlooks the lake. Access is from Interstate 5 exit on Vista Del Lago. Fishing is allowed from every location at Pyramid Lake. You can catch fish such as large mouth bass, small mouth bass, striped bass, blue gill and some trout; the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in Putah Creek based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in local species. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California CA Dept. of Water Resources—DWR: Pyramid Lake Recreation website Pyramid Lake Los Alamos campground info and reservation site
The Oroville–Thermalito Complex is a group of reservoirs and facilities located in and around the city of Oroville in Butte County, California. The complex serves not only as a regional water conveyance and storage system, but is the headwaters for, therefore is the most vital part of, the California Department of Water Resources' State Water Project, the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system; the Oroville–Thermalito Complex was designed as an efficient water and power storage and conveyance system. All reservoirs and canals, store about 3,620,000 acre feet when at max capacity, generate power from releases made through Hyatt Powerplant and two other generating plants in nearby Thermalito. A special fish barrier dam was built to lead salmon and steelhead, returning to spawn, into the Feather River Fish Hatchery; the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in the Thermalito Forebay and Afterbay based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in local species.
Water released from Lake Oroville is used to produce electricity via Hyatt Powerplant, located in the bedrock beneath and inside of the core of Oroville Dam. Water can either enter the Feather River through the one-unit Thermalito Diversion Dam Powerplant and the Diversion Dam's 14 radial spill gates or up to 17,000 cu ft/s can be diverted into the Thermalito Power Canal. From there, the water flows into Thermalito Forebay. At the end of the forebay, water enters the Thermalito Afterbay by way of the Thermalito Pumping–Generating Plant to produce electricity; the plant can pump water back into the lake to be reused for power generation at Hyatt Powerplant when needed. 39°33′22″N 121°27′06″W Lake Oroville is the second largest reservoir in California, stores winter and spring runoff, released into the Feather River at controlled intervals to meet the Project's needs. It provides pumped-storage capacity, 750,000 acre feet of flood control storage and freshwater releases to control salinity intrusion in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and for fish and wildlife protection.
The Lake is the most important of all the Oroville Complex facilities, being that it serves as the headwater of the entire State Water Project. Lake Oroville has a maximum operating storage of 3,537,580 acre feet, for purposes of scale, is equal to over 1.153 trillion gallons of water. The lake has a water surface area of 15,810 acres, a maximum water surface elevation of 901 feet, 167 miles of shoreline. 39 ° 32 ′ 15 ″ N 121 ° 29 ′ 01 ″ W The Oroville Dam is the largest dam in the United States. Completed in 1968, it stands 770 feet high with a crest length 6,920 feet long. Over 80 million cubic yards of material were needed to build the Oroville Dam. There is enough material to build a two-lane highway around the earth in the Dam. Oroville Dam was named by the California Society of Professional Engineers as one of the seven wonders of engineering in California in 1967; the dam's inner core is a thin layer made of clay material. Gold dredged tailings, sand & gravel left from the early 20th century gold rush dredging operations along the Feather River, make up the remainder of Oroville Dam.
Beneath the dam a giant cavern as large as the State Capitol Building has been hollowed out to house six power generation units. Coupled with four additional units in the Thermalito Pumping–Generating Plant, they will generate more than 2.8 billion kilowatt-hours of energy annually. 39°32′01″N 121°29′07″W Located in rock in the left abutment near the axis of Oroville Dam, the Edward Hyatt Powerplant is an underground, pumping–generating facility. Construction of the plant began in 1964 and was completed in 1967. Hyatt Powerplant maximizes power production through a pumped-storage operation where water, released for power in excess of local and downstream requirements, is returned to storage in Lake Oroville during off-peak periods and is used for generation during peak power demands. Water from the lake is conveyed to the units through penstocks and branch lines. After passing through the units, water is discharged through the draft tubes to one free surface and one full-flow tailrace tunnel.
The facility was named for Edward Hyatt, State Engineer of the Division of Water Resources under the Department of Public Works. The Division was the predecessor to the Department of Water Resources. 39°32′33″N 121°32′37″W The Thermalito Diversion Pool, in tandem with the Diversion Dam, serves to create a tailwater pool for Hyatt Powerplant, just around the bend to the East, at the base of Oroville Dam. The diversion pool acts as a forebay when Hyatt Powerplant is pumping water back into Lake Oroville, as well as provides recreation opportunities. 39°31′43″N 121°32′41″W Sitting at the South end of, the Diversion Pool reservoir, the Thermalito Diversion dam can either divert water west-ward into the Thermalito Power Canal for power generation at Thermalito Pumping–Generating Plant at the tail end of the Thermalito Forebay, or can release flow straight through, into the Feather River. The Diversion Dam has a crest length of 1,300 feet. 39°31′44″N 121°32′48″W The Thermalito Diversion Dam Powerplant is located at the Thermalito Diversion Dam below the left abutment of the dam.
The powerplant generates electricity from water released to the Feather River to maintain fish habitat between the diversion dam and Thermalito Afterbay river outlet. It was constructed in 1985 and was completed in 1987; the powerplant has
The Amazing Race 26
The Amazing Race 26 is the 26th installment of the reality television show The Amazing Race. In this installment, eleven teams of dating couples competed in a race around the world for a $1 million grand prize; the season premiered on CBS for the 2014–15 television season with a special 90-minute episode on Wednesday, February 25, 2015. Following the premiere, the program aired in the same time slot that the previous season of The Amazing Race took; the season finale aired on May 15, 2015. Blind date couple Laura Pierson & Tyler Adams, known as "Team SoCal," were the winners of the 26th season of The Amazing Race; this season covered 35,000 miles, five continents, eight countries, including visits to Japan, Namibia and for the first time Monaco. In some legs of the Race, a special clue was available. Teams that received the special clue were given a Date Night reward, an opportunity to participate in a romantic activity; the Save from the previous season returned for this season but was unaired and unused.
It could be obtained during the 3rd leg of the Race by completing both sides of the Detour. For the second season in a row, four teams competed in the final leg of the Race. However, the host of the show, Phil Keoghan, eliminated one team in the middle of the final leg, leaving only three teams to race to the Finish Line for the $1 million grand prize. Starting with this season, the scenes in which host Phil Keoghan describes the country and Pit Stop was removed and was replaced with the teams discussing what happened during the previous episode or a team having their date night before the next leg began; the cast included Olympic couple Aly Dudek and Steven Langton, as well as New Kids on the Block member Jonathan Knight, racing with his boyfriend, Harley Rodriguez. This season was the first in the history of the American edition, or any international edition of the program, which did not include at least one all-female team; the reasons for not casting at least one lesbian dating couple, whether preexisting or blind date, are unknown.
In June 2015, Jackie Ibarra and Jeff Weldon were revealed as additional contestants to the show on the seventeenth season of fellow CBS reality show Big Brother. Weldon was evicted third on Day 29. Ibarra was evicted eighth during a double eviction on Day 57, became the second member of the jury. Travelocity and Ford continued their sponsorships with The Amazing Race. Fitbit became a new sponsor this season; each team member received Fitbit devices, which were used in one of the tasks in Leg 10. This was the last season to have Ford as a sponsor for the show; the following teams participated in the Race. A red team placement means. An underlined blue team's placement indicates that the team came in last on a non-elimination leg and had to perform a Speed Bump during the next leg of the Race. A brown ⊃ or an cyan ⋑ indicates that the team chose to use one of the two U-Turns in a Double U-Turn, respectively. A purple ε indicates. An underlined leg number indicates that there was no mandatory rest period at the Pit Stop and all teams were ordered to continue racing.
The first place team was still awarded a prize for that leg. An underlined team placement indicates that the team came in last on a "continue racing" leg but was not eliminated at the end of the leg. Teams were warned; the prize for each leg was awarded to the first place team for that corresponding leg of the Race. The Date Night reward was a romantic activity at the Pit Stop, its invitation was found at random inside a clue envelope. Leg 1 – The Express Pass – an item that can be used during the Race to skip any one task of the team's choosing. Leg 2 – Fitbit watches and a fitness package for each team member, plus a personal chef, cooking lessons and a one-year gym membership or a year of fresh grocery delivery. Date Night: A trip to a Japanese hot spring - Harley & Jonathan won this. Leg 3 – A trip for two to Prague, Czech Republic Date Night: A romantic evening on the beach at the Pit Stop - Bergen & Kurt won this, however the prize was given to Matt & Ashley Leg 4 – A trip for two to Puerto Vallarta, Mexico Date Night: A romantic evening on a water boat at Chao Phraya River - Laura & Tyler won this Leg 5 – A 2015 Ford Focus for each racer.
Date Night: A romantic evening at the Bavarian Public Observatory - Mike & Rochelle won this Leg 6 – A trip for two to Cape Town, South Africa Date Night: A romantic evening at a hotel on the French Riviera - Laura & Tyler won this Leg 7 – $5000 each Date Night: Massages - Laura & Tyler won this. Leg 8 – A trip for two to Queenstown, New Zealand Leg 9 – A trip for two to Seoul, South Korea Date Night: Jelani & Jenny won this. Leg 10 – A Fitbit package for each racer, a phone and laptop of the racer's choice, either home gym equipment or a one-year gym membership. Date Night: A romantic dinner with a performance from a mummy - Jelani & Jenny won this. Leg 11 – A trip for two to Goa, India Leg 12 – US $1 million Episode titles are taken from quotes made by the racers. "Great Way to Start a Relationship" – Hayley "I Got the Smartest Dude" – Jackie and Laura "#MurphysLaw" – Harley "The Great Amazing Nasty Race" – Hayley "Get in That Lederhosen, Baby" – Tyler "Smells Like a Million Bucks" – Tyler "Back in Business" – Hayley "Moment of Truth" – Tyler "Can I Get a Hot Tub!"
Lake Perris is an artificial lake completed in 1973. It is the southern terminus of the California State Water Project, situated in a mountain-rimmed valley between Moreno Valley and Perris, in what is now the Lake Perris State Recreation Area; the park offers a variety of recreational activities. Because of this and the lake's proximity to major population centers, it is crowded during the summer months; the Ya'i Heki' Regional Indian Museum tells the story of the monumental State Water Project and focuses on the culture and history of the native peoples of the southern California desert region. Lake Perris is ringed by hills and small mountains, it impounds 131,400 acre feet of water behind a 2-mile long, 128 foot tall, chevron-shaped earthfill dam. The untended areas of Lake Perris may seem rocky and barren at first glance, but harbor a variety of natural wonders. An artificial reef exists on the lake floor made of old tires; the reef was created to provide a habitat for fish. The predominant plant community, coastal sage scrub, is host to a variety of birds and wildlife.
Mule deer, bobcats, rabbits, gopher snakes and rattlesnakes may sometimes be seen by day, though they tend to shy away from people. More seen are a wide variety of lizards, water fowl, birds of prey. Beautiful displays of wildflowers occur during the rainy season November through April; the coastal sage scrub community is predominant on the south-facing slopes of the Russell mountains and Bernasconi hills and is characterized by shrubby plants including desert encelia, sagebrush, black sage, white sage and cacti. Conditions are somewhat shadier on hillsides that face north or northwest so that chaparral plants such as chamise and poison oak are found. Remnants of the original perennial grasses that once flourished in this region can still be found in the flat interior of the park surrounding the lake, but the majority of plants that now make up the valley grassland community were imported from Europe by early settlers. Riparian areas near springs and seeps, on east and south lakes include willows, cattails and nettles.
More than a hundred species of birds have been spotted at Lake Perris. Many are migratory, stop at the park during their travels, while others make their permanent residence here. Meadowlarks, loggerhead shrikes, California thrashers, wrens, hummingbirds, golden eagles, several varieties of hawks and bald eagles may be seen. Many varieties of waterfowl use the lake including pintails, teals, shovelers, various geese, sometimes tundra swans and pelicans. Black-necked stilts, killdeer, kingfishers and herons are attracted to the water’s edge; the lake has become a hotspot for freshwater game fishing. Largemouth bass, spotted bass, rainbow trout, channel catfish, black crappie, red ear sunfish and carp are all present in the lake; as the climate is a warm one, the California Department of Fish and Game make regular plants of rainbow trout throughout the winter months. The lake records for each of the species are noted here: Alabama spotted bass – 9 pounds, 6 ounces Florida largemouth bass – 17 pounds, 6 ounces Bluegill – 3 pounds, 15 ounces Rainbow trout – 7 pounds Channel catfish – 30 poundsLargemouth bass, rainbow trout, channel catfish, black crappie, redear sunfish tend to be the primary focus of anglers.
The trout only bite in the cooler months after the DFG plants. Day and night and owls are seen hunting for prey; the bike trail offers an easy and convenient way to see some of the birds and other wildlife of Lake Perris. Early morning or dusk are the best times. Ranger-led hikes are conducted during early summer months. Most plants and animals at Lake Perris are well adapted to the dry environment. Chamise leaves are waxy to minimize water loss due to evaporation; some grasses and wildflowers rush from bloom to seed in just a few short weeks and are able to complete their life cycle within the brief wet season. Kangaroo rats are so well adapted to dry environments that they drink water, manage to extract the moisture they need directly from their food; the plants and animals of Perris valley have changed over the last two hundred years due to human activity, but its natural history can be intriguing. There are many recreational activities allowed on, in, around Lake Perris and in the State Recreation Park.
Guided hikes are offered on the trail around the lake, several camping sites are located near the lake side. The lake is open for boating from 6:00 am to 6:30 pm from Thursday to Monday. Other activities include fishing, horse-back riding and rock climbing; the park hosts the annual Big Rock Triathlon at sprint and Olympic distances. There is a museum on the park grounds. Lake Perris has cool, moist winters. Rainy weather is limited completely to the months between November and April; the area lies at a crossroads of weather influences. Coastal fog comes from the west, while "Santa Anas"—strong, hot dry winds—come from the deserts to the east and northeast; the average water temperature is 70 °F. For several months following July 2005, the water in Lake Perris was drawn down by about 20 percent due to safety concerns with the dam. An extensive modern study concluded that the dam could be breached if a 7.5 magnitude or higher earthquake were to strike in the ar
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv