Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music and prophecy, the sun and light, plague and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the kouros, Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all gods. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu; as the patron of Delphi, Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Apollo is the god of archery and the invention of archery is credited to him and his sister Artemis, he had a quiver of golden arrows. He is said to have never missed his aim, his arrows could inflict harm by causing sudden deaths or deadly plague.
As the leader of the Muses and director of their choir, Apollo functions as the patron god of music and poetry. He is the inventor of string-music; the Cithara and the lyre are said to be his inventions. The lyre is a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans. Apollo delights in the foundation of towns and the establishment of civil constitution. Hence is associated with dominion over colonists. Additionally, he is the god of the protector of fugitives and refugees. Apollo is the interpreter of laws, he presides over the divine law and custom along with Zeus and Themis. As the protector of young, Apollo is concerned with the health of children, he brings them out of their adolescence. Boys in Ancient Greece, upon reaching their adulthood, dedicated it to Apollo. Apollo is the patron of protector of herds and flocks, he is causes abundance in the milk produced by cattle, is connected with their fertility. As an agricultural deity, Apollo protects the crops from diseases the rust in corns and grains.
He is the controller and destroyer of pests that infect plants and plant harvests. Apollo is the god who wards off evil, he delivered men from the epidemics. Various epithets call him the "averter of evil". In Hellenistic times during the 5th century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun. In Latin texts, there was no conflation of Apollo with Sol among the classical Latin poets until 1st century AD. Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 5th century CE. Apollo The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is not found in the Linear B texts, although there is a possible attestation in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo--[) on the KN E 842 tablet; the etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form, Apellon, is more archaic, as it is derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων, it is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios, the offerings apellaia at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai.
According to some scholars, the words are derived from the Doric word apella, which meant "wall," "fence for animals" and "assembly within the limits of the square." Apella is the name of the popular assembly in corresponding to the ecclesia. R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun. Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι, "to destroy". Plato in Cratylus connects the name with ἀπόλυσις, "redemption", with ἀπόλουσις, "purification", with ἁπλοῦν, "simple", in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, with Ἀειβάλλων, "ever-shooting". Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα, which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, he gives the explanation σηκός, "fold", in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα means "stone," and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα and Πελλήνη.
A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the name, The Hittite form Apaliunas is attested in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter related to Hurrian Aplu, a god of plague, in turn from Akkadian Aplu Enlil meaning "the son of Enlil", a title, given to the god Nergal, linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun. The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus by Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a plague against the Greeks (the reasoning behind a god of the plague becoming a god of healing is
A spring is a point at which water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere. A spring may be the result of karst topography where surface water has infiltrated the Earth's surface, becoming part of the area groundwater; the groundwater travels through a network of cracks and fissures—openings ranging from intergranular spaces to large caves. The water emerges from below the surface, in the form of a karst spring; the forcing of the spring to the surface can be the result of a confined aquifer in which the recharge area of the spring water table rests at a higher elevation than that of the outlet. Spring water forced to the surface by elevated sources are artesian wells; this is possible if the outlet is in the form of a 300-foot-deep cave. In this case the cave is used like a hose by the higher elevated recharge area of groundwater to exit through the lower elevation opening. Non-artesian springs may flow from a higher elevation through the earth to a lower elevation and exit in the form of a spring, using the ground like a drainage pipe.
Still other springs are the result of pressure from an underground source in the earth, in the form of volcanic activity. The result can be water at elevated temperature such as a hot spring; the action of the groundwater continually dissolves permeable bedrock such as limestone and dolomite, creating vast cave systems. Seepage or filtration spring; the term seep refers to springs with small flow rates in which the source water has filtered through permeable earth. Fracture springs, discharge from faults, joints, or fissures in the earth, in which springs have followed a natural course of voids or weaknesses in the bedrock. Tubular springs, in which the water flows from underground caverns. Spring discharge, or resurgence, is determined by the spring's recharge basin. Factors that affect the recharge include the size of the area in which groundwater is captured, the amount of precipitation, the size of capture points, the size of the spring outlet. Water may leak into the underground system from many sources including permeable earth and losing streams.
In some cases entire creeks disappear as the water sinks into the ground via the stream bed. Grand Gulf State Park in Missouri is an example of an entire creek vanishing into the groundwater system; the water emerges 9 miles away. Human activity may affect a spring's discharge—withdrawal of groundwater reduces the water pressure in an aquifer, decreasing the volume of flow. Springs are classified by the volume of the water they discharge; the largest springs are called "first-magnitude", defined as springs that discharge water at a rate of at least 2800 liters or 100 cubic feet of water per second. Some locations contain many first-magnitude springs, such as Florida where there are at least 27 known to be that size; the scale for spring flow is as follows: Minerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. This may give the water flavor and carbon dioxide bubbles, depending on the nature of the geology through which it passes; this is why spring water is bottled and sold as mineral water, although the term is the subject of deceptive advertising.
Springs that contain significant amounts of minerals are sometimes called'mineral springs'. Springs that contain large amounts of dissolved sodium salts sodium carbonate, are called'soda springs'. Many resorts are known as spa towns. Water from springs is clear; however some springs may be colored by the minerals. For instance, water heavy with iron or tannins will have an orange color. In parts of the United States a stream carrying the outflow of a spring to a nearby primary stream may be called a spring branch or run. Groundwater tends to maintain a long-term average temperature of its aquifer; the cool water of a spring and its branch may harbor species such as certain trout that are otherwise ill-suited to a warmer local climate. Springs have been used for a variety of human needs including drinking water, domestic water supply, mills and electricity generation. Other modern uses include recreational activities such as fishing and floating. A sacred spring, or holy well, is a small body of water emerging from underground and revered either in a Christian, pagan or other religious context, sometimes both.
The lore and mythology of ancient Greece was replete with sacred and storied springs—notably, the Corycian and Castalian. In medieval Europe, holy wells were pagan sacred sites that became Christianized; the term "holy well" is employed to refer to any water source of limited size, which has some significance in local folklore. This can take the form of a particular name, an associated legend, the attribution of healing qualities to the water through the numinous presence of its guardian spirit or Christian saint, or a ceremony or ritual centred on the well site. In Christian legend, the spring water is said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint, a familiar theme in the hagiography of Celtic saints. LaMor
Durant is a city near the central eastern border of Holmes County, United States. It was founded in 1858 as a station on the Mississippi Central Railroad part of the Illinois Central. Durant was named for Louis Durant, a Choctaw chief who had lived on a bluff just across the nearby Big Black River before the United States undertook Indian Removal in the 1830s; the population of the city was 2,673 at the 2010 census, down from 2,932 at the 2000 census. Before the Civil War, this was known as the "dark corner of the county." Cotton plantations were developed along the waterfronts to take advantage of the fertile soil. They were dependent on the labor of numerous black slaves, the county population was majority black and enslaved. About 1935 Hazel Brannon Smith, a recent college graduate from Gadsden, bought the local weekly newspaper, the Durant News, failing. Over the next several years, she turned it around, served as its editor and publisher into the early 1970s. In the 1950s she acquired the Lexington Advertiser, two other small papers.
She was among the first journalists to cover the African-American community for its positive contributions, noting in 1943 that a local civic group had donated money to the Red Cross. She became well known for her editorial writing about the civil rights movement. In 1964 Smith was the first woman to be awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing; the area is still rural and agricultural, but industrial-scale farming and mechanization reduced the need for labor decades ago. Many residents left; the population has declined. The historic brick train depot is to be restored for new uses and is being highlighted as part of the area's heritage tourism. Since the late 20th century, missionary nurses from orders outside the state are among the individuals working on behalf of poor city and county residents. Local and state citizens were shocked on August 25, 2016 when two 68-year-old nuns were found stabbed to death at their home on Castalian Springs Road: Sister Paula Merrill was a nurse practitioner with the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth in Kentucky, Sister Margaret Held was a nurse practitioner with the School Sisters of St Francis in Milwaukee.
Rodney Earl Sanders, from nearby Kosciusko, was charged with the murders. The Mississippi Bureau of Investigation participated in investigation of the case. Durant is in eastern Holmes County on the west side of the valley of the Big Black River. U. S. Route 51 passes through the center of town, leading north 19 miles to Vaiden and south 8 miles to Goodman. Mississippi Highway 12 intersects US 51 in Durant. Interstate 55 has an interchange with Highway 12 3 miles west of Durant. According to the United States Census Bureau, Durant has a total area of 2.3 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 1.04%, are water. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,673 people, 1,171 households, 978 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,316.4 people per square mile. There were 1,209 housing units at an average density of 542.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 13.80% White, 85.29% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0% Asian, 0.29% from other races, 0.33% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.26% of the population. There were 1,171 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.9% were married couples living together, 30.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.32. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.6% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 20 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 49, 15.7% from 50 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. There were 1,443 females; the median income for a household in the city was $19,659, the median income for a family was $25,065. Males had a median income of $26,500 versus $20,200 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,210. About 27.9% of families and 35.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.1% of those under age 18 and 26.7% of those age 65 or over.
The Durant City limits is served by the Holmes County Consolidated School District, which operates Durant Elementary School in Durant and Holmes County Central High School near Lexington in the center of the county. Durant city was served by the Durant Public School District, which had the K-12 Durant School as its only school. Areas outside the city limits were served by the county district. In 2016 Governor of Mississippi Phil Bryant signed a bill that required the Durant district to consolidate with the Holmes County district; as a result of the consolidation, a new school board for Holmes County was assembled by 2018. Effective July 1, 2018 the two districts were combined as the Holmes County Consolidated School District. In March 2018 the Holmes County school board voted to move high school students in Durant to Holmes County Central, an action opposed by area residents. John Howell, civil rights activist in Atlanta.
The Pythia was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who served as the oracle known as the Oracle of Delphi. The name Pythia is derived from Pytho. In etymology, the Greeks derived this place name from the verb, πύθειν "to rot", which refers to the sickly sweet smell of the decomposition of the body of the monstrous Python after she was slain by Apollo; the Pythia was established at the latest in the 8th century BC, was credited for her prophecies inspired by being filled by the spirit of the god, in this case Apollo. The Pythian priestess emerged pre-eminent by the end of 7th century BC and would continue to be consulted until the 4th century AD. During this period the Delphic Oracle was the most prestigious and authoritative oracle among the Greeks, she was without doubt the most powerful woman of the classical world; the oracle is one of the best-documented religious institutions of the classical Greeks. Authors who mention the oracle include Aeschylus, Clement of Alexandria, Diogenes, Herodotus, Justin, Lucan, Ovid, Pindar, Plutarch, Strabo and Xenophon.
Details of how the Pythia operated are missing as authors from the classical period treat the process as common knowledge with no need to explain. Those who discussed the oracle in any detail are from 1st century BC to 4th century AD and give conflicting stories. One of the main stories claimed that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapours rising from a chasm in the rock, that she spoke gibberish which priests interpreted as the enigmatic prophecies and turned them into poetic dactylic hexameters preserved in Greek literature; this idea, has been challenged by scholars such as Joseph Fontenrose and Lisa Maurizio, who argue that the ancient sources uniformly represent the Pythia speaking intelligibly, giving prophecies in her own voice. Herodotus, writing in the fifth century BC describes the Pythia speaking in dactylic hexameters; the Delphic oracle may have been present in some form from 1400 BC, in the middle period of Mycenaean Greece. There is evidence that Apollo took over the shrine with the arrival of priests from Delos in the 8th century, from an earlier dedication to Gaia.
The 8th-century reformulation of the Oracle at Delphi as a shrine to Apollo seems associated with the rise in importance of the city of Corinth and the importance of sites in the Corinthian Gulf. The earliest account of the origin of the Delphic oracle is provided in the Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo, which recent scholarship dates within a narrow range, c. 580–570 BC. It describes in detail how Apollo chose his first priests, whom he selected in their "swift ship", but Apollo, who had Delphinios as one of his cult epithets, leapt into the ship in the form of a dolphin. Dolphin-Apollo revealed himself to the terrified Cretans, bade them follow him up to the "place where you will have rich offerings"; the Cretans "danced in time and followed, singing Iē Paiēon, like the paeans of the Cretans in whose breasts the divine Muse has placed "honey-voiced singing". "Paean" seems to have been the name. G. L. Huxley observes, "If the hymn to Apollo conveys a historical message, it is above all that there were once Cretan priests at Delphi."
Robin Lane Fox notes that Cretan bronzes are found at Delphi from the eighth century onwards, Cretan sculptures are dedicated as late as ca 620–600 BC: "Dedications at the site cannot establish the identity of its priesthood," he observes, "but for once we have an explicit text to set beside the archaeological evidence." An early visitor to these "dells of Parnassus", at the end of the eighth century, was Hesiod, shown the omphalos. There are many stories of the origins of the Delphic Oracle. One late explanation, first related by the 1st century BC writer, Diodorus Siculus, tells of a goat herder named Coretas, who noticed one day that one of his goats, who fell into a crack in the earth, was behaving strangely. On entering the chasm, he found himself filled with a divine presence and could see outside of the present into the past and the future. Excited by his discovery he shared it with nearby villagers. Many started visiting the site to experience the convulsions and inspirational trances, though some were said to disappear into the cleft due to their frenzied state.
A shrine was erected at the site, where people began worshiping in the late Bronze Age, by 1600 BC. After the deaths of a number of men, the villagers chose a single young woman as the liaison for the divine inspirations, she spoke on behalf of gods. According to earlier myths, the office of the oracle was possessed by the goddesses Themis and Phoebe, the site was sacred to Gaia. Subsequently, it was believed to be sacred to the "Earth-shaker" god of earthquakes. During the Greek Dark Age, from the 11th to the 9th century BC, a new god of prophecy, Apollo seized the temple and expelled the twin guardian serpents of Gaia, whose bodies he wrapped around the caduceus. Myths stated that Phoebe or Themis had "given" the site to Apollo, rationalizing its seizure by priests of the new god, but having to retain the priestesses of the original oracle because of the long tradition. Poseidon was mollified by the gift of a new site in Troizen. Diodorus explained how the Pythia was an appropriately clad young virgin, for great
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Castalia is a village in Erie County, United States. The population was 852 at the 2010 census, down from 935 at the 2000 census, it is part of Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area. Castalia is located in western Erie County at 41°23′59″N 82°48′26″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.05 square miles, of which 1.04 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. By 1738 there was a Wyandot settlement at what is now Castalia under the leadership of Nicholas Orontony. Due to growing disputes with the French and closer trade relations with Pennsylvania-based merchants, the Wyandot burned their village and relocated to the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in what is today Cleveland in 1748. Castalia was laid out in 1836; the village was named after a figure in Greek mythology. As of the census of 2010, there were 852 people, 352 households, 239 families residing in the village; the population density was 819.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 378 housing units at an average density of 363.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 97.1% White, 0.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population. There were 352 households of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.1% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the village was 40.5 years. 23.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 935 people, 359 households, 266 families residing in the village; the population density was 895.6 people per square mile. There were 380 housing units at an average density of 364.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 97.11% White, 0.96% African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.64% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.32% of the population. 96.8 % spoke 3.1 % Spanish. There were 359 households out of which 36.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.9% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.09. In the village, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $41,319, the median income for a family was $51,563.
Males had a median income of $36,625 versus $24,783 for females. The per capita income for the village was $17,277. About 4.0% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Castalia Pond, otherwise known as the Castalia Duck Pond, is a spring-fed pond. Castalia Pond plays host to many birds all year round, during winter when Lake Erie freezes, many more waterfowl temporarily take up residence; the Blue Hole is another spring-fed water feature of Castalia. For many years it was open to the public. Castalia is in the Margaretta Township school system. Green and white are the school's colors; the mascot is the polar bear. Cold Creek Festival is held the third weekend in July on Main Street in Castalia; some of the activities include the Miss Cold Creek Queen's Contest, Tractor Pull, Duck Drop Bingo, Men's and Women's Softball Tournament, many others. Carrie Chase Davis, suffragist Castalia Area Historical Society
The Castalian Band is a modern name given to a grouping of Scottish Jacobean poets, or makars, said to have flourished between the 1580s and early 1590s in the court of James VI and consciously modelled on the French example of the Pléiade. Its name is derived from a symbol for poetic inspiration; the name has been claimed as that which the King used to refer to the group, as in lines from one of his own poems, an epitaph on his friend Alexander Montgomerie: Quhat drowsie sleepe doth syle your eyes allace / Ye sacred brethren of Castalian band The notion of the'Castalian band' in 20th century scholarship derives in the main from the book Song and Poetry at the Court of Scotland under King James VI by Helena Mennie Shire. It was H. Mennie Shire and her collaborator Kenneth Elliot - who had produced The Music of Scotland - who drew particular attention to the verse lines by James, remarking that "It has been well suggested that King James' name for his poets at court, or their name for themselves, was'the brethren of Castalian band.'"
However, apart from this verse, no scholar has produced any clear evidence for any such self-aware grouping. Other writers have seized on the concept. In a celebrated article from 2001, the reputed literary scholar Priscilla Bawcutt examined the claims and - in the opinion of most modern authorities - demolished them. However, the persistence of the idea of the Castalian Band has its own interest - as Bawcutt noted, suggesting that it is grounded in a desire to identify a strong Scottish renaissance culture. Poetry, more song, had suffered as a result of the Reformation of the Scottish Protestant church concluded in 1560, it may have seemed desirable to offer a more positive image for the 16th century. Whether or not there was such a Court grouping as the Castalian Band, it seems that there were cultivated circles of educated gentlemen in Scotland at the time; the King wrote a detailed treatise intended to establish a standard of practice in Scots poetry - his Reulis and Cautelis - and there may well have been gatherings of poets at James' court.
Activities of some the poets recognized to be working in Scotland at the time is known to a limited extent. The principal literary figure to be directly associated with the court was Alexander Montgomerie. Music may played an important part in performances; the circle of poets with known connections to the Scottish court include: King James VI Alexander Montgomerie Patrick Hume of Polwarth Alexander Hume the younger brother of Patrick Hume William Fowler John Stewart of Baldynneis Thomas Hudson Robert Hudson, brother of ThomasMembership was fluid and some figures, such as Montgomerie, were established poets. French influences were important for the King. James himself made translations of work by the Gascon soldier-poet du Bartas, du Bartas in return translated James's own Lepanto. Du Bartas himself visited the Scottish Court on a diplomatic mission in 1587 during which time James unsuccessfully attempted to persuade him to stay. Other'Castalian' makars produced translation as well as original works.
William Fowler, whose original poetry includes the sonnet sequence The Taratula of Love, made translations from Petrarch, while John Stewart produced an abridged translation of Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. Many Scots translations predated first translations of the same works in England. Chief among the circle was arguably the soldier and makar Alexander Montgomerie, he had achieved celebrity after victory over Patrick Hume in The Flyting Betwixt Montgomerie and Polwart. His many works include public poems such as The Navigatioun, a long allegory called The Cherry and the Slae, some devotional poems, a large number of personal court lyrics sometimes modelled on poets such as Ronsard. Sonnets on various themes include an autobiographical sequence that deftly charts frustration with "the law's delay"; when Montgomerie came to be politically excluded from the court sometime in the mid 1590s as a result of his Catholic sympathies, he appears to have retained the affection of the King. The court attracted figures from furth of Scotland.
The brothers Thomas and Robert Hudson from the North of England, were appointed as by James not only as poets but as court musicians helping to lead the musical "revival" he regarded as going hand-in-hand with his literary programme. Thomas produced translations as well as original work. Under James' patronage he was another translator of du Bartas. Names on the fringes of court literary circles include: William Alexander, Earl of Stirling Robert Aytoun Alexander and Ayton represented a more anglicised stream of Scottish writing, they came to prominence more properly after the Union of the Crowns. Ayton was one of the first Scottish poets to have written explicitly in English, while Alexander wrote rhymed tragedies in a genre sometimes referred to as closet drama and assisted the King in his metrical translations of the Psalms of David. Although there is no direct record of Scottish court drama in the late 16th century, one verse play in Scots does intriguingly survive from the period, an eminently performable comedy of love, known today only from an anonymous edition published in London in 1603.
Its well-developed structure and language as theatre may suggest that our picture of literary activity in the Scottish court