Alfauir is a municipality in the comarca of Safor in the Valencian Community, Spain. Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba, constructed between the 14th and 18th centuries. Church of the Mare de Déu del Roser, 20th century. Palma Castle, 11th century. Salvador Cardona, a professional road racing cyclist. In 1929 he became the first Spanish road bicycle racer to win a stage in Tour de France. Nicolás Borrás, a Spanish Renaissance painter and monk of the Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba. Antonio Sancho de Benevento, a silversmith artist of the Spanish Renaissance and monk of the Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba. Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics
Guardamar de la Safor
Guardamar de la Safor is a municipality in the comarca of Safor in the Valencian Community, Spain
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Simat de la Valldigna
Simat de la Valldigna is a municipality in the comarca of Safor in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is 50 km from Valencia, 20 km from Cullera and Gandia, it is near Xàtiva and Alzira. It is one of the four villages, it is a natural area, surrounded by the mountains of the Serra de Corbera, in the north, by the Montdúver in the south, by the Mediterranean Sea to the east. Coming from Valencia the V-31 must be taken, afterwards the CV-42 and the CV-50; the final access is through the CV-600. There are two hamlets in the municipality of Simat de la Valldigna: Les Foies; the municipality of Simat de la Valldigna is bordered by the municipalities of Benifairó de la Valldigna, Barx, Barxeta and Pinet, which are in the province of Valencia. Simat de la Valldigna has a privileged climate. Since it is placed in the middle of a valley and it is surrounded and protected by the mountains, the weather is mild, with hot summers and warm winters. Together with the areas of la Safor and part of the Marina Alta, Simat has one of the highest rain indices of the Valencian Country.
The land around Simat de la Valldigna has been inhabited since the beginning of history, as the coves de Bolomor in Tavernes de la Valldigna, Medalletes and Parpalló in Barx show. Nonetheless the first concrete historical references appear during the Muslim period; the Christian conquest of the 13th century began a new period in this village history. James I conquered these lands; when James II came back from an expedition against the kingdoms of Murcia and Almeria at the end of the 13th century, they came through the vall d'Alfàndec. The king was impressed by the valley's beauty, he exclaimed: Vall digna per a un monestir de la vostra religió!. The Santes Creus abbot replied: Vall digna!. On 15 March 1297 James II of Aragon donated the vall d'Alfàndec to the Cistercian order in order to found a monastery devoted to the Virgin Mary. Since this moment, the Alfàndec valley will change its name and it will be called Valldigna. Christians and Muslims lived together in the Valldigna area, they worked in the lands that the monastery abbot lent them in usufruct though the conditions were harder for the Muslims.
Nonetheless they were allowed to remain as Muslims. The Valldigna Moorish people gathered around the la Xara mosque. In this place they received teaching as well, contracts were made, the Muslims judges made trials; this convivence ended with the expulsion from Spain of all Moorish people. Life in the Valldigna valley went on, according to the evolution of the feudal society, under the rule of the monastery and its abbot, it lasted until 1835. The rule of the monastery and its abbot over the valley and its people ended, a time of neglect and destruction of the monastery began, it was a private property until 1991. The most important monument of the village is the Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna, it was founded in 1297 by James II of Aragon. Since the beginning, it was one of the most important monasteries of the Cistercian order, it was founded by the monks of Santes Creus in the Tarragona province. The whole Valldigna valley belonged according to a royal order; the monastery was inhabited by monks until 1835, when a revolt in the Valldigna valley took place after the Ecclesiastical Confiscations of Mendizábal.
After that, the monks were forced to abandon the monastery. Most of its goods and works of art were plundered or destroyed. After decades of abandonment, many restorations projects are envisaged, nowadays the monastery of Santa Maria de Valldigna is, according to the 57th article of the Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community, "the spiritual and cultural temple of the ancient Kingdom of Valencia, it is as well a symbol of the grandeur of the Valencian people". The same article states that "the Generalitat Valenciana will recover and preserve the monastery a law from the Valencian Parliament will determine the destiny and usage of the monastery as a meeting point of all Valencians, as a research center for the recovery of the Valencian Community history". Simat de la Valldigna was the first village from the Valencian Country that requested a.cat domain for the town hall website. Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna: It is the most interesting monument of the whole valley, it is placed in the municipality of Simat de la Valldigna.
It was an ancient Cistercian monastery, neglected and in ruins, until the Generalitat Valenciana began a process of restoration that still lasts. La Xara mosque or Saint Anne hermitage, it is a little hermitage, placed in the middle of the orange fields. It is the only remaining building from the ancient village of la Xara, abandoned in 1609, after the expulsion of the Moorish people from Spain, it is the building of the old mosque. It is rectangular, there is a gate in the eastern part with a horsehoe arch. Four columns divide the building in three naves: Next to the gate there is a spiral staircase, which had the old function of the minaret; the Qibla is the most important element, since it shows the direction of Mecca and thus it was the place towards which the Muslims had to address their prayers
Gandia is a city and municipality in the Valencian Community, Eastern Spain on the Mediterranean. Gandia is located on the Costa del Azahar, 65 kilometres south of Valencia and 110 km north of Alicante, it can be accessed through road N-332. It was a important cultural and commercial centre during the 15th and 16th centuries: in the 15th it had a university, it was home to several important poets including Ausiàs March, produced the novelist Joanot Martorell, but it is best known for the Borja or Borgia, through their family title, Duke of Gandia. Today, Gandia is one of the largest coastal towns in Spain, with a population over 200,000 during summer, a thriving centre of commerce and tourism in the region. There are two main zones, Gandia City, which has all the historical monuments, commercial activity, shopping, Gandia beach, where apartments and summer residences used during the summer season are to be found; the bars and nightclubs are concentrated in the beach area. As is normal for Spain, nightlife does not begin until well after midnight.
The beach and town are some 2 km apart which succeeds in separating summer tourism from day-to-day living. Collegiate Basilica of Gandia Ducal Palace of Gandia Convent of Santa Clara of Gandia Archaeological Museum of Gandia Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba Route of the Borgias Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Valencian classics With its long, golden, sandy beaches Gandia is one of the major tourist destinations in Spain. Traditionally Gandia's tourism has a domestic base, with the majority coming from Madrid, although in recent years it has been an popular destination for international tourists French and British. There are some popular Spanish restaurants around the beach. Gandia has a number of shopping facilities including shopping malls and chain supermarkets like Carrefour, Carrefour Express, Lidl and Aldi. There are available various fast-food chain restaurants like McDonald's, Burger King and Domino's Pizza. For culture, there are literary contests, the Summer University, the International Festival of Classical Music and art exhibitions.
Gandia hosts the annual Cortoons Gandia animation festival in April, which celebrates international animation and short films. Gandia has an important regional wetland with an extension above 1.200km2 in the outskirts of the city, called Marjal de La Safor. This natural area is home to several water plants such as Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, specially many species of water lily plants, such as Nymphaea alba, Utricularia australism and Potamogeton fluitans. Underwater plants exist, such as Myriophyllum and Ceratophyllum. Native land plants are formed of various Phragmites species, Thypha domingensis, various Scirpus and Cladium species. Various species of palm trees are naturalised in the area, they're found in the marjal due to seed dispersion, either wind or animal dispersion; the most common naturalised palm trees in the area are Phoenix dactylifera, Washingtonia robusta and Phoenix canariensis. There are some specimens of the native palm tree Chamaerops humilis, although few compared to the naturalised species.
This natural zone is rich in fauna, with many species of birds, fish and reptiles, with some mammal species. The most common species of birds are Tachybaptus ruficollis, Anas platyrhynchos, Falco tinnunculus, Fulica atra and Gallinula chloropus amongst many other species; the most common fish and amphibian species are Cobitis maroccana, Anguilla anguilla, Syngnathus abaster, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita and Rana perezi. The most common reptiles are turtles, with a native species, in critical condition due to the heavy expansion of the Trachemys scripta scripta and Trachemys scripta elegans, most known as Florida turtles, which are introduced species in Spain. Other species of reptiles are Tarentola mauritanica, Podarcis hispanicus and Natrix maura amongst others; the most common and native mammals are the European rabbits, the European hedgehog, the greater white-toothed shrew Musaranya comuna, the European bat and the wild hog amongst others. The climate of Gandia is mediterranean-subtropical with mild to warm temperatures during winters, hot summers.
The annual average temperature is between 18-19 °C. Gandia receives about 600 mm of rain per the majority falling from September to November; the wettest season is the autumn. The average annual sunshine hours are about 3.000. Gandia, the whole Safor comarca, is said to be the centre of the Raspall variant of the Valencian pilota autochthonous sport. Nonetheless, Gandia held. Gandia is twinned with: Laval in France Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba Collegiate Basilica of Gandia Ducal Palace of Gandia Ferrocarril Alcoy Gandia Route of the Borgias Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Valencian classics Town hall of Gandia Official Tourism of Gandia Gandia Information
Ròtova is a municipality in the comarca of Safor in the Valencian Community, Spain. Church of Sant Bartomeu Apòstol. Palace of the Counts of Ròtova. Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba, constructed between the 14th and 18th centuries
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".