Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
A bartizan called a guerite or échauguette, or spelled bartisan, is an overhanging, wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls of late medieval and early-modern fortifications from the early 14th century up to the 18th century. Most found at corners, they protected a warder and enabled him to see his surroundings. Bartizans are furnished with oillets or arrow slits; the turret was supported by stepped masonry corbels and could be round, polygonal or square. Bartizans were incorporated into many notable examples of Scots Baronial Style architecture in Scotland. In the architecture of Aberdeen, the new Town House, built in 1868–74, incorporates bartizans in the West Tower. Bretèche garret—an attic or top floor room in the military sense.
A bergfried is a tall tower, found in castles of the Middle Ages in German-speaking countries and in countries under German influence. Friar describes it as a "free-standing, fighting-tower", its defensive function is to some extent similar to that of a keep in French castles. However, the characteristic difference between a bergfried and a keep is that a bergfried was not designed for permanent habitation; the living quarters of a castle with a bergfried are separate in a lower tower or an adjacent building called a palas Consequently, a bergfried could be built as a tall slender tower with little internal room, few vaults and few if any windows. The bergfried served as a refuge during sieges; the distinction between a bergfried and a keep is not always clear-cut, as there were thousands of such towers built with many variations. There are some French keeps with only austere living quarters, while some late bergfrieds in Germany were intended to be habitable. For maximum protection, the bergfried could be sited on its own in the centre of the castle's inner bailey and separate from the enceinte.
Alternatively, it could be close to or up against the outer curtain wall on the most vulnerable side as an additional defence, or project from the wall. For instance, the Marksburg has its bergfried in the centre, Katz Castle on the most direction of attack. Some, like Plesse Castles, have two bergfrieds. Outside Germany, the crusader castles of Montfort Castle and Khirbat Jiddin built by the Teutonic Order had prominent towers that some authors have compared to bergfrieds, arguing that these castles depended more on Rhineland than local crusader traditions of military architecture. Eynsford Castle in Kent is a rare English example, where the bergfried is the central element of the design; the word'"bergfried", sometimes rendered perfrit, berchfrit or berfride and many similar variants in medieval documents, did not just refer to a castle tower, but was used to describe most other types of tower, such as siege towers, bell towers or storage buildings. The main tower of a castle was simply referred to as a "tower" or "big tower".
In late medieval Low German documents, the terms berchfrit and similar variants appeared in connexion with smaller castles. German castle research during the 19th century introduced Bergfried or Berchfrit as the general term for a non-residential main tower, these terms became established in the literature; the etymological origin of the word is unclear. There are theories about it being derived from Middle High German or Latin, or from a Greek word brought back from the Crusades. A theory, stated in older texts, that the bergfried took its name from the phrase "weil er den Frieden berge", i.e. it guaranteed the security of the castle, cannot be confirmed. The bergfried established itself as a new type of building during the 12th century and from about 1180 to the 14th century became a feature of the Central European castles. Numerous examples have survived from this period to their full height. However, the origin of the design is not understood, since towers dating from before the 12th century have had to be entirely excavated archaeologically, only the lowest sections remain.
Individual examples may be found dating to as early as the second half of the 11th century. The precursor of the bergfried is the fortified tower house, whose Western European expression is called a donjon or keep. Residential towers were common before the advent of the bergfried in German-speaking countries, too. Donjons combine the two contrasting functions of a stately, comfortable residence and a fortification; the bergfried, dispenses with the keep's residential function in favour of its defensive purposes. At the same time, new forms of unfortified residential building became popular, the palas, for example, was incorporated into castle construction; the emergence of the bergfried is thus related to the differentiation of living and fortification within a castle. In Western Europe however, the donjon or keep, with their combination of domestic and defensive functions, continued to be predominant during the course of the Middle Ages; the bergfried forms the main tower in the centre of the castle or is positioned as a wall tower on the main avenue of attack against the castle.
It may be an isolated structure standing alone amongst the other buildings of the castle or be joined to them to form a combined building complex. However the bergfried is a self-contained element, not internally connected to other buildings and has its own access; as a rule, this is a so-called elevated entrance, i.e. the entrance is located at the level of an upper floor of the tower and is accessed via its own bridge, staircase or ladder. Bergfrieds often have a square or round floor plan, but pentagonal towers are frequently encountered. There are a few examples of bergfrieds with irregular polygonal floor plans. A rare form is the triangular bergfried of Grenzau Castle near Höhr-Grenzhausen or that of Rauheneck Castle near Baden bei Wien. Towers with triangular and pentagonal floor plans invariably had a corner facing the main line of att
A circular rampart is an embankment built in the shape of a circle, used as part of the defences for a military fortification, hill fort or refuge, or was built for religious purposes or as a place of gathering. The period during which these structures appeared stretches from the Neolithic to the Middle Ages; the key feature of a circular rampart is the embankment forming the primary means of the defensive fortification. It can be constructed in various ways: as a simple earth embankment, as a wood and earth structure or as a wall. Circular ramparts have a moat or ditch in front of them. Several concentric rings were built, which produced a more effective defensive position against attackers; the interior of such sites shows evidence of buildings such as halls and other secondary structures. Circular ramparts are found in north and western Europe, for example, in Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, they are hidden in woods and discovered by aerial photography. Archaeological profiles through the defences and excavations of the interior enable analysis of the period the site was occupied, the pottery used and the type of food consumed.
Viale Beatrice d'Este, italy Aggersborg, near Aggersund, Denmark Circular rampart of Burg, near Celle, Lower Saxony, Germany The Donnersberg, near Rockenhausen, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany Castle Dore, England Fyrkat, Denmark Gråborg, built in stages between years 500–1100, Öland, Sweden The Heidenmauer near Bad Dürkheim, Germany Nanih Waiya, a Choctaw mound, Winston County, USA The circular rampart at Old Basing, England Celtic circular wall of Otzenhausen, Germany Saxon rampart on the Marienberg near Nordstemmen, Germany Viking ring fortress of Trelleborg, Sweden Varbola Stronghold largest circular rampart fortress built in Estonia Ringfort – Circular fortified settlements found in Northern Europe Ringwork – A form of fortified defensive structure Orser, Charles E. Encyclopedia of historical archaeology, Routledge, 11 April 2002, ISBN 0-415-21544-7 Shoemaker, American Indians, WileyBlackwell, 1 October 2000, ISBN 0-631-21995-1 Trelleborg circular fortress in Denmark Castle Dore in Cornwall, England Old Basing, England
Hadrian's Wall called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea, was the northern limit of the Roman Empire north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts, it had a stone wall. There were milecastles with two turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles. From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, military way and vallum, another ditch with adjoining mounds, it is thought the milecastles were staffed with static garrisons, whereas the forts had fighting garrisons of infantry and cavalry. In addition to the wall's defensive military role, its gates may have been customs posts. A significant portion of the wall still stands and can be followed on foot along the adjoining Hadrian's Wall Path; the largest Roman archaeological feature anywhere, it runs a total of 73 miles in northern England.
Regarded as a British cultural icon, Hadrian's Wall is one of Britain's major ancient tourist attractions. It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. In comparison, the Antonine wall, thought by some to be based on Hadrian's wall, was not declared a World Heritage site until 2008, it is a common misconception that Hadrian's Wall marks the boundary between Scotland. In fact Hadrian's Wall lies within England and has never formed the Anglo-Scottish border. While it is less than 0.6 mi south of the border with Scotland in the west at Bowness-on-Solway, in the east at Wallsend it is as much as 68 miles away. Hadrian's Wall was 117.5 km long. East of the River Irthing, the wall was made from squared stone and measured 3 metres wide and 5 to 6 metres high, while west of the river the wall was made from turf and measured 6 metres wide and 3.5 metres high. These dimensions do not include the wall's ditches and forts; the central section measured eight Roman feet wide on a 3 m base. Some parts of this section of the wall survive to a height of 3 m.
South of the wall, a large ditch was dug, with adjoining parallel mounds, one on either side. This is known today as the Vallum though the word vallum in Latin is the origin of the English word wall, does not refer to a ditch. In many places – for example Limestone Corner – the Vallum is better preserved than the wall, robbed of much of its stone. Hadrian's Wall extended west from Segedunum at Wallsend on the River Tyne, via Carlisle and Kirkandrews-on-Eden, to the shore of the Solway Firth, ending a short but unknown distance west of the village of Bowness-on-Solway; the A69 and B6318 roads follow the course of the wall from Newcastle upon Tyne to Carlisle along the northern coast of Cumbria. Although the curtain wall ends near Bowness-on-Solway, this does not mark the end of the line of defensive structures; the system of milecastles and turrets is known to have continued along the Cumbria coast as far as Risehow, south of Maryport. For classification purposes, the milecastles west of Bowness-on-Solway are referred to as Milefortlets.
Hadrian's Wall was planned before Hadrian's visit to Britain in 122. According to restored sandstone fragments found in Jarrow which date from 118 or 119, it was Hadrian's wish to keep "intact the empire", imposed on him via "divine instruction". Although Hadrian's biographer wrote " was the first to build a wall 80 miles long to separate the Romans from the barbarians", reasons for the construction of the wall vary, no recording of an exact explanation survives. Theories have been presented by historians of an expression of Roman power and Hadrian's policy of defence before expansion. On his accession to the throne in 117, there was unrest and rebellion in Roman Britain and from the peoples of various conquered lands across the Empire, including Egypt, Judea and Mauritania; these troubles may have influenced Hadrian's plan to construct the wall as well as his construction of limites in other areas of the Empire, but to what extent is unknown. Scholars disagree over how much of a threat the inhabitants of northern Britain presented and whether there was any economic advantage in defending and garrisoning a fixed line of defences like the Wall, rather than conquering and annexing what has become the Scottish Lowlands and defending the territory with a loose arrangement of forts.
The limites of Rome were never expected to stop tribes from migrating or armies from invading, while a frontier protected by a palisade or stone wall would help curb cattle-raiders and the incursions of other small groups, the economic viability of constructing and keeping guarded a wall 72 miles long along a sparsely populated border to stop small-scale raiding is dubious. Another possible explanation for the wall is the degree of control it would have provided over immigration and customs. Limites did not mark the boundaries of the empire: Roman power and influence extended beyond the walls. People within and beyond the limites travelled through it each day when conducting business, organised check-points like those offered by Hadrian's Wall provided good opportunities for taxation. With watch towers only a short distance from gateways in the limites, patrolling legionaries could have kept track of
Wehrheim is a municipality in Hesse, Germany some 30 km north of Frankfurt am Main. The town's nickname is "Apfeldorf Wehrheim". Wehrheim lies from 300 to 600 m above sea level on the north slope of the crest of the Taunus between Bad Homburg and Usingen im Taunus. Wehrheim borders in the north on the town of Usingen and the community of Ober-Mörlen, in the east on the towns of Friedberg and Rosbach, in the south on the towns of Friedrichsdorf and Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, in the west on the town of Neu-Anspach; the community has four centres named Wehrheim, Obernhain and Friedrichsthal. The first traces of settlement go back to the Bronze Age. In Wehrheim, a burying ground from the early to middle Urnfield culture was discovered. Wehrheim im Taunus itself had its first documentary mention in 1046. In 1372, the village was granted town rights, which it however lost again in 1814; the town's overlords changed several times, from the Castle Counts of Friedberg to the Counts of Diez, the area passing to Nassau-Dillenburg and to Prussia in 1866.
In 1895 the railway line from Bad Homburg vor der Höhe – still called Homberg – through Friedrichsdorf to Usingen came into operation, was extended to Weilburg a few years linking the community a bit more with the Frankfurt area, a trend that would continue in the coming century. As part of Hesse's municipal reforms, the communities of Wehrheim, Obernhain and Friedrichsthal merged into the new greater community of Wehrheim in 1972; the municipal elections on 6 March 2016 resulted in the following division of seats on town council: compared to previous local elections: Gregor Sommer has been mayor since 2002. Pilisvörösvár near Budapest in Hungary, since 1989. Meransen in the Puster Valley in Italy, since 2001; the community's current civic coat of arms was granted in 1953 and is based on seals known from the 15th century. The arms show the two lions of the Counts of Diez, the letter is, of course, the community's initial. Wehrheim once had another coat of arms after the original one was forgotten.
It featured a building with towers. This is believed to have been a canting symbol; these arms were used, without being approved, until the current arms were conferred in 1953. Despite its idyllic location in the Taunus, Wehrheim is advantageously placed for transportation. With the Friedberg interchange on Autobahn A 5 6 km away, the Oberursel-Nord interchange on Autobahn A 661 only 8 km away it is well connected to the long-distance road network; the community has at its disposal two stops and Saalburg, on the Taunusbahn railway. Earplugs made by the firm Ohropax GmbHA are well-known product from Wehrheim, marketed under the name Ohropax. Heraeus Medical, a division of Heraeus, the manufacturer of Palacos® bone cement, is located in Wehrheim. Wehrheim has the Limes-Schule. There is a special school, the Heinrich-Kielhorn-Schule, named after an early pioneer in special education; the Taunusheim, an orphanage established in 1943 to house war orphans, was until 1998 a home for children and youths run by the city of Frankfurt.
Before that, the building housed the Waldfriede Hotel. In the last twenty years of its existence, the Taunusheim was home to up to 18 children and young people from 6 to 18 years old, looked after round the clock in two groups. In 1994, a day group attended the home; the home was closed in 1998 for reasons of economy. The school for children with learning difficulties, attached to the home remained until 2001, when it was moved to Frankfurt-Höchst. Moving part of the Wehrheim primary school into the now empty building is being considered as a way of alleviating the dearth of school space. Inside the former town gate, a local landmark, is the Stadtormuseum Wehrheim, where visitors can see the Bronze-Age archaeological finds from the Urnfield culture; the Wehrheim municipal area contains 13 km of the Limes Germanicus, declared a World Heritage Site in 2005 by UNESCO. One of Wehrheim's sights, near Pfaffenwiesbach, is an old Roman Limes Fort, the Kapersburg, on top of the Limes. There is another Roman fort in the main community, the Saalburg, restored.
The theme park Lochmühle is another one of Wehrheim's attractions, it features a combination of animals and theme park rides. Wehrheim Lochmühle Bronze-Age urn graveyard in Wehrheim Wehrheim at Curlie Live images of Wehrheim's town hall
A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet, in which gaps or indentations, which are rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences. These gaps are termed "crenels", the act of adding crenels to a unbroken parapet is termed crenellation. A defensive building might be designed and built with battlements, or a manor house might be fortified by adding battlements, where no parapet existed, or cutting crenellations into its existing parapet wall; the solid widths between the crenels are called merlons. A wall with battlements is said to be embattled. Battlements on walls have protected walkways behind them. On tower or building tops, the roof is used as the protected fighting platform; the term originated in about the 14th century from the Old French word batailler, "to fortify with batailles". The word crenel derives from the ancient French cren, Latin crena, meaning a notch, mortice or other gap cut out to receive another element or fixing.
The modern French word for crenel is créneau used to describe a gap of any kind, for example a parking space at the side of the road between two cars, interval between groups of marching troops or a timeslot in a broadcast. In medieval England and Wales a licence to crenellate granted the holder permission to fortify their property; such licences were granted by the king, by the rulers of the counties palatine within their jurisdictions, e.g. by the Bishops of Durham and the Earls of Chester and after 1351 by the Dukes of Lancaster. The castles in England vastly outnumber the licences to crenellate Royal pardons were obtainable, on the payment of an arbitrarily determined fine, by a person who had fortified without licence; the surviving records of such licences issued by letters patent, provide valuable evidence for the dating of ancient buildings. A list of licences issued by the English Crown between the 12th and 16th centuries was compiled by Turner & Parker and expanded and corrected by Philip Davis and published in The Castle Studies Group Journal.
There has been academic debate over the purpose of licensing. The view of military-focused historians is that licensing restricted the number of fortifications that could be used against a royal army; the modern view, proposed notably by Charles Coulson, is that battlements became an architectural status-symbol much sought after by the ambitious, in Coulson's words: "Licences to crenellate were symbolic representations of lordly status: castellation was the architectural expression of noble rank". They indicated to the observer that the grantee had obtained "royal recognition and compliment", they could however provide a basic deterrent against wandering bands of thieves, it is suggested that the function of battlements was comparable to the modern practice of householders fitting visible CC-TV and burglar alarms merely dummies. The crown did not charge for the granting of such licences, but charged a fee of about half a mark. Battlements may be stepped out to overhang the wall below, may have openings at their bases between the supporting corbels, through which stones or burning objects could be dropped onto attackers or besiegers.
Battlements have been used for thousands of years. Battlements were used in the walls surrounding Assyrian towns, as shown on bas reliefs from Nimrud and elsewhere. Traces of them remain at Mycenae in Greece, some ancient Greek vases suggest the existence of battlements; the Great Wall of China has battlements. In the European battlements of the Middle Ages the crenel comprised one-third of the width of the merlon: the latter, in addition, could be provided with arrow-loops of various shapes, depending on the weapon being utilized. Late merlons permitted fire from the first firearms. From the 13th century, the merlons could be connected with wooden shutters that provided added protection when closed; the shutters were designed to be opened to allow shooters to fire against the attackers, closed during reloading. The Romans used low wooden pinnacles for their first aggeres. In the battlements of Pompeii, additional protection derived from small internal buttresses or spur walls, against which the defender might stand so as to gain complete protection on one side.
Loop-holes were frequent in Italian battlements, where the merlon has much greater height and a distinctive cap. Italian military architects used the so-called Ghibelline or swallowtail battlement, with V-shaped notches in the tops of the merlon, giving a horn-like effect; this would allow the defender to be protected whilst shooting standing upright. The normal rectangular merlons were nicknamed Guelph. In Muslim and African fortifications, the merlons were rounded; the battlements of the Arabs had a more decorative and varied character, were continued from the 13th century onwards not so much for defensive purposes as for a crowning feature to the walls. They serve a function similar to the cresting found in the Spanish Renaissance. "Irish" crenellations are a distinctive form that appeared in Ireland between the 14th and 17th centuries. These were battlements of a "stepped" form, with each merlon shaped like an inverted'T'. European architects persistently used battlements as a purely decorative feature throughout the Decorated and Perpendicular periods of Gothi