Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac
Antoine Laumet de la Mothe, sieur de Cadillac referred to as Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, was a French explorer and adventurer in New France which stretched from Eastern Canada to Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico. He rose from a modest beginning in Acadia in 1683 as an explorer, a trader of alcohol and furs, he achieved various positions of political importance in the colony, he was the commander of Fort de Buade in St. Ignace, Michigan in 1694. In 1701, he founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit which became the city of Detroit, which he commanded until 1710. Between 1710 and 1716, he was the governor of Louisiana, although he did not arrive in that territory until 1713, his knowledge of the coasts of New England and the Great Lakes area was appreciated by Frontenac, governor of New France, Pontchartrain, Secretary of State for the Navy. This earned him various favors, including the Order of Saint Louis from King Louis XIV; the Jesuits in Canada, accused him of perverting the Indians with his alcohol trading, he was imprisoned for a few months in Quebec in 1704, again in the Bastille on his return to France in 1717.
Upon his arrival in America, La Mothe adopted his title after the town of Cadillac, Gironde in southwestern France. The city of Detroit became the world center of automobile production in the 20th century. William H. Murphy and Henry M. Leland founded the Cadillac auto company and paid homage to him by using his name for their company and his armorial bearings as its logo in 1902. Various places bear his name in America, in particular Cadillac Mountain in Maine and the town of Cadillac, Michigan, he was hailed as a hero until the 1950s and the rise of liberal scholarship, but more recent writers have not admired him. Zoltvany claims that "he most was not one of the'great early heroes' and deserves to be ranked with the'worst scoundrels to set foot in New France'." Cadillac was born Antoine Laumet on March 5, 1658, in the small town of Saint-Nicolas-de-la-Grave in the French Province of Gascony. His father, Jean Laumet, was born in the village of Caumont-sur-Garonne, he became a lawyer in the Parliament of Toulouse.
In 1652 Jean was appointed lieutenant to the judge of Saint-Nicolas-de-la-Grave by Cardinal Mazarin. He was appointed as a judge in 1664. Antoine's mother, Jeanne Péchagut, was the daughter of a landowner. La Mothe's adult correspondence reveals that his youth included rigorous study at a Jesuit institution where he learned theology, the law, agriculture and zoology. In a record of service he filled out in 1675, he said that he had enlisted in the military as a cadet at the age of 17 in the Dampierre regiment, in Charleroi, nowadays Belgium. Two years in personal letters, however, he reported that he had been an officer in the Clérambault regiment in Thionville, in 1682 he had joined the Albret regiment, in Thionville. At the age of 25, Antoine Laumet departed from France to the New World, his father lost a lawsuit against a lawyer in Castelsarrasin. In addition, he had lost financial support following the death of Cardinal Mazarin and suffered the current intolerance against Protestants. Laumet may have embarked on his voyage by devious means, as historians have not found his name on any passenger list of ships departing from a French port.
In 1683, Antoine Laumet arrived at the capital of Acadia. During the next four years, he explored his new country in all directions, extending his explorations to New England and New Holland, pushing south to the Caroline, now North Carolina and South Carolina, learning some Native American languages and habits, he entered into a business relationship with Denis Guyon, a merchant of Quebec. On June 25, 1687, he married Marie-Thérèse, 17, in Quebec; the marriage certificate is the first document. He identified as "Antoine de Lamothe, écuyer, sieur de Cadillac", signed as "De Lamothe Launay". Like many immigrants, he took advantage of emigrating to the New World to create a new identity to conceal the reasons that drove him from France; this new identity "ne sort pas de son sac". Antoine Laumet remembered Sylvestre d'Esparbes de Lussan de Gout, baron of Lamothe-Bardigues, lord of Cadillac, Launay and Le Moutet, he knew him for at least two reasons: Bardigues, Launay and Le Moutet are villages and localities close to his birthplace, Saint-Nicolas-de-la-Grave, Antoine's father Jean Laumet was a lawyer in the Parliament of Toulouse.
The sons encountered each other during their studies. Second son in his family, Laumet identified with the second son of the baron, he used the phonic similarity between his own name and that of Launay, creating the name: Antoine de Lamothe-Launay. He took the title of écuyer, the rank held by a family's second son, followed by the title sieur of Cadillac; this accorded with the Gascon custom whereby the junior family member succeeds the elder son upon the latter's death. Laumet created a new name and noble origin, while protecting himself from possible recognition by persons who knew him in France. In addition, he presented his own titles of nobility, as illustrated by armorial bearings that he created by associating the shield with the three « merlettes » of the baron de Lamothe-Bardigues and that of the Virès family; the marriage proved to be a fertile one. The Lamothe-Cadillac couple had s
Tarn-et-Garonne is a department in the southwest of France. It is traversed from which it takes its name; this area was part of the former provinces of Quercy and Languedoc. The department was created in 1808 by Napoléon Bonaparte, with territory being taken from the departments of Lot, Haute-Garonne, Lot-et-Garonne and Aveyron; the department is rural with fertile agricultural land in the broad river valley, but there are hilly areas to the south and north. The departmental prefecture is Montauban, some of the other large communes include Castelsarrasin, Molières, Valence-d'Agen and the medieval town of Lauzerte. Quercy was part of Aquitania prima under the Romans, Christianity was introduced during the 4th century. Early in the 6th century the area fell under the authority of the Franks, in the 7th century became part of the autonomous Duchy of Aquitaine. At the end of the 10th century its rulers were the powerful counts of Toulouse. During the hostilities between England and France in the reign of Henry II of England, the English placed garrisons in the county, by the 1259 Treaty of Paris lower Quercy came under the control of England.
The kings of both England and France around this time tried to curry favour by adding to the privileges of the towns and the district. In 1360, the Treaty of Brétigny was signed and the whole of Quercy passed to England. However, in the 1440s the English were expelled by the newly created army of Charles VII of France. In the 16th century Quercy was a stronghold of the Protestants, the scene of fierce religious conflicts; the civil wars of the reign of Louis XIII took place around Montauban. After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, the monarchy was re-established in France, but the discredited Bourbon Dynasty was overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830, which established the constitutional July Monarchy, which lasted until 1848. During this time the divide between the rich and poor increased. Before the department's formation in the nineteenth century, the northern half formed part of the old province of Quercy and the southern half, part of Languedoc; the department was created on 4 November 1808 during the First French Empire by a decision of Napoleon.
The emperor had been invited to visit the town of Montauban, an important industrial and commercial centre at the time, whose populace thought the town was central enough and sufficiently important to be the capital of a new department. He was granted their request; the department was formed out of territories, part of neighbouring areas. More than half of the territory was taken from the Department of Lot, over one-third was taken from Haute-Garonne, the rest from the departments of Lot-et-Garonne and Aveyron; the first Prefect was Félix Le Peletier d'Aunay, installed in his post on 31 December 1808. Tarn-et-Garonne constitutes part of the Occitanie region in southern France, it borders on the departments of Lot to the north, Aveyron to the northeast, Tarn to the east, Haute-Garonne to the south, Gers and Lot-et-Garonne to the west. The capital of the department is Montauban. Montauban is situated on the right bank of the river Tarn at its confluence with the river Tescou, the Tarn is joined by the Aveyron about 10 km further downstream.
The second largest commune in the department is Castelsarrasin which stands near the confluence of the Tarn and River Garonne. Montauban is connected to the Garonne via the 11 km Canal de Montech; the central part of the department is a broad river valley that does not exceed 150 m in altitude, but near the commune of Valence-d'Agen, in the extreme west of the department, the valley narrows as the hilly regions of Bas-Quercy to the north and Lomagne to the south draw closer together. In the northeast of the department is higher land in the form of limestone plateaus known as the Causses, part of the Massif Central; the highest point in the department, at 510 m, is the Pech Maurel, situated in the commune of Castanet. The economy of the department depends on agriculture but there is some industry, it benefits from its proximity to Toulouse; the commercial importance of Montauban is due to its trade in agricultural products, horses and poultry, but it does have some manufacturing industries, which include cloth-weaving, cloth-dressing, flour-milling, wood-sawing, the manufacture of furniture, silk-gauze and straw hats.
The surrounding countryside supports nursery-gardening, wine-making and the growing of maize and mulberries. This area is at the northern limit for the commercial production of the latter two crops because of the vagaries of the climate. Cantons of the Tarn-et-Garonne department Communes of the Tarn-et-Garonne department Arrondissements of the Tarn-et-Garonne department Prefecture of Tarn-et-Garonne website General council of Tarn-et-Garonne website Arkheia History Review of Tarn-et-Garonne website
Shepherds' Crusade (1320)
The Shepherds' Crusade of 1320 was a popular crusading movement in northern France. Aiming to help the Reconquista of Iberia, it failed to gain support from the church or nobility and instead murdered hundreds of Jews in France and Aragon; the causes are complex. Furthermore, there were talks about a new crusade. Indebtedness to Jewish moneylenders had been eliminated with their eviction by King Philip the Fair in 1306; the crusade started in May 1320 in Normandy, when a teenage shepherd claimed to have been visited by the Holy Spirit, which instructed him to fight the Moors in Iberia. Similar to the 1251 crusade, this movement included young men and children, they marched to Paris to ask Philip V to lead them. While in Paris they liberated prisoners in the Grand Châtelet. Instead they marched south to Aquitaine, attacking castles, royal officials and lepers along the way, their usual targets, were Jews, whom they attacked at Saintes, Verdun-sur-Garonne, Cahors and Toulouse, which they reached on June 12.
Pope John XXII, in Avignon, gave orders to stop them. When they crossed into Spain, their attacks on the Jews were well-known, James II of Aragon vowed to protect his citizens. At first they were prohibited from entering the kingdom at all, but when they did enter in July, James warned all his nobles to make sure the Jews were kept safe; as expected the shepherds did attack some Jews at the fortress of Montclus, where over 300 Jews were killed. James's son Alfonso was sent out to bring them under control; those responsible for the massacre at Montclus were executed. There were no further incidents and the crusade dispersed; this "crusade" is seen as a revolt against the French monarchy, somewhat like the first Shepherds' Crusade. Jews were seen as a symbol of royal power, as they more than any other population relied on the personal protection of the king both in France and in Aragon, were a symbol of the royal economy as well, hated by poor and taxed peasants. Only a few years the Jews had been allowed to return to France, after being expelled in 1306.
Any debts owed to the Jews were collected by the monarchy after their expulsion, which also contributed to the peasant connection of the Jews with the king. In 1321, King Philip fined those communities; this led to a second revolt, this time among the urban population, although chroniclers invented the idea of a "cowherds' crusade", a second wave of the Shepherds' Crusade. Although this never occurred, there were, more attacks on Jews as a result of the fines. Shepherds' Crusade David Nirenberg, Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages. Princeton, 1996. Malcolm Barber. "The Pastoureaux of 1320," in Journal of Ecclesiastical History 32, 143–66
Belvèze is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France. The Séoune flows southward through the eastern part of the commune. Communes of the Tarn-et-Garonne department INSEE
Saracen was a term used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages to refer to Arabs and Muslims. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the Common Era and Latin writings used this term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, in Arabia Deserta. In Europe during the Early Middle Ages, the term came to be associated with tribes of Arabia; the oldest source mentioning the term Saracen dates back to the 7th century. It was found in Doctrina Jacobi, a commentary that discussed the event of the Arab conquests on Palestine. By the 12th century, "Saracen" had become synonymous with "Muslim" in Medieval Latin literature; such expansion in the meaning of the term had begun centuries earlier among the Byzantine Greeks, as evidenced in documents from the 8th century. In the Western languages before the 16th century, "Saracen" was used to refer to Muslim Arabs, the words "Muslim" and "Islam" were not used.
The term became obsolete following the Age of Discovery. The Latin term Saraceni is of unknown original meaning. There are claims of it being derived from the Semitic triliteral root srq "to steal, plunder", more from the noun sāriq, pl. sariqīn, which means "thief, plunderer". Other possible Semitic roots are šrq "east" and šrkt "tribe, confederation". In his Levantine Diary, covering the years 1699-1740, the Damascene writer ibn Kanan used the term sarkan to mean "travel on a military mission" from the Near East to parts of Southern Europe which were under Ottoman Empire rule Cyprus and Rhodes. Ptolemy's 2nd-century work, describes Sarakēnḗ as a region in the northern Sinai Peninsula. Ptolemy mentions a people called the Sarakēnoí living in the northwestern Arabian Peninsula. Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical history narrates an account wherein Pope Dionysius of Alexandria mentions Saracens in a letter while describing the persecution of Christians by the Roman emperor Decius: "Many were, in the Arabian mountain, enslaved by the barbarous'sarkenoi'."
The Augustan History refers to an attack by "Saraceni" on Pescennius Niger's army in Egypt in 193, but provides little information as to identifying them. Both Hippolytus of Rome and Uranius mention three distinct peoples in Arabia during the first half of the third century: the "Taeni", the "Saraceni" and the "Arabes"; the "Taeni" identified with the Arab people called "Tayy", were located around Khaybar and in an area stretching up to the Euphrates. The "Saraceni" were placed north of them; these Saracens, located in the northern Hejaz, were described as people with a certain military ability who were opponents of the Roman Empire and who were classified by the Romans as barbarians. The Saracens are described as forming the "equites" from Thamud. In one document the defeated enemies of Diocletian's campaign in the Syrian Desert are described as Saracens. Other 4th-century military reports make no mention of Arabs but refer to as'Saracens' groups ranging as far east as Mesopotamia that were involved in battles on both the Sasanian and Roman sides.
The Saracens were named in the Roman administrative document Notitia Dignitatum—dating from the time of Theodosius I in the 4th century—as comprising distinctive units in the Roman army. They were distinguished in the document from Arabs. Beginning no than the early fifth century, Christian writers began to equate Saracens with Arabs. Saracens were associated with Ishmaelites in some strands of Jewish and Islamic genealogical thinking; the writings of Jerome are the earliest known version of the claim that Ishmaelites chose to be called Saracens in order to identify with Abraham's "free" wife Sarah, rather than as Hagarenes, which would have highlighted their association with Abraham's "slave woman" Hagar. This claim was popular during the Middle Ages, but derives more from Paul’s allegory in the New Testament letter to the Galatians than from historical data; the name "Saracen" was not indigenous among the populations so described but was applied to them by Greco-Roman historians based on Greek place names.
As the Middle Ages progressed, usage of the term in the Latin West changed, but its connotation remained negative, associated with opponents of Christianity, its exact definition is unclear. In an 8th-century polemical work, John of Damascus criticized the Saracens as followers of a false prophet and "forerunner to the Antichrist."By the 12th century, Medieval Europeans had more specific conceptions of Islam and used the term "Saracen" as an ethnic and religious marker. In some Medieval literature, Saracens—that is, Muslims—were described as black-skinned, while Christians were lighter-skinned. An example is in The King of a medieval romance; the Song of Roland, an Old French 11th-century heroic poem, refers to the black skin of Saracens as their only exotic feature. The 15th-century Mishnah commentator, Rabbi Ovadiah of Bertinora, wrote that the word Saracen among Arabs had the connotation of "thieves"; the term "Saracen" remained in widespread use in the West as a term for "Muslim" until the 18th century when the Age of Discovery led to it becoming obsolete.
Arabs Arab–Byzantine wars Medieval Christian views on Muhammad Mohammedan Moors Orientalism Serkland Tatars
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
2007 Tour de France
The 2007 Tour de France the 94th running of the race, took place from 7 to 29 July. The Tour began with a prologue in London, ended with the traditional finish in Paris. Along the way, the route passed through Belgium and Spain, it was won by Spanish rider Alberto Contador. The Tour was marked by doping controversies, with three riders and two teams withdrawn during the race following positive doping tests, including pre-race favorite Alexander Vinokourov and his Astana team. Following Stage 16, the leader of the general classification, Michael Rasmussen, was removed from the Tour by his Rabobank team, who accused him of lying about the reasons for missing several drug tests earlier in the year; the points classification, indicated by the green jersey, was won for the first time by Tom Boonen, who had failed to complete the previous two Tours after leading the points classification at times during each. The mountains classification, indicated by the polkadot jersey, was won by Mauricio Soler in his first Tour appearance.
The general classification, indicated by the yellow jersey, was contested until the final time trial on stage 19. The top three riders, Alberto Contador in the yellow jersey as the leader, Cadel Evans in second, Levi Leipheimer in third, were separated by only 2:49, with both Evans and Leipheimer recognized as far superior time trialists to Contador. In the end, each rider held his place after the final time trial, but with slimmer margins, as the Tour ended with the smallest-ever spread of only 31 seconds among the top three riders. Alberto Contador won the young rider classification, indicated by the white jersey, as the best young rider. A total of 21 teams were invited to the 2007 Tour de France; each team sent a total of nine riders to participate in the Tour, which brought the starting total of the peloton to 189 riders. The presentation of the teams – where each team's roster are introduced in front of the media and local dignitaries – took place at Trafalgar Square in London, the day before the opening prologue held in the city.
The teams entering the race were:UCI ProTour teams Invited teams After the retirement of seven-time winner Lance Armstrong and with Ivan Basso and Floyd Landis not entering the Tour, the bookmakers' favourite to win the 2007 Tour de France was Alexander Vinokourov, unable to start in 2006 due to lack of team members, but did win the 2006 Vuelta a España. The main challengers were expected to be the 2006 Tour de France second-place finisher Andreas Klöden; the organisers of the Tour and London mayor Ken Livingstone announced on 24 January 2006 that the start of the Tour would take place in London. Livingstone noted the two stages would commemorate the victims of the 7 July 2005 London bombings, saying "Having the Grand Départ on the seventh of July will broadcast to the world that terrorism does not shake our city." The routes for the Prologue in London and the first full stage through Kent, finishing in Canterbury, were announced on 9 February 2006 at the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre.
This was the third time the Tour visited United Kingdom, including Plymouth in and two stages in Kent and Hampshire in. Tour director Christian Prudhomme unveiled the 2007 route in Paris on 26 October 2006. In total, the route covered 3,570 km; the first scandal arrived when it was made public on 18 July that rider Patrik Sinkewitz from the T-Mobile Team had tested positive one month before the Tour started. Sinkewitz had withdrawn from the race having incurred an injury during the 8th stage; the scandal was big enough to prompt German TV broadcasters ARD to drop their coverage. The Tour was dealt a major blow when the first-place Astana team withdrew from the race on 24 July 2007, after team member and pre-race favorite Alexander Vinokourov from Kazakhstan tested positive for an illegal blood transfusion. Vinokourov's teammates Andreas Klöden and Andrey Kashechkin were in 5th and 7th place at the time. At the start of the 16th stage on 25 July, some teams made a protest against the laxness of the official attitude to doping in the race.
After the stage, race officials announced that Cofidis team member Cristian Moreni of Italy had tested positive for elevated levels of testosterone, the Cofidis team withdrew from the race. Spanish cyclist Iban Mayo tested positive for EPO on 24 July. French prosecutors wanted to start a legal case against Vinokourov and Moreni, requested the UCI to hand over the doping samples; the UCI refused to give them, in May 2011 the investigation was stopped. German cyclist Marcus Burghardt collided with a Labrador Retriever during Stage 9; the bike struck the dog on its backside, which buckled the front wheel and threw Burghardt over the handlebars onto the road. Remarkably the dog was unhurt by the collision, it was grabbed by a spectator before it could cause any more damage. A second incident involving a dog occurred on Stage 18. Sandy Casar and Frederik Willems were in a four-man break when Casar collided with a dog running across the road, causing both him and Willems to fall. Casar was able to rejoin the break with the help of Axel Merckx despite receiving road rash on his right buttock, while Willems returned to the peloton.
Casar went on to win the stage. After Stage 16, overall leader Michael Rasmussen was fired by his team, for violating team rules after he told the team that he was in Mexico with his wife in June being sighted training in Italy by Italian journalist Davide Cassani. Rasmussen disputed this claim. Thus, at the start of stage 17 there was