White Sulphur Springs, Montana
White Sulphur Springs is a city in and the county seat of Meagher County, United States. The population was 939 at the 2010 census; the center of population of Montana is located in White Sulphur Springs. White Sulphur Springs is located at 46°32′47″N 110°54′9″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.01 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 939 people, 433 households, 255 families residing in the city; the population density was 929.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 563 housing units at an average density of 557.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.2% White, 0.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 433 households of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.1% were non-families.
37.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.75. The median age in the city was 51.2 years. 19% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.8% male and 50.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 984 people, 443 households, 265 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,069.1 people per square mile. There were 567 housing units at an average density of 616.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.24% White, 1.42% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.93% of the population. There were 443 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families.
37.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 22.5% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,229, the median income for a family was $34,342. Males had a median income of $23,403 versus $13,929 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,836. About 11.6% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. Dirk Benedict, actor, is from White Sulphur Springs. Ivan Doig, was born in White Sulphur Springs. Emmanuel Taylor Gordon, Harlem Renaissance singer and performer, was born and died in White Sulphur Springs.
Sarah Calhoun, founder of the women's workwear company Red Ants Pants. Doctor Thomas Merton MongarA student rights advocate, radical thinker, controversial critic of government policy who made pioneering contributions through his research, to the field of Political Science, he completed a BA at the University of Montana and continued his studies at the University of Oregon where he obtained a PhD. He taught at the University of Washington, Queens College in New York City, McMaster University in Burlington and Memorial University of Newfoundland. Richard T Ringling, Son of Ringling brothers founder, Alf T. Ringling. Paul Ringling, legislator. Son of Richard and Aubrey Ringling. Grandson of Alf T. Ringling. National Register of Historic Places in Meagher County Chamber of commerce
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human psychology. Recreational activities are done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun"; the term recreation appears to have been used in English first in the late 14th century, first in the sense of "refreshment or curing of a sick person", derived turn from Latin. Humans spend their time in activities of daily living, sleep, social duties, leisure, the latter time being free from prior commitments to physiologic or social needs, a prerequisite of recreation. Leisure has increased with increased longevity and, for many, with decreased hours spent for physical and economic survival, yet others argue that time pressure has increased for modern people, as they are committed to too many tasks. Other factors that account for an increased role of recreation are affluence, population trends, increased commercialization of recreational offerings.
While one perception is that leisure is just "spare time", time not consumed by the necessities of living, another holds that leisure is a force that allows individuals to consider and reflect on the values and realities that are missed in the activities of daily life, thus being an essential element of personal development and civilization. This direction of thought has been extended to the view that leisure is the purpose of work, a reward in itself, "leisure life" reflects the values and character of a nation. Leisure is considered a human right under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Recreation is difficult to separate from the general concept of play, the term for children's recreational activity. Children may playfully imitate activities, it has been proposed that play or recreational activities are outlets of or expression of excess energy, channeling it into acceptable activities that fulfill individual as well as societal needs, without need for compulsion, providing satisfaction and pleasure for the participant.
A traditional view holds that work is supported by recreation, recreation being useful to "recharge the battery" so that work performance is improved. Work, an activity performed out of economic necessity and useful for society and organized within the economic framework, however can be pleasurable and may be self-imposed thus blurring the distinction to recreation. Many activities may be work for one person and recreation for another, or, at an individual level, over time recreational activity may become work, vice versa. Thus, for a musician, playing an instrument may be at one time a profession, at another a recreation, it may be difficult to separate education from recreation as in the case of recreational mathematics. Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped by individual interests but by the surrounding social construction. Recreational activities can be communal or solitary, active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, useful for society or detrimental.
A significant section of recreational activities are designated as hobbies which are activities done for pleasure on a regular basis. A list of typical activities could be endless including most human activities, a few examples being reading, playing or listening to music, watching movies or TV, fine dining, sports and travel; some recreational activities - such as gambling, recreational drug use, or delinquent activities - may violate societal norms and laws. Public space such as parks and beaches are essential venues for many recreational activities. Tourism has recognized that many visitors are attracted by recreational offerings. In support of recreational activities government has taken an important role in their creation and organization, whole industries have developed merchandise or services. Recreation-related business is an important factor in the economy. S. economy and generates 6.5 million jobs. A recreation center is a place for recreational activities administered by a municipal government agency.
Swimming, weightlifting and kids' play areas are common. Many recreational activities are organized by public institutions, voluntary group-work agencies, private groups supported by membership fees, commercial enterprises. Examples of each of these are the National Park Service, the YMCA, the Kiwanis, Walt Disney World. Recreation has many health benefits, accordingly, Therapeutic Recreation has been developed to take advantage of this effect; the National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification is the nationally recognized credentialing organization for the profession of Therapeutic Recreation. Professionals in the field of Therapeutic Recreation who are certified by the NCTRC are called "Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists"; the job title "Recreation Therapist" is identified in the U. S. Dept of Labor's Occupation Outlook; such therapy is applied in rehabilitation, psychiatric facilities for youth and adults, in the care of the elderly, the disabled, or people with chronic diseases.
Recreational physical activity is important to reduce obesity, the risk of osteoporosis and of cancer, most in men that of colon and prostate, in women that of the breast. Extreme adventure recreation carries its own ha
Glendive is a city in and the county seat of Dawson County, United States, home to Dawson Community College. Glendive was established by the Northern Pacific Railway when they built the transcontinental railroad across the northern tier of the western United States from Minnesota to the Pacific Coast; the town was the headquarters for the Yellowstone Division. The town of Glendive is an ranching hub of eastern Montana; the town is tucked between the Yellowstone River and the Badlands, named for the rugged terrain and jagged rock formations that are known to exist in the area. Makoshika State Park is located just east of Glendive. Glendive is the smallest US television market, as identified by Nielsen; the population was 4,935 at the 2010 census. In January 2015, Glendive was the site of a major oil spill from a pipeline which contaminated drinking water. Glendive is home to Dawson Community College a 2-year college formed in 1940 to meet the educational needs of eastern Montana; the college offers Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, Associate of Applied Science degrees as well as certificate programs.
Dawson Community College is an open-access college. Glendive is located at 47°6′31″N 104°42′38″W, at an altitude of 2,064 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.35 square miles, of which 3.32 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. Sir George Gore, a wealthy Irish sportsman, named his favorite hunting area "Glendive" in 1855, from the Irish gleann'valley' and dubh'black'. Glendive was an oil boom town after the discovery of oil in the Williston Basin in the early 1950s. Moving the oil out of the area was difficult and expensive though; the community has been impacted in the 2000s by the North Dakota oil boom which spurred a modest increase in the population. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,935 people, 2,060 households, 1,190 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,486.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,267 housing units at an average density of 682.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.4% White, 0.5% African American, 2.4% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population. There were 2,060 households of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.2% were non-families. 37.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 41.2 years. 19.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.4% male and 49.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,729 people, 1,983 households, 1,229 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,419.0 people per square mile. There were 2,204 housing units at an average density of 661.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.38% White, 0.30% African American,1.21% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.36% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.02% of the population. There were 1,983 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,943, the median income for a family was $40,313. Males had a median income of $30,977 versus $20,132 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,544. About 11.6% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.8% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.
The Glendive market has three local radio stations: KGLE AM 590 KXGN AM 1400 KDZN FM 96.5Glendive is the smallest of the 210 designated markets for broadcast television in the United States as designated by Nielsen Media Research, with one station—KXGN channel 5—carrying a CBS affiliation along with state and local news broadcasts for a small potential audience of several thousand people. Until September 2009, KXGN carried selected prime-time NBC programming in its schedule, making it the last "Big 3" affiliate to offer programming from more than one network on a single feed. In late June 2010, KXGN moved their NBC programming to a DT2 digital subchannel, rejoining the network. K13PL channel 13, a translator of Williston, North Dakota's NBC affiliate KUMV was available until 2013.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an ore body, vein, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package, of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, oil shale, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed.
Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, modern practices have improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone and metals found close to the Earth's surface; these were used to make early weapons. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and galleries; the mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are famous, like most other flint mines, are Neolithic in origin. Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District; the oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Ngwenya Mine in Swaziland, which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old.
At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of a similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools. Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. Quarries for turquoise and copper were found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna. Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties; the gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps.
The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust. Mining in Europe has a long history. Examples include the silver mines of Laurium. Although they had over 20,000 slaves working them, their technology was identical to their Bronze Age predecessors. At other mines, such as on the island of Thassos, marble was quarried by the Parians after they arrived in the 7th century BC; the marble was shipped away and was found by archaeologists to have been used in buildings including the tomb of Amphipolis. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns, he captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage producing 26 tons per year. However, it was the Romans who developed large scale mining methods the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts; the water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed and driving simple machinery.
The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. They built numerous aqueducts to supply water to the minehead. There, the water stored in large tanks; when a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins. The rock was worked upon by fire-setting to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water; the resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines; the methods had been developed by the Romans in Spain in 25 AD to exploit large alluvial gold deposits, the largest site being at Las Medulas, where seven long aqueducts tapped local rivers and sluiced the deposits. Spain was one of the most important mining regions, but all regions of the Roman Empire were exploited.
In Great Britain the natives had mined minerals for millennia, but after the Roman conquest, the scale of the operations increased as the Romans needed Britannia's resources gold, silver
Index of Montana-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U. S. state of Montana..mt.us – Internet second-level domain for the state of Montana 3-7-77 7th Cavalry Regiment 27th meridian west from Washington 34th meridian west from Washington 39th meridian west from Washington 45th parallel north 46th parallel north 47th parallel north 48th parallel north 49th parallel north 105th meridian west 106th meridian west 107th meridian west 108th meridian west 109th meridian west 110th meridian west 111th meridian west 112th meridian west 113th meridian west 114th meridian west 115th meridian west 116th meridian west Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness Adjacent states and provinces: Province of Alberta Province of British Columbia Province of Saskatchewan State of Idaho State of North Dakota State of South Dakota State of Wyoming Agriculture in Montana Agropyron spicatum Airports in Montana Amphibians and reptiles of Montana Anaconda-Pintler Wilderness Arboreta in Montana commons:Category:Arboreta in Montana Archaeology of Montana Category:Archaeological sites in Montana commons:Category:Archaeological sites in Montana Architecture of Montana Area codes in Montana Art museums and galleries in Montana commons:Category:Art museums and galleries in Montana Artists of Montana Baldwin v. Fish and Game Commission of Montana Bannack, Montana Territory, first territorial capital 1864-1865 Battle of Bear Paw Battle of Canyon Creek Battle of Cedar Creek Battle of Powder River Battle of the Big Hole Battle of the Little Bighorn Battle of the Rosebud Battle of Wolf Mountain Beaverhead Rock Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge Benton Lake Wetland Management District Big Hole National Battlefield Big Sky Country Bike paths in Montana Billings, Montana Billings Symphony Orchestra Bitterroot Bitterroot Mountains Bitterroot National Forest Bitterroot Valley Black Coulee National Wildlife Refuge Black Hills War Blackfeet Indian Reservation Blackspotted Cutthroat Trout Bluebunch Wheatgrass Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex Bob Marshall Wilderness Botanical gardens in Montana commons:Category:Botanical gardens in Montana Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Bozeman Trail Bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Montana Buildings and structures in Montana commons:Category:Buildings and structures in Montana Cabinet Mountains Wilderness Capital of the state of Montana Capitol of the State of Montana Caves of Montana commons:Category:Caves of Montana Census Designated Places in Montana Census statistical areas in Montana Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge Complex Chief Joseph Chief Plenty Coups State Park and Home Cities and towns in Montana Cities in Montana Towns in Montana Clams and Mussels of Montana Clark, William Climate of Montana Club-mosses and Mosses of Montana Colleges and universities in Montana Columbia Basin Communications in Montana commons:Category:Communications in Montana Companies based in Montana Confederate Gulch and Diamond City Constitution of the State of Montana Counties of the state of Montana commons:Category:Counties in Montana Counties of Montana ranked by per capita income Crazy Horse Crazy Mountains Crazy Peak Creedman Coulee National Wildlife Refuge Crow Nation Crustaceans of Montana Culture of Montana commons:Category:Montana culture Custer, George Armstrong Custer National Forest Dams in Montana Demographics of Montana Diamond City Dicotyledons of Montana District of Louisiana Duck-billed Dinosaur Dull Knife Fight Economy of Montana Category:Economy of Montana commons:Category:Economy of Montana Education in Montana Category:Education in Montana commons:Category:Education in Montana Elections in Montana commons:Category:Montana elections Electric Peak Environment of Montana commons:Category:Environment of Montana Fauna of Montana Federal highways in Montana Fictional characters from Montana Films set in Montana Films shot in Montana Fish of Montana Flag of the State of Montana Flathead Indian Reservation Flathead Lake Flathead National Forest Flora of Montana Forests in Montana Fort Belknap Indian Reservation Fort Peck Indian Reservation Forts in Montana Category:Forts in Montana commons:Category:Forts in Montana Gallatin National Forest Gates of the Mountains Wilderness Geography of Montana Category:Geography of Montana commons:Category:Geography of Montana Geology of Montana Geology of the Rocky Mountains commons:Category:Geology of Montana Ghost towns in Montana Category:Ghost towns in Montana commons:Category:Ghost towns in Montana Giant Springs Glaciers of Montana commons:Category:Glaciers of Montana Government of the state of Montana website Constitution of the State of Montana Category:Government of Montana commons:Category:Government of Montana Governor of the State of Montana Governor's Residence of Montana List of Governors of Montana Glacial Lake Missoula Glacier National Park Glaciers in Montana Granite Peak Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site Great Bear Wilderness Great Falls, Montana Great Falls of the Missouri River Great Seal of the State of Montana Grizzly bear Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge Halfbreed Lake National Wildlife Refuge Helena, Montana and state capital since 1875 Helena National Forest Hewitt Lake National Wildlife Refuge High schools in Montana Highway Patrol of Montana Highways in Montana Hiking trails in Montana commons:Category:Hiking trails in Montana History of Montana Historical outline of Montana Hot springs of Montana commons:Category:Hot springs of Montana House of Representatives of the State of Montana Montana State Representatives Idaho Panhandle National Forest Images of Montana commons:Category:Montana Individuals executed in Montana Insignia of the State of Montana Interstate Highways in Montana Islands in Montana Chief Joseph Kootenai National Forest Lake Mason National Wildlife Refuge Lake Th
Bozeman is a city in and the seat of Gallatin County, United States. Located in southwest Montana, the 2010 census put Bozeman's population at 37,280 and by 2016 the population rose to 45,250, making it the fourth largest city in Montana, it is the principal city of the Bozeman, MT Micropolitan Statistical Area, consisting of all of Gallatin County with a population of 97,304. It is the largest Micropolitan Statistical Area in Montana and is the third largest of all of Montana's statistical areas; the city is named after John M. Bozeman who established the Bozeman Trail and was a founder of the town in August 1864; the town became incorporated in April 1883 with a city council form of government and in January 1922 transitioned to its current city manager/city commission form of government. Bozeman was elected an All-America City in 2001 by the National Civic League. Bozeman is home to Montana State University; the local newspaper is the Bozeman Daily Chronicle, the city is served by Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport.
For thousands of years indigenous people of the United States, including the Shoshone, Nez Perce, Flathead, Crow Nation and Sioux traveled through the area, called the "Valley of the Flowers", although the Gallatin Valley, in which Bozeman is located, was within the territory of the Crow people. William Clark visited the area in July 1806 as he traveled east from Three Forks along the Gallatin River; the party camped at the mouth of Kelly Canyon. The journal entries from Clark's party describe the future city's location. In 1863 John Bozeman, along with a partner named John Jacobs, opened the Bozeman Trail, a new northern trail off the Oregon Trail leading to the mining town of Virginia City through the Gallatin Valley and the future location of the city of Bozeman. John Bozeman, with Daniel Rouse and William Beall, platted the town in August 1864, stating "standing right in the gate of the mountains ready to swallow up all tenderfeet that would reach the territory from the east, with their golden fleeces to be taken care of".
Red Cloud's War closed the Bozeman Trail in 1868, but the town's fertile land still attracted permanent settlers. In 1866 Nelson Story, a successful Virginia City, gold miner from Ohio entered the cattle business. Story braved the hostile Bozeman Trail to drive some 1000 head of longhorn cattle into Paradise Valley just east of Bozeman. Eluding the U. S. Army, who tried to turn Story back to protect the drive from hostile Indians, Story's cattle formed one of the earliest significant herds in Montana's cattle industry. Story established a sizable ranch in holdings in the Gallatin Valley, he donated land to the state for the establishment of Montana State University – Bozeman. Fort Ellis 45°39′16″N 110°56′35″W, el. 4,987 feet was established in 1867 by Captain R. S. LaMotte and two companies of the 2nd Cavalry, after the murder of John Bozeman near the mouth of Mission Creek on Yellowstone River 45°42′52″N 110°23′20″W, considerable political disturbance in the area led local settlers and miners to feel a need for added protection.
The fort, named for Gettysburg casualty Colonel Augustus Van Horne Ellis, was decommissioned in 1886 and few remnants are left at the actual site, now occupied by the Fort Ellis Experimental Station of Montana State University. In addition to Fort Ellis, a short-lived fort, Fort Elizabeth Meagher, was established in 1867 by volunteer militiamen; this fort was located eight miles east of town on Rocky Creek.45°38′30″N 110°55′05″W, el. 5,249 feet The first issue of the weekly Avant Courier newspaper, the precursor of today's Bozeman Chronicle, was published in Bozeman on September 13, 1871. Bozeman's main cemetery, Sunset Hills Cemetery, was gifted to the city in 1872 when the English lawyer and philanthropist William Henry Blackmore purchased the land after his wife Mary Blackmore died of pneumonia in Bozeman in July 1872; the first library in Bozeman was formed by the Young Men's Library Association in a room above a drugstore in 1872. It moved to the mayor's office and was taken over by the city in 1890.
The first Grange meeting in Montana Territory was held in Bozeman in 1873. The Northern Pacific Railway reached Bozeman from the east in 1883. By 1900 Bozeman's population reached 3,500. In 1892 the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries established a fish hatchery on Bridger Creek at the entrance to Bridger Canyon; the fourth oldest fish hatchery in the United States, the facility ceased to be a hatchery in 1966 and became the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Bozeman National Fish Hatchery a fish technology and fish health center; the Center receives 5000 visitors a year observing biologists working on diet testing, feed manufacturing technology, fish diseases, brood stock development and improvement of water quality. Montana State University - Bozeman was established in 1893 as the state's land-grant college named the Agricultural College of the State of Montana. By the 1920s, the institution was known as Montana State College, in 1965 it became Montana State University. Bozeman's first high school, the Gallatin Valley High School, was built on West Main Street in 1902.
Known as Willson School, named for notable Bozeman architect Fred Fielding Willson, son of Lester S. Willson, the building still stands today and functions as administrative offices for the Bozeman School District. In the early 20th century, over 17,000 acres of the Gallatin Valley were planted in edible peas harvested for both canning and seed. By the 1920s, canneries in the Bozeman area were major producers of canned peas, at one point Bozeman produced 75% of all seed peas
Columbia Falls, Montana
Columbia Falls is a city in Flathead County, United States. The population was 4,710 at the 2010 census Columbia Falls is located at 48°22′13″N 114°11′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.05 square miles, all of it land. The town is known as nq̓eyɫkʷm in Salish; the Montana Veterans Home in Columbia Falls has served veterans since 1896. Its current housing facility was opened by Montana Governor Forrest H. Anderson at an official dedication ceremony in 1970. An E. M. Viquesney statue of a World War I doughboy was moved to the front of the Veterans' Home in 1972; the statue "originally stood in Kalispell in the Main Street median in front of the Flathead County Courthouse."The aluminum plant northeast of the city was built in the mid-1950s, utilizing the electrical power generated at the new Hungry Horse Dam. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,688 people, 1,863 households, 1,215 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,286.8 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,994 housing units at an average density of 972.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.4% White, 0.2% African American, 1.8% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.8% of the population. There were 1,863 households of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.8% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 35.6 years. 26% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,645 people, 1,400 households, 966 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,402.9 people per square mile.
There were 1,470 housing units at an average density of 969.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.27% White, 0.25% African American, 1.23% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.84% of the population. There were 1,400 households out of which 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,128, the median income for a family was $40,794. Males had a median income of $32,109 versus $20,023 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,355. About 12.5% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.8% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. Joe Bereta, member of the Spokane-based sketch comedy duo Barats and Bereta. Paula Houston and Pornography Complaints Ombudsman for the State of Utah. City website Chamber of Commerce Columbia Falls News Columbia Falls Neighborhoods