A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a relaxed, social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, New Zealand, Canadian, in many places, especially in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as the heart of England, Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them easily visible for passing ale tasters who would assess the quality of ale sold, most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks. As well, pubs often sell wines and soft drinks, the owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or publican. The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s and these alehouses quickly evolved into meeting houses for the folk to socially congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities.
Herein lies the origin of the public house, or Pub as it is colloquially called in England. They rapidly spread across the Kingdom, becoming so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, the Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses,1,631 inns, Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and, usually and drink. They are typically located in the country or along a highway, in Europe, they possibly first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago. Some inns in Europe are several centuries old, in addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less commonly accommodation.
Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard, there is however no longer a formal distinction between an inn and other kinds of establishment. In North America, the aspect of the word inn lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn. The Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, traditional English ale was made solely from fermented malt. The practice of adding hops to produce beer was introduced from the Netherlands in the early 15th century, alehouses would each brew their own distinctive ale, but independent breweries began to appear in the late 17th century. By the end of the century almost all beer was brewed by commercial breweries, the 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments, primarily due to the introduction of gin
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, located 128 miles north of London, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making, bicycle and it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination, in 2011, visitors spent over £1.5 billion - the thirteenth highest amount in Englands 111 statistical territories. In 2015, Nottingham had an population of 321,550 with the wider urban area. Its urban area is the largest in the east Midlands and the second largest in the Midlands, the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50. 9bn, the city is ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. It is a sporting centre, and in October 2015 was named Home of English Sport. The city has rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, and the Aegon Nottingham Open.
This accolade came just over a year after Nottingham was named as the UKs first City of Football, on 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a Unesco City of Literature, joining Norwich, Melbourne and Barcelona as one of only a handful in the world. The title reflects Nottinghams literary heritage, with Lord Byron, DH Lawrence and it has two universities, the University of Nottingham and Nottingham Trent University, which are attended by over 70,610 students. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog, when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as Snotingaham, the homestead of Snots people. Some authors derive Nottingham from Snottenga and ham, Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall, a settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle.
Eventually, the space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later, consisted initially of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century. The ditch was widened, in the mid 13th century, a short length of the wall survives, and is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, and is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the Castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John and it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of an export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham Alabaster
Stout is a dark beer made using roasted malt or roasted barley, hops and yeast. Stouts were traditionally the generic term for the strongest or stoutest porters, typically 7% or 8%, produced by a brewery. There are a number of variations including Baltic porter, milk stout, and imperial stout, the most common variation is dry stout, exemplified by Guinness Draught, the worlds best selling stout. The first known use of the stout for beer was in a document dated 1677 found in the Egerton Manuscript. The name porter was first used in 1721 to describe a dark beer that had been made with roasted malts. Because of the popularity of porters, brewers made them in a variety of strengths. Porter originated in London, England in the early 1720s, within a few decades, porter breweries in London had grown beyond any previously known scale. Large volumes were exported to Ireland, where by 1776 it was being brewed by Arthur Guinness at his St. Jamess Gate Brewery, in the 19th century, the beer gained its customary black colour through the use of black patent malt, and became stronger in flavour.
Originally, the adjective stout meant proud or brave, but later, after the 14th century, the first known use of the word stout for beer was in a document dated 1677 found in the Egerton Manuscript, the sense being that a stout beer was a strong beer. Stout still meant only strong and it could be related to any kind of beer, as long as it was strong, in the UK it was possible to find stout pale ale, for example. Later, stout was eventually to be associated only with porter, because of the huge popularity of porters, brewers made them in a variety of strengths. The beers with higher gravities were called Stout Porters, there is still division and debate on whether stouts should be a separate style from porter. Usually the only deciding factor is strength, with beer writers such as Michael Jackson writing about stouts and porters in the 1970s, there has been a moderate interest in the global speciality beer market. In the mid 1980s a survey by What’s Brewing found just 29 brewers in the UK and Channel Islands still making stout, milk stout is a stout containing lactose, a sugar derived from milk.
Because lactose cannot be fermented by beer yeast, it adds sweetness, milk stout was claimed to be nutritious, and was given to nursing mothers, along with other stouts, such as Guinness. The classic surviving example of milk stout is Mackesons, for which the original brewers claimed that each pint contains the energising carbohydrates of 10 ounces of pure dairy milk. With milk or sweet stout becoming the dominant stout in the UK in the early 20th century, it was mainly in Ireland that the non-sweet or standard stout was being made. As standard stout has a dryer taste than the English and American sweet stouts, though still sometimes termed Irish or dry stout, particularly if made in Ireland, this is the standard stout sold and would normally just be termed stout
Great British Beer Festival
The Great British Beer Festival is an annual beer festival organised by the Campaign for Real Ale. It presents a selection of ales and other alcoholic drinks from the UK. The festival is home to the Champion Beer of Britain awards, gBBFs sister festival, the National Winter Ales Festival concentrates on beer styles such as porter and stout, and is held in January of each year. 2017 marks the 40th anniversary of the GBBF, the festival is staffed by unpaid volunteers, around 1000 of whom work at the festival. The festival is held during the first full week in August. The Tuesday afternoon session is only open to the trade and press, the general public are admitted to afternoon and evening sessions from Tuesday evening until Saturday evening. CAMRA figures show that in 2006, over 66,000 people visited the festival over the course of the week and consumed some 350,000 pints of beer — one pint sold in less than half of every open second. Part of the improvement on 2005 was attributed by the festival organiser, Marc Holmes, to the move from Olympia to Earls Court.
Since 2012 the event has returned to Olympia and remains massively popular, as well as the beer, the festival offers entertainment such as live music and traditional pub games, as well as a variety of food stands. The 2016 festival took place 8-12 August, CAMRA held their first large beer festival in Covent Garden, London in September 1975. It was a 4-day event that attracted 40,000 people who drank 150,000 pints of real ale, strictly speaking it was not a GBBF, but it has been considered the forerunner of the festival. The first proper GBBF was held in 1977 at Alexandra Palace, the venue has moved between cities since it was first established but has settled in London since 1991. The only year in which a festival was not held was 1984,1977, Alexandra Palace, London 1978, Alexandra Palace, London 1979, Alexandra Palace, London 1980, Alexandra Palace 1981, Queens Hall, Leeds. Great British Beer Festival held outside London for the first time
Pale ale is an ale made with predominantly pale malt. The higher proportion of pale malts results in a lighter color, the term pale ale first appeared around 1703 for beers made from malts dried with coke, which resulted in a lighter color than other beers popular at that time. Different brewing practices and hop levels have resulted in a range of taste, coke had been first used for dry roasting malt in 1642, but it wasnt until around 1703 that the term pale ale was first applied to beers made from such malt. By 1784, advertisements appeared in the Calcutta Gazette for light, by 1830, the expressions bitter and pale ale were synonymous. Breweries would tend to designate beers as pale ale, though customers would commonly refer to the beers as bitter. It is thought that customers used the term bitter to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeably hopped beers such as porter and mild. A small amount of crystal or other colored malt is added to the pale ale base to produce a slightly darker color.
In North America, American-variety hops are used in varying degrees of bitterness, in Australia the most popular Amber Ale is from Malt Shovel Brewery, branded James Squire in honour of Australias first brewer, who first brewed beer in Sydney in 1794. American Pale Ale was developed around 1980, the beer was popular, and became a regular in 1983. Other pioneers of a hoppy American pale ale were Jack McAuliffe of the New Albion Brewing Company, American Pale Ales are generally around 5% abv with significant quantities of American hops, typically Cascade. Although American brewed beers tend to use a cleaner yeast, the style is close to the American India Pale Ale, and boundaries blur, though IPAs are stronger and more assertively hopped. The style is close to Amber Ale, though Amber Ales are darker and maltier due to use of crystal malts. Bière de Garde, or keeping beer, is a pale ale brewed in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France. These beers were brewed by farmhouses in the winter and spring.
The origins of the lies in the tradition that it was matured/cellared for a period of time once bottled, to be consumed in the year. Blonde ales are very pale in color, the term Blonde for pale beers is common in Europe and South America - particularly in France, the UK, and Brazil - though the beers may not have much in common, other than color. Blondes tend to be clear and dry, with bitterness and aroma from hops. Fruitiness from esters may be perceived, a lighter body from higher carbonation may be noticed
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse. The commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC, in ancient Mesopotamia, brewers derived social sanction, the diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, and kinds of beer produced in breweries. A brewery is typically divided into sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process. Beer may have known in Neolithic Europe and was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. In some form, it can be traced back almost 5000 years to Mesopotamian writings describing daily rations of beer and bread to workers. Before the rise of production breweries, the production of beer took place at home and was the domain of women and this industrialization of brewing shifted the responsibility of making beer to men. The oldest, still functional, brewery in the world is believed to be the German state-owned Weihenstephan brewery in the city of Freising and it can trace its history back to 1040 AD.
The nearby Weltenburg Abbey brewery, can trace back its beer-brewing tradition to at least 1050 AD, the Žatec brewery in the Czech Republic claims it can prove that it paid a beer tax in 1004 AD. This layout often is preserved in breweries today, but mechanical pumps allow more flexibility in brewery design, early breweries typically used large copper vats in the brewhouse, and fermentation and packaging took place in lined wooden containers. Such breweries were common until the Industrial Revolution, when better materials became available, almost all brewery equipment is made of stainless steel. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, a handful of major breakthroughs have led to the modern brewery and its ability to produce the same beer consistently. The steam engine, vastly improved in 1775 by James Watt, brought automatic stirring mechanisms and it gave brewers the ability to mix liquids more reliably while heating, particularly the mash, to prevent scorching, and a quick way to transfer liquid from one container to another.
Almost all breweries now use electric-powered stirring mechanisms and pumps, the steam engine allowed the brewer to make greater quantities of beer, as human power was no longer a limiting factor in moving and stirring. Carl von Linde, along with others, is credited with developing the machine in 1871. Refrigeration allowed beer to be produced year-round, and always at the same temperature, yeast is very sensitive to temperature, and, if a beer were produced during summer, the yeast would impart unpleasant flavours onto the beer. Most brewers would produce enough beer during winter to last through the summer, the discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in the control of fermentation. The idea that yeast was a microorganism that worked on wort to produce led to the isolation of a single yeast cell by Emil Christian Hansen
Bitter is an English term for pale ale. Bitters vary in colour from gold to dark amber and in strength from 3% to 7% alcohol by volume, Bitter belongs to the pale ale style and can have a great variety of strength and appearance from dark amber to a golden summer ale. It can go under 3% abv — known as Boys Bitter —, the colour may be controlled by the addition of caramel colouring. British brewers have several names for variations in beer strength, such as best bitter, special bitter, extra special bitter. There is no agreed and defined difference between an ordinary and a best bitter other than one particular brewerys best bitter will usually be stronger than its ordinary, two groups of drinkers may mark differently the point at which a best bitter becomes a premium bitter. Hop levels will vary within each sub group, though there is a tendency for the hops in the session bitter group to be more noticeable, drinkers tend to loosely group the beers into, Light ale is a low abv bitter, often bottled.
The majority of British beers with the name India Pale Ale will be found in group, such as Greene King IPA, Deuchars IPA, Flowers IPA, Wadworth Henrys Original IPA. IPAs with gravities below 1040º have been brewed in Britain since at least the 1920s and this is the most common strength of bitter sold in British pubs. It accounted for 16. 9% of pub sales in 2003, strength between 4. 2% and 4. 7% abv. In the United Kingdom bitter above 4. 2% abv accounted for just 2. 9% of pub sales in 2003, the disappearance of weaker bitters from some brewers rosters means best bitter is actually the weakest in the range. Strength of 4. 8% abv and over, known as Extra Special Bitter, or in Canada and the USA, ESB. Golden or summer ale has an appearance and profile similar to that of a pale lager, hop Back Brewery brewed one of the first, called Summer Lightning, in 1989. Copper ale The Campaign for Real Ale
Nottinghamshire is a county in the East Midlands of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west. The traditional county town is Nottingham, though the county council is based in West Bridgford in the borough of Rushcliffe, the districts of Nottinghamshire are Ashfield, Broxtowe, Mansfield and Sherwood, and Rushcliffe. The City of Nottingham was administratively part of Nottinghamshire between 1974 and 1998 but is now an authority, remaining part of Nottinghamshire for ceremonial purposes. In 2011 the county was estimated to have a population of 785,800, over half of the population of the county live in the Greater Nottingham conurbation. The conurbation has a population of about 650,000, though less than half live within the city boundaries. Nottinghamshire lies on the Roman Fosse Way, and there are Roman settlements in the county, for example at Mansfield, the county was settled by Angles around the 5th century, and became part of the Kingdom, and Earldom, of Mercia.
However, there is evidence of Saxon settlement at the Broxtowe Estate, near Nottingham, the name first occurs in 1016, but until 1568 the county was administratively united with Derbyshire, under a single Sheriff. In Norman times the county developed malting and woollen industries, in the 18th and 19th centuries, mechanised deeper collieries opened and mining became an important economic sector, though these declined after the 1984–85 miners strike. Until 1610, Nottinghamshire was divided into eight Wapentakes, sometime between 1610 and 1719 they were reduced to six – Newark, Thurgarton, Rushcliffe and Bingham, some of these names still being used for the modern districts. Oswaldbeck was absorbed in Bassetlaw, of which it forms the North Clay division, Nottinghamshire is famous for its involvement with the legend of Robin Hood. This is the reason for the numbers of tourists who visit places like Sherwood Forest, City of Nottingham, to reinforce the Robin Hood connection, the University of Nottingham in 2010 has begun the Nottingham Caves Survey with the goal to increase the tourist potential of these sites.
The project will use a 3D laser scanner to produce a three dimensional record of more than 450 sandstone caves around Nottingham. Nottinghamshire was mapped first by Christopher Saxton in 1576, the first fully surveyed map of the county was by John Chapman who produced Chapmans Map of Nottinghamshire in 1774. Nottinghamshire, like Derbyshire and South Yorkshire, sits on extensive coal measures, up to 900 metres thick, there is an oilfield near Eakring. These are overlaid by sandstones and limestones in the west and clay in the east, the north of the county is part of the Humberhead Levels lacustrine plain. The centre and south west of the county, around Sherwood Forest, principal rivers are the Trent, Idle and Soar. The Trent, fed by the Soar and Erewash, and Idle, composed of many streams from Sherwood Forest, run through wide and flat valleys, the lowest is Peat Carr, east of Blaxton, at sea level, the Trent is tidal below Cromwell Lock. Nottinghamshire is sheltered by the Pennines to the west, so receives relatively low rainfall at 641–740 mm annually, the average temperature of the county is 8.
8–10.1 degrees Celsius
The term mild originally meant young beer or ale, as opposed to stale aged beer or ale with its resulting tang. In more recent times, it has interpreted as having a low gravity or being mildly hopped. This style of beer originated in Britain in the 17th century or earlier has a predominantly malty palate. Modern mild ales are mainly dark coloured with an abv of 3% to 3. 6%, although there are lighter hued examples as well as stronger examples reaching 6% abv, Light mild is generally similar, but pale in colour, for instance Harveys Brewery Knots of May. There is some overlap between the weakest styles of bitter and light mild, with the term AK being used to refer to both, the designation of such beers as bitter or mild has tended to change with fashion. A good example is McMullens AK, which was re-badged as a bitter after decades as a light mild, AK was often referred to as a mild bitter beer interpreting mild as unaged. Once sold in every pub, mild experienced a decline in popularity after the 1960s and was in danger of completely disappearing.
However, in recent years the explosion of microbreweries has led to a modest renaissance, the Campaign for Real Ale has designated May as Mild Month. In the United States, a group of beer bloggers organised the first American Mild Month for May 2015, Mild was originally used to designate any beer which was young, fresh or unaged and did not refer to a specific style of beer. Thus there was Mild Ale but Mild Porter and even Mild Bitter Beer and these young beers were often blended with aged stale beer to improve their flavour. As the 19th century progressed and public taste moved away from the taste, unblended young beer, mostly in the form of Mild Ale or Light Bitter Beer. In the 19th century a typical brewery produced three or four mild ales, usually designated by a number of Xs, the weakest being X and they were considerably stronger than the milds of today, with the gravity ranging from around 1.055 to 1.072. Gravities dropped throughout the late 19th century and by 1914 the weakest milds were down to about 1.045, the draconian measures applied to the brewing industry during the First World War had a particularly dramatic effect upon mild.
As the biggest-selling beer, it suffered the largest cut in gravity when breweries had to limit the average OG of their beer to 1.030. In order to be able to produce some stronger beer - which was exempt from price controls, modern dark mild varies from dark amber to near-black in colour and is very light-bodied. Its flavour is dominated by malt, sometimes with roasty notes derived from the use of malt, with a subdued hop character. Most are in the range 1. 030–1.036, Light mild is generally similar, but paler in colour. Some dark milds are created by the addition of caramel to a pale beer, until the 1960s mild was the most popular beer style in England
The Wildlife Trusts
The Wildlife Trusts, the trading name of the Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts, is an organisation made up of 47 local Wildlife Trusts in the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and Alderney. The Wildlife Trusts, between them, look after around 2,300 nature reserves covering more than 90,000 hectares, as of 2011 they have a combined membership of over 800,000 members. The Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts is an independent charity, with a membership formed of the 47 local trusts and it acts as an umbrella group for the local Wildlife Trusts, as well as operating a separate grants unit which administers a number of funds. Charles, Prince of Wales serves as the patron of the Wildlife Trusts, Wildlife Trusts are local organisations of differing size and origins, and can vary greatly in their constitution and membership. However, all wildlife trusts share a common interest in wildlife and biodiversity, rooted in a tradition of land management. Almost all county Wildlife Trusts are significant landowners, with many nature reserves, collectively they are the third largest voluntary sector landowners in the UK.
They often have extensive educational activities, and programmes of public events, the trusts rely heavily upon volunteer labour for many of their activities, but nevertheless employ significant numbers of staff in countryside management and education. Thanks to their work promoting the personal and social development of young people, the Wildlife Trusts offer a Biodiversity Benchmark scheme through which companies can be assessed and recognised for their contribution to biodiversity. The assessment covers the organisations performance under the headings of Commitment, Implementation, todays Wildlife Trust movement began life as The Society for the Promotion of Nature Reserves, which was formed by Charles Rothschild in 1912. During the early years, membership tended to be made up of specialist naturalists and its growth was comparatively slow and these early Trusts tended to focus on purchasing land to establish nature reserves in the geographical areas they served. Encouraged by the number of Trusts, the Society for the Promotion of Nature Reserves began in 1957 to discuss the possibility of forming a national federation of Naturalists Trusts.
Kent Naturalists Trust was established in 1958 with SPNR being active in encouraging its formation, in the following year the SPNR established the County Naturalists Committee, which organised the first national conference for Naturalists Trusts at Skegness in 1960. By 1964, the number of Trusts had increased to 36, in recognition of the movements growing importance, its name was changed to The Royal Society for Nature Conservation in 1981. The organisation is now known as the Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts, the movement continued to develop throughout the 1970s, and, by the early 1980s, most of todays Trusts had been established. In 1980 the first urban Wildlife Trust was established in the West Midlands, rapidly followed by others in London and this was a watershed for the movement that strengthened its focus on wildlife and people. It was during this period that some Trusts changed their names from Naturalist Societies to Trusts for Nature Conservation, the badger logo was adopted by the movement to establish its common identity.
As the number of Trusts grew, so did their combined membership, membership topped 100,000 in 1975, and in that year Wildlife Watch was launched as a childrens naturalist club. By the late 1980s membership had reached 200,000, increasing to 260,000 in 1995, the combined membership for 2007 stood at 670,000 members,108,000 belonging to the junior branch Wildlife Watch
India pale ale
India pale ale is a hoppy beer style within the broader category of pale ale. The first known use of the term India pale ale is an advertisement in the Sydney Gazette and it was referred to as pale ale as prepared for India, India ale, pale India ale, or pale export India ale. The term pale ale originally denoted an ale that had been brewed from pale malt, the pale ales of the early 18th century were lightly hopped and quite different from todays pale ales. By the mid-18th century, pale ale was brewed with coke-fired malt, which produced less smoking and roasting of barley in the malting process. One such variety of beer was October beer, a pale well-hopped brew popular among the landed classes, among the first brewers known to export beer to India was George Hodgsons Bow Brewery, on the Middlesex-Essex border. Bow Brewery beers became popular among East India Company traders in the late 18th century because of the location near the East India Docks. Ships transported Hodgsons beers to India, among them his October beer, Bow Brewery came into the control of Hodgsons son in the early 19th century, but his business practices alienated their customers.
During the same period, several Burton breweries lost their European export market in Russia when the Tsar banned the trade, at the behest of the East India Company, Allsopp brewery developed a strongly-hopped pale ale in the style of Hodgsons for export to India. Other Burton brewers, including Bass and Salt, were eager to replace their lost Russian export market, in Bombay and Bruce, Allen & Co. in Calcutta. The common story that early IPAs were much stronger than other beers of the time, while IPAs were formulated to survive long voyages by sea better than other styles of the time, porter was shipped to India and California successfully. It is clear that by the 1860s, India pale ales were brewed in England. Demand for the style of pale ale, which had become known as India pale ale, developed in England around 1840. Some brewers dropped the term India in the late 19th century, American and Canadian brewers manufactured beer with the label IPA before 1900, and records suggest that these beers were similar to English IPA of the era.
Many breweries, such as Kirkstall Brewery, sent large quantities of export beer across the world by ship to auction off to wholesalers once there. The term IPA is commonly used in the United Kingdom for low-gravity beers, for example Greene King IPA, IPAs have a long history in Canada and the United States, and many breweries there produce a version of the style. Contemporary American IPAs are typically brewed with distinctively American hops, such as Cascade, Citra, Chinook, Amarillo, Warrior, East Coast breweries rely more on spicier European hops and specialty malts than those on the West Coast. Double IPAs are a stronger, very hoppy variant of IPAs that typically have content above 7. 5% by volume. The style has been embraced by the brewers of San Diego County, California