Castro culture is the archaeological term for the material Celtic culture of the north-western regions of the Iberian Peninsula from the end of the Bronze Age until it was subsumed by Roman culture. This cultural area extended east to the Cares river and south into the lower Douro river valley and it was the result of the autonomous evolution of Atlantic Bronze Age communities, after the local collapse of the long range Atlantic network of interchange of prestige items. These villages were closely related to the settlements which characterized the first Bronze Age, frequently established near the valleys. These early hill-forts were small, being situated in hills, peninsulas or another naturally defended places, the artificial defenves were initially composed of earthen walls and ditches, which enclosed an inner habitable space. The major inner feature of these multi-functional undivided cabins were the hearth, circular or quadrangular, since the beginning of the 6th century BCE the Castro culture experienced an inner expansion, hundreds of new hill-forts were founded, while some older small ones were abandoned for new emplacements.
Sometimes, human remains have been found in cists or under the walls, not only did the number of settlements grow during this period, but their size and density. Carthaginian merchants brought imports of wine, glass and other goods through a series of emporia, commercial post which sometimes included temples and other installations. While the archaeological record of the Castro Iron Age show suggests a very egalitarian society, many of them presented an inner and upper walled space, relatively large and scarcely urbanised, called acrópole by local scholars. These oppida were generally surrounded by ditches and stone walls, up to five in Briteiros. Gates to these oppida become monumental and frequently have sculptures of warriors, Cividade de Bagunte was one of the largest cities with 50 hectares. The cities are surrounded by a number of smaller castros, some of which may have been defensive outposts of cities, such as Castro de Laundos, that was probably an outpost of Cividade de Terroso. A cividade may have been the origin of Bracara Augusta, although there are no archaeological findings apart from an ancient parish name, Bracara Augusta became the capital of the Roman province of Gallaecia, which encompassed all the lands once participant of the Castro culture.
During the next century Gallaecia was still theatre of operation for Perpenna, Julius Caesar, but only after the Romans defeated the Asturians and Cantabrians in 19 BCE is evident—thought inscriptions and other archaeological findings—the submission of the local powers to Rome. Strabo wrote, probably describing this process, until they were stopped by the Romans, pollen analyses confirms the Iron Age as a period of intense deforestation in Galicia and Northern Portugal, with meadows and fields expanding at the expense of woodland. They grew beans and cabbage, and flax for fabric and clothes production, other vegetables where collected, large quantities of acorns have been found hoarded in most hill-forts, as they were used for bread production once toasted and crushed in granite stone mills. The second pillar of local economy was animal husbandry, gallaecians bred cattle for meat and butter production, they used oxen for dragging carts and ploughs, while horses were used mainly for human transportation.
They bred sheep and goats, for meat and wool, wild animals like deer or boars were frequently chased. Archaeologists have found hooks and weights for nets, as well as open seas fish remains, mining was an integral part of the culture, and it attracted Mediterranean merchants, first Phoenicians and Romans
Denis of Portugal
Denis, called the Farmer King and the Poet King, was King of Portugal and the Algarve. The eldest son of Afonso III of Portugal by his wife, Beatrice of Castile. His marriage to Elizabeth of Aragon, who was canonised as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, was arranged in 1281 when she was 10 years old. He worked to reorganise his countrys economy and gave an impetus to Portuguese agriculture and he ordered the planting of a large pine forest near Leiria to prevent the soil degradation that threatened the region and as a source of raw materials for the construction of the royal ships. He was known for his poetry, which constitutes a major contribution to the development of Portuguese as a literary language and his policies encouraged economic development with the creation of numerous towns and trade fairs. In 1289 Denis had signed an agreement with Pope Nicholas IV, the new order was designed to be a continuation of the Order of the Temple. Denis negotiated with Clements successor, John XXII, for recognition of the new order and its right to inherit the Templar assets, during Denis reign, Lisbon became one of Europes centres of culture and learning.
The first university in Portugal, called the Estudo Geral, was founded with his signing of the document Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis in Leiria on 3 March 1290. Lectures in the arts, civil law, canon law, and medicine were given, and on 15 February 1309, the granted the university a charter. The university was moved between Lisbon and Coimbra several times, and finally installed permanently in Coimbra in 1537 by order of King John III and he patronised troubadours, and wrote lyric poetry in the troubadour tradition himself. His best-known work is the Cantigas de Amigo, a collection of songs as well as satirical songs. These poems are found in the order in the two previously known codices. As heir-apparent to the throne, Infante Denis was summoned by his father Afonso III to share governmental responsibilities. The country was again in conflict with the Catholic Church at the time, Afonso having been excommunicated in 1277, the church was favorably inclined to reach an agreement with the new monarch upon his accession to the throne.
The next year he took steps against ecclesiastical power when he promulgated amortisation laws. These prohibited the church and religious orders from buying lands, several years he issued another decree forbidding them to inherit the estates of recruits to the orders. In 1288, Denis managed to persuade Pope Nicholas IV to issue a papal Bull that separated the Order of Santiago in Portugal from that in Castile, to which it had been subordinate. With the extinction of the Knights Templar, he was able to transfer their assets in the country to the Order of Christ, Denis was essentially an administrator and not a warrior king
Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people, and mainstream scholars observed in 1911 that The term Moors has no real ethnological value. Medieval and early modern Europeans variously applied the name to Arabs, Berber North Africans and Muslim Europeans. The term has used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general, especially those of Arab or Berber descent. During the colonial era, the Portuguese introduced the names Ceylon Moors and Indian Moors in Sri Lanka, in 711, troops mostly formed by Moors from North Africa led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Iberian peninsula came to be known in classical Arabic as Al-Andalus, in 827, the Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily, developing it as a port. They eventually consolidated the rest of the island and some of southern Italy, in 1224 the Muslims were expelled from Sicily to the settlement of Lucera, which was destroyed by European Christians in 1300. The fall of Granada in 1492 marked the end of Muslim rule in Iberia, the Berber tribes of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, which was subsequently rendered as Moors in English and in related variations in other European languages.
Mauri is recorded as the name by Strabo in the early 1st century. This appellation was adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was Maurusii, in medieval Romance languages, variations of the Latin word for the Moors developed different applications and connotations. During the context of the Crusades and the Reconquista, the term Moors included the suggestion of infidels. Apart from these associations and context and Moorish designate a specific ethnic group speaking Hassaniya Arabic. They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara, Morocco, Niger, in Niger and Mali, these peoples are known as the Azawagh Arabs, after the Azawagh region of the Sahara. Some authors have pointed out that in modern colloquial Spanish use of the term moro is derogatory for Moroccans in particular, this designation has gained more acceptance in the south. In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, many modern Filipinos call the large, local Muslim minority concentrated in Mindanao, the word is a catch-all term, as Moro may come from several distinct ethno-linguistic groups such as the Maranao people.
The term was introduced by Spanish colonisers, and has since been appropriated by Filipino Muslims as an endonym, moreno can mean dark-skinned in Spain, Portugal and the Philippines. Also in Spanish, morapio is a name for wine, especially that which has not been baptized or mixed with water. Among Spanish speakers, moro came to have a broader meaning, Moro refers to all things dark, as in Moor, etc. It was used as a nickname, for instance, the Milanese Duke Ludovico Sforza was called Il Moro because of his dark complexion, in Portugal, mouro may refer to supernatural beings known as enchanted moura, where moor implies alien and non-Christian
Embroiled parties included the Kingdom of Portugal, Portuguese rebels, the United Kingdom, the Church of Rome, and Spain. The death of King João VI in 1826 created a dispute over royal succession, while Dom Pedro, the Emperor of Brazil, was the kings oldest son, his younger brother Miguel contended that Pedro had forfeited his claim to the throne by declaring Brazilian independence. Pedro briefly entitled himself Dom Pedro IV of Portugal, neither the Portuguese nor the Brazilians wanted a unified monarchy, Pedro abdicated the throne in favor of his daughter, Maria, a child of 7. In April 1826, to settle the dispute, Pedro revised the 1st constitution of Portugal granted in 1822 and left the throne to Maria. In the Portuguese Constitutional Charter, Pedro attempted to reconcile absolutists, unlike the Constitution of 1822, this new document established four branches of government. The Legislature was divided into two chambers, the upper chamber, the Chamber of Peers, was composed of life and hereditary peers and clergy appointed by the king.
Judicial power was exercised by the courts, executive power by the ministers of the government, and moderative power by the king, in February 1828, Miguel returned to Portugal, ostensibly to take the oath of allegiance to the Charter and assume the regency. He was immediately proclaimed king by his supporters, who pressed him to return to absolutism, the Cortes of 1828 assented to Miguels wish, proclaiming him king as Miguel I of Portugal and nullifying the Constitutional Charter. This alleged usurpation did not go unchallenged by the Liberals, on May 18, the garrison in Porto, the center of Portuguese progressives, declared its loyalty to Pedro, to Maria da Glória, and the Constitutional Charter. The rebellion against the spread to other cities. Miguel suppressed these rebellions, and many thousands of Liberals were either arrested or fled to Spain and Britain, there followed five years of repression. Meanwhile, in Brazil, relations between Pedro and Brazils agricultural magnates had become strained, in April 1831, Pedro abdicated in Brazil in favor of his son, Pedro II, and sailed for Britain.
He organized an expedition there and went to Terceira island in the Azores. The government of Miguel blockaded the island, but the squadron was attacked by a French squadron during the run-up to the Battle of the Tagus. To protect British interests, a squadron under Commander William Glascock in HMS Orestes was stationed in the Douro. The Duke of Terceira landed at Faro and marched north through the Alentejo to capture Lisbon on July 24, Napiers squadron encountered the absolutists fleet near Cape Saint Vincent and decisively defeated it at the fourth Battle of Cape St. Vincent. The Liberals were able to occupy Lisbon, where Pedro moved from Porto, a stalemate of nine months ensued. Towards the end of 1833, Maria da Glória was proclaimed queen and his first act was to confiscate the property of all who had served under Dom Miguel
The Umayyad Caliphate, spelled Omayyad, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca, Syria remained the Umayyads main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 11,100,000 km2 and 62 million people, the Umayyad Caliphate was secular by nature. At the time, the Umayyad taxation and administrative practice were perceived as unjust by some Muslims, Muhammad had stated explicitly during his lifetime that Abrahamic religious groups, should be allowed to practice their own religion, provided that they paid the jizya taxation. The welfare state of both the Muslim and the poor started by Umar ibn al Khattab had continued, financed by the zakat tax levied only on Muslims. Muawiyas wife Maysum was a Christian, the relations between the Muslims and the Christians in the state were stable in this time.
Prominent positions were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments, the employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious assimilation that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, as in Syria. This policy boosted Muawiyas popularity and solidified Syria as his power base, the rivalries between the Arab tribes had caused unrest in the provinces outside Syria, most notably in the Second Muslim Civil War of AD 680–692 and the Berber Revolt of 740–743. During the Second Civil War, leadership of the Umayyad clan shifted from the Sufyanid branch of the family to the Marwanid branch. A branch of the family fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, according to tradition, the Umayyad family and Muhammad both descended from a common ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, and they originally came from the city of Mecca. Muhammad descended from Abd Manāf via his son Hashim, while the Umayyads descended from Abd Manaf via a different son, Abd-Shams, the two families are therefore considered to be different clans of the same tribe.
However Muslim Shia historians suspect that Umayya was a son of Abd Shams so he was not a blood relative of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Umayya was discarded from the noble family, Sunni historians disagree with this and view Shia claims as nothing more than outright polemics due to their hostility to the Umayyad family in general. While the Umayyads and the Hashimites may have had bitterness between the two clans before Muhammad, the rivalry turned into a case of tribal animosity after the Battle of Badr. The battle saw three top leaders of the Umayyad clan killed by Hashimites in a three-on-three melee and this fueled the opposition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the grandson of Umayya, to Muhammad and to Islam. Abu Sufyan sought to exterminate the adherents of the new religion by waging another battle with Muslims based in Medina only a year after the Battle of Badr and he did this to avenge the defeat at Badr. The Battle of Uhud is generally believed by scholars to be the first defeat for the Muslims, as they had incurred greater losses than the Meccans
The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, the Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups who had invaded the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient, the Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410. The Visigoths first settled in southern Gaul as foederati of the Romans – a relationship established in 418, they soon fell out with their Roman hosts and established their own kingdom with its capital at Toulouse. They next extended their authority into Hispania at the expense of the Suebi, in 507, their rule in Gaul was ended by the Franks under Clovis I, who defeated them in the Battle of Vouillé. After that, the Visigoth kingdom was limited to Hispania, in or around 589, the Visigoths under Reccared I converted from Arianism to Nicene Christianity, gradually adopting the culture of their Hispano-Roman subjects.
Their legal code, the Visigothic Code abolished the practice of applying different laws for Romans. Once legal distinctions were no longer being made between Romani and Gothi, they became known collectively as Hispani, in the century that followed, the region was dominated by the Councils of Toledo and the episcopacy. In 711 or 712, a force of invading African Moors defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete and their king and many members of their governing elite were killed, and their kingdom rapidly collapsed. During their governance of the Kingdom of Hispania, the Visigoths built several churches that survive and they left many artifacts, which have been discovered in increasing numbers by archaeologists in recent times. The Treasure of Guarrazar of votive crowns and crosses is the most spectacular and they founded the only new cities in western Europe from the fall of the Western half of the Roman Empire until the rise of the Carolingian dynasty. Many Visigothic names are still in use in modern Spanish and Portuguese, contemporaneous references to the Gothic tribes use the terms Vesi, Ostrogothi and Greuthungi.
Most scholars have concluded that the terms Vesi and Tervingi were both used to refer to one particular tribe, while the terms Ostrogothi and Greuthungi were used to refer to another. In addition, the Notitia Dignitatum equates the Vesi with the Tervingi in a reference to the years 388–391, the earliest sources for each of the four names are roughly contemporaneous. The first recorded reference to the Tervingi is in a eulogy of the emperor Maximian, delivered in or shortly after 291 and it says that the Tervingi, another division of the Goths, joined with the Taifali to attack the Vandals and Gepidae. The first known use of the term Ostrogoths is in a document dated September 392 from Milan and this would explain why the latter terms dropped out of use shortly after 400, when the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions. Wolfram believes that the people Zosimus describes were those Tervingi who had remained behind after the Hunnic conquest, for the most part, all of the terms discriminating between different Gothic tribes gradually disappeared after they moved into the Roman Empire.
The last indication that the Goths whose king reigned at Toulouse thought of themselves as Vesi is found in a panegyric on Avitus by Sidonius Apollinaris dated 1 January 456, most recent scholars have concluded that Visigothic group identity emerged only within the Roman Empire
A gate or gateway is a point of entry to a space which is enclosed by walls. Gates may prevent or control the entry or exit of individuals, other terms for gate include yett and port. The word derives from the old Norse gata, meaning road or path, and originally referred to the gap in the wall or fence, rather than the barrier which closed it. The moving part or parts of a gateway may be called doors, a gate may have a latch to keep it from swinging and a lock for security. Larger gates can be used for a building, such as a castle or fortified town. Today, many doors are opened by an automated gate operator
Silves is a municipality in the Portuguese Algarve of southern Portugal. The population in 2011 was 37,126, in an area of 680.06 km², the urbanized area includes approximately 11,000 inhabitants. Silves is the capital of the Algarve and is of great historical importance. The region of Silves has been inhabited since the Palaeolithic, as attested by archaeological remains, the river Arade, which was navigable in historical times, linked the hinterland to the open ocean and allowed the transport of produce and commerce. The town of Silves was possibly founded during the times of Roman domination and it was probably a Lusitanian Castro in the pre-roman times, however the region was settled by other indo-european tribes, just like the Celtici and Cynetes. Silves was part of the Visigothic Kingdom, after 713, when the Moors invaded Iberia, Silves became part of the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba under the Arabic name of Shilb. In the 10th century it was one of the most important towns of western Al-Andalus, Silves became an independent taifa in 1027 under the rule of Ibn Mozaine and his son, who was dethroned in 1051 by al-Mutadid, the governor of Seville.
Al-Mutamid ibn Abbad, the son of al-Mutadid and a famous poet, after the Almoravid conquest the town became Almohad in 1156. In 1189 King Sancho I of Portugal conquered the town with the aid of Northern European crusaders, periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. The governor of Córdoba attacked Silves in 1191, and took 3,000 Christian slaves, again under Muslim rule, the city would prosper to the point of being called the Baghdad of the West. The great mosque was changed into Silves Cathedral, Silves declined in importance thereafter and was eclipsed in the region by Faro during the colonial period. In 1491, the town of Silves was given to queen Eleanora by his husband, parts of the Almohad town wall, constructed from poured concrete, have been preserved, as well as the Almedina-gate. The town is situated on a hill above the Arade River, Silves Castle is located on the top of the hill. Archaeological excavations have shown that the oldest buildings date back to the 8th century, the walls are made of red sandstone with a pisé-core and have been heavily restored in the 1940s.
Protruding towers of albarra-type protect the Northern slope, after the Christian conquest, the castle served as the seat of the alcaide-mor till the middle of the 16th century, afterwards the towers were used as a prison. The municipality is crossed by the Arade River, which was navigable in historical times and was key to the prosperity of the city of Silves, the waters of the river form the dams of Arade and Funcho. The landscape of the municipality is generally hilly, to the south the municipality borders the Atlantic Ocean. Silves is built on top of one of the largest underground aquifers in the south of Portugal, The Querença-Silves Aquifer, and has many orange groves, a fruit introduced by the Moors
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Afonso III of Portugal
Afonso III, or Affonso, Alfonso or Alphonso or Alphonsus, the Bolognian, King of Portugal was the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, from 1249. He was the son of King Afonso II of Portugal and his wife, Urraca of Castile, he succeeded his brother, King Sancho II of Portugal. As the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal, he was not expected to inherit the throne, which was destined to go to his elder brother Sancho. He lived mostly in France, where he married Matilda, the heiress of Boulogne, in 1238, thereby becoming Count of Boulogne, Mortain, in 1246, conflicts between his brother, the king, and the church became unbearable. In 1247, Pope Innocent IV ordered Sancho II to be removed from the throne, Afonso, of course, did not refuse the papal order and consequently marched to Portugal. Since Sancho was not a king and the order was not hard to enforce, he fled in exile to Toledo, Castile. Until his brothers death and his own coronation, Afonso retained and used the title of Visitador, Curador e Defensor do Reino.
In order to ascend the throne Afonso abdicated his rights to the county of Boulogne in 1248, in 1253, he divorced Matilde in order to marry Beatrice of Castile, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X, King of Castile, and Mayor Guillén de Guzmán. Determined not to make the mistakes as his brother, Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants. In 1254, in the city of Leiria, he held the first session of the Cortes, a general assembly comprising the nobility and he made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favored part of the population. Remembered as an administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others. Afonso showed extraordinary vision for the time and these may have led to his excommunication by the holy see and possibly precipitated his death, and his son Deniss premature rise to the throne at only 18 years old. Secure on the throne, Afonso III proceeded to war with the Muslim communities that still thrived in the south.
In his reign the Algarve became part of the kingdom, following the capture of Faro, following his success against the Moors, Afonso III had to deal with a political situation concerning the countrys borders with Castile. The neighbouring kingdom considered that the acquired lands of the Algarve should be Castilian, not Portuguese. Finally, in 1267, the Treaty of Badajoz was signed in Badajoz, Afonso died in Alcobaça, Coimbra or Lisbon, aged 68. Afonsos first wife was Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne, daughter of Renaud, Count of Dammartin and he divorced Matilda in 1253 and, in the same year, married Beatrice of Castile, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X, King of Castile, and Mayor Guillén de Guzmán