A rear-end collision occurs when a vehicle crashes into the one in front of it. Common factors contributing to rear-end collisions include driver inattention or distraction, panic stops, reduced traction due to wet weather or worn pavement. Rear-end rail collisions occur. Typical scenarios for rear-ends are a sudden deceleration by the first car so that the car behind it does not have time to brake and collides with it. Alternatively, the following car may accelerate more than the leading one, resulting in a collision. If two vehicles have similar physical structures, crashing into another car is equivalent to crashing into a rigid surface at half of the closing speed; this means that rear-ending a stationary car while travelling at 50 km/h is equivalent, in terms of deceleration, to crashing into a wall at 25 km/h. The same is true. However, if one of the vehicles is more rigid the deceleration is more reflected by the full closing speed for the less rigid vehicle. A typical medical consequence of rear-ends in collisions at moderate speed, is whiplash.
In more severe cases, permanent injuries such as herniation may occur. The rearmost passengers in minivans, benefiting little from the short rear crumple zone, are more to be injured or killed. For purposes of insurance and policing, the driver of the car that rear-ends the other car is always considered at fault due to following too or lack of attention. An exception is. If the driver of the car, rear-ended files a claim against the driver who hit them, the second driver could be responsible for all damages to the other driver's car. According to data from the NHTSA, the percentage of rear-end accidents in all crashes is 23–30%; the Ford Pinto received widespread concern when it was alleged that a design flaw could cause fuel-fed fires in rear-end collisions. Recent developments in automated safety systems have reduced the number of rear-end collisions. Road collision types Tailgating
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
British Rail Class 126
The British Rail Class 126 diesel multiple unit was built by BR Swindon Works in 1959/60 to work services from Glasgow to Ayrshire and comprised 22 3-car sets based on the earlier Swindon-built trainsets, introduced in 1955 to work the Edinburgh Waverley - Glasgow Queen St services. These vehicles formed the first Inter City service to be operated by diesel units in Great Britain; the introduction of these early diesel multiple units originated in a British Transport Commission report of 1952 that suggested the trial use of diesel railcars. BR's Swindon Works were chosen to design and build express units for the ex-North British Railway Edinburgh Waverley to Glasgow Queen Street route; the cars were of steel construction and featured Pullman gangways and buckeye couplings. Each power car was fitted with two AEC 150 hp underfloor engines with mechanical transmission giving a maximum speed of 70 mph. Termed "Inter-urban", this was soon changed to "Inter-City" long before that branding was used for mainline express services.
These trains had two front-end designs: either a full-width cab or a half-cab with central gangway connection. The latter "intermediate" driving car allowed through access within a six-car set. Neither end featured any destination blinds or marker lights, only a box holding a stencil indicating the train classification. Power car seating was of the "open" saloon arrangement with compartment seating in the trailers. A unique multiple working control system was employed. Unlike other classes, each power car produced its own control air supply and was thus incompatible with any other; the second batch was based on the 1956 stock. One big improvement was that the guard's van was moved to the rear of the coach giving passengers a forward view. Four-character headcode displays were fitted. Destination blinds and marker lights were not incorporated; the first series were introduced to Glasgow Queen St to Edinburgh Waverley services, including those operating via Falkirk Grahamston, in January 1957. However, the first six three-car sets worked their first three years on Western Region on Birmingham–South Wales services.
There was criticism of the lack of a forward view for passengers and of the plain "utility" appearance of the non-gangwayed cab front. The usual E. & G. formation was a six-car set with two trailers together in the centre of the train. The class stuck to this route but could appear on other services from time to time; the second series were introduced on Ayrshire Coast services in August 1959 working services to Ayr and points south including Girvan and Stranraer and coastal services to Largs and Ardrossan. These units were allocated to Ayr and were operated as 3-car half sets combining to form a full 6-car trainset; the 1970s saw. Being of a non-standard design, the class was not included in the DMU refurbishment programme and so remained in close-to-original condition; the main alteration was the plating over of the outer gangway connection on the DMS vehicles in 1979–81, following drivers' complaints of draughts. The original units on the Edinburgh - Glasgow services were displaced by push-pull services powered by top'n tail Class 27s in 1971 and all were withdrawn by 1972, except for four cars transferred to Ayr.
The Ayrshire Coast stock fared rather better, surviving intact until mass withdrawals in the early 1980s, the last two units being withdrawn in January 1983. Although used on various other routes out of Glasgow in their final years, these 126s remained identified with the Ayr line until displacement by a mixture of loco-hauled trains and other DMUs. Electrification meant that DMU operations on the Ayrshire routes ended in 1986 with the introduction of Class 318 EMUs. Five of the ex-E&G leading power cars were overhauled and exported to Liberia for use by LAMCO mining company for staff trains. Four vehicles survive in preservation, owned by the Scottish Railway Preservation Society and based at the Bo'ness & Kinneil Railway. Three of these vehicles have been overhauled and are in Apple Green livery and the buffet car is undergoing restoration, they most featured at the 2018 Winter Diesel Gala. Three others have now been cut up for spares. Swindon Diesel Preservation Society
This article deals with rail traffic controllers in Great Britain and Ireland. A signalman or signaller is an employee of a railway transport network who operates the points and signals from a signal box in order to control the movement of trains; the first signalmen called Railway Policemen, were employed in the early 19th century and used flags to communicate with each other and train drivers, hourglasses for the purpose of Time Interval Working between stations. It was a signalman's duty to check each train that passed his signal box, looking for the red tail lamp exhibited on the trailing vehicle, the sighting of which confirmed that the train was still complete, thus the section was clear; each train movement was logged, by hand, in a Train Register Book, it was normal practice to provide a special desk to support this sizeable book. As well as train movements, every communication between signalmen and adjacent signal boxes via bell codes was logged. Technological advances including mechanical fixed signals in the 1840s, the electric telegraph and block working in the 1850s, proper mechanical interlocking from 1856, allowed safer, more expeditious train working, more complicated track layouts to be controlled single-handedly.
The advent of such technological advances led to the provision of an enclosed workspace known as a signal box, signal cabin or interlocking tower. The principles of British-style railway signalling have changed little since the Victorian era and early 20th century. Modern technology has reduced the labour required per train movement. In many cases, a switch, button or computer command is used to alter the lie of points and control signals. Although many classic mechanical signal boxes remain in use, these are being replaced by modern power signalling systems on most railways; the heartlands of British-style railway signalling could be said to be the United Kingdom, New South Wales, Queensland and South Africa. The signaller's main duty is to ensure trains get from A to B safely and on time; the classic Train Register Book remains in use at most older installations, with train describers and Automatic Train Recording taking its place in more modern power signalling schemes. All trains are listed in a computer system in the UK in time order.
This system is known as TRUST. Any train can be found on here together with its route. If a train is late, it is up to the signaller to ascertain in what order the trains should run, known as regulating trains. In busy locations, signalling can be challenging and stressful, in a manner similar to air traffic control. Signallers are therefore susceptible to stress-related illness. Following protracted industrial action from unions and, much more detailed studies on fatigue and ergonomics in the rail industry, prudent operators implemented strict guidelines relating to the length and number of consecutive shifts permissible for safety-critical workers, including signallers; these guidelines are ideally aimed at improving safety and reducing fatigue at work, but the overall lifestyle of employees. In some cases, physical changes in the work environment followed these studies, including changes in the design of signal box lighting and signalling equipment; the signalman is known by various other corporate job titles, including Signaller, Area Controller and Network Controller.
In the United States, a signalman is sometimes known as such, but is known under other names, including Leverman and Switchman. At some locations, a Station master or Porter performs signalling duties in addition to other work such as selling tickets and cleaning. Although the positions of Train Controller and Signalman were always distinct from the inception of the former in 1907, Train Controllers perform work executed by Signalmen in some cases. In many railways, modern technology has seen the positions of Train Controller united. Irrespective, the classic Telephone Train Control system has been abolished, with a few exceptions. To improve the efficiency of train working, Train Controllers were progressively introduced on many British-style railways in the early years of the 20th century, the first being on the Midland Railway in 1907. Although the specifics of their duties varied between railways, Train Controllers were responsible for tracking train movements, ensuring freight trains were loaded economically and provided with suitable locomotive power, liaising with train crew rostering personnel, ordering additional trains to run for the carriage of extra freight tonnage or passengers as required, allocating paths for unscheduled services and making alterations to scheduled working in order to maximize efficiency and deal with any irregularity in traffic which may affect smooth operation.
On busy railways such as the Midland, it was at times difficult for Signalmen to keep track of train movements and make optimal traffic regulation decisions whilst operating signalling equipment. Fast trains could be delayed by slower trains on the line ahead. Moreover, there was no-one with specific responsibilities relating to the efficient, economical use of rolling stock in traffic, which made it difficult to manage the contingencies of underutilisation and allocation of inappropriate locomotive power. In the face of rising costs, operating economies were important to
Glasgow–Edinburgh via Falkirk line
The Glasgow–Edinburgh via Falkirk line is a mainline railway line linking Glasgow and Edinburgh via Falkirk in Scotland. It is the principal route out of the four rail links between Scotland's two biggest cities, hosting the flagship "Shuttle" service between Glasgow Queen Street and Edinburgh Waverley. A typical service calls at Glasgow Queen Street, Falkirk High and Edinburgh or Glasgow Queen Street, Falkirk High, Linlithgow and Edinburgh; the route has historic significance as it was Scotland's first inter-city railway, opening on 2 February 1842 as the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway. It became a key constituent of the North British Railway; the line was electrified in the 2010s. It was anticipated that electric Class 380 trains would start running from May 2017, followed by new Class 385 trains from September 2017. However, delays to the electrification project mean the 380s did not run until December 2017 and the 385s did not run until July 2018; the route serves the following places: Passenger services are operated by Abellio ScotRail.
The line is electrified. The " Shuttle" weekday day time service pattern sees a train every 15 minutes from Glasgow/Edinburgh. All trains stop at Falkirk High and Haymarket, with selected trains stopping at Croy and Linlithgow; the Sunday service sees a train every 30 minutes from Glasgow/Edinburgh with all trains calling at Falkirk High and Haymarket and a train every hour at Croy and Linlithgow. However, both Linlithgow and Polmont benefit from the Edinburgh–Dunblane line every half hour on a Sunday; as part of a review by the British Transport Commission report in 1952, the services were provided by the 1956 batch of Class 126 DMU, entering service in 1957. In 1971, the stock provided changed to locomotives fitted for Blue Star multiple working. A mixture of Class 25, Class 27 and Class 37 at each end of a rake of Mark 2 carriages through wired and piped to provide 90 mph "push-pull" working; this quickly settled down to a dedicated pool of Class 27 locomotives. In 1980, the push-pull sets were replaced by single Class 47/7s at one end of a rake of Mark 3 carriages and a DBSO operating with TDM system.
During this period, InterCity provided through services from Glasgow Queen Street to London King's Cross and various West Country destinations, resulting in the use of InterCity 125s on the route. At this time, the service operated on a half-hourly frequency with all trains stopping at Haymarket and Falkirk High, with alternate trains stopping at Polmont and Linlithgow; some peak hour trains stopped at Bishopbriggs and Croy. Sunday trains served Falkirk Grahamston. In 1984 the Polmont rail accident, where a train hit a cow on the track resulted in 13 deaths and 61 injuries, it led to a debate about the safety of push-pull trains. In the late 1980s with the electrification of the Great Eastern Main Line by British Rail, the DBSO set-up was planned for replacement with Class 158 in four and six car formations, however due to delays in deliveries and the need to release the stock for the Great Eastern Main Line, Class 156 were used for a short period, prior to being put into use on the Far North Line.
Delivery of the Class 170s since 1999 has displaced the Class 158s for other duties, including the Far North Line. Other motive power can be seen as a result of operational considerations including Classes 156 and 158. Since electrification of the line in 2017, trains are operated by Class 365s, Class 380s, Class 170s, Class 385s from July 2018. In January 2019, Class 365s were cascaded to the Edinburgh to Dunblane Line. Awdry, Christopher. Encyclopaedia of British Railway Companies. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 1-8526-0049-7. OCLC 19514063. CN 8983. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Robertson, C. J. A.. The Origins of the Scottish Railway System: 1722-1844. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-8597-6088-X. RAILSCOT on Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway "National Rail Timetable. Retrieved 24 November 2010. "National Rail Timetable. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
Glasgow to Edinburgh Lines Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway
Grantham rail accident
The Grantham rail accident occurred on 19 September 1906. An evening Sleeping-Car and Mail train from London Kings Cross to Edinburgh Waverley hauled by Ivatt'Atlantic' No 276 derailed, killing 14; the accident was never explained. No reason was established as to why the train did not stop as scheduled, or obey the Caution and Danger signals. Rolt described it as "the railway equivalent of the mystery of the Marie Celeste". Late in the night of 19 September, the Semi-Fast Mail train was due to call at Grantham; the signalman at Grantham south had his Down Distant signal at caution and the signalman at Grantham North had all of his down signals at danger to protect a goods train crossing from the up Nottingham line to the up main line - over the down main line on which the Mail was approaching. It was a clear night with patchy rain, as the Mail roared towards the station and passed the distant signal at caution; when the headlights appeared at the end of the platform, it appeared to be going much too fast to stop.
To the alarm of the postal sorters and the station staff who realised it was the Mail train, it sped towards Grantham North box where the points were set against it. A loud explosion was heard and fire lit up the entire North yard; the locomotive rode the curve, but its long tender derailed on the reverse curve following it and swept away the parapet of an underbridge for 65 yards, before falling off the edge of it. This derailed the locomotive, slung broadside across both tracks; the carriages ran down the embankment after the bridge, only the last three remained undamaged. Many explanations were put forward, such as the driver going mad, being drunk, taken ill or having a fight with the fireman; the evidence of the signalman at Grantham was that he had seen both men standing looking forward through the cab front windows calmly. The platform staff were sure that the brakes on the train were not applied and that it was travelling at over 40 mph. One possibility is that the driver had a seizure or "micro-sleep" and the inexperienced fireman did not realise until too late.
Another, proposed in 2006 in the Railway Magazine, is a brake failure due to incorrect procedures when the engine was changed at the previous stop, Peterborough. The fireman was a trainee and might have failed to reconnect the brake pipe or open the train brake cock. Automatic vacuum brakes were fitted on all passenger trains, so if any air entered the brake pipes due to a failed connection, the brakes would be automatically applied; the mystery remains, not least because a number of Great Northern footplate men testified that the approach to Grantham was unmistakable. The accident was the second in a series of three derailments due to excessive speed at night in a 16-month period; the others were at Shrewsbury. All three resulted including the footplate crews. Lists of rail accidents List of British rail accidents Newark Bay rail accident, 1958 U. S. wreck where driver's decision to speed up towards an open drawbridge is unexplained. Other derailments in which the driver's momentary loss of attention was or may have been a factor: 2016 Hoboken train crash Bourne End rail crash December 2013 Spuyten Duyvil derailment Rolt, L.
T. C.. Red for Danger. Bodley Head / David and Charles / Pan Books /Alan Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-2047-6. Hamilton, J. A. B.. British Railway Accidents of the 20th Century. George Allen and Unwin / Javelin Books. ISBN 0-7137-1973-7. Bonnett, H.: The Grantham Railcrash of 1906. Bygone Grantham, 1978. ISBN 0 906338 05 0 Nock, O. S.. Historic Railway Disasters. Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-1752-8; the Railway Magazine and October 2006 issues. "Lincolnshire County Council web page based on The Railway magazine story". Railways Archive: copy of the official report
Hall Road rail accident
The Hall Road rail accident occurred at 16:37 on 27 July 1905 at Hall Road station between Bootle and Formby north of Liverpool, operated at the time by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. The 16:30 Liverpool Exchange to Southport express collided with a local train which had departed Liverpool ten minutes earlier, and, to be turned round at Hall Road; the local train had been shunted into a siding to allow the express to pass. Either way the express struck the rear of the local train. Both drivers survived. Disasters in and around the Crosby and Nth Liverpool area Eyewitness accounts Official Report Railway Archive, accessed 28 July 2012