Newstead is a riverside suburb of the city of Brisbane, Australia. It is situated 3 kilometres north of the Brisbane central business district; the north-west portion of the suburb, centred on Breakfast Creek Road, is predominantly commercial, with the remainder of the suburb now residential. At the last census, over 67% of the households in Newstead consisted of couples without children and a further 20% were single person households. Over 82% of dwellings in the area are units and 15% are stand-alone houses. Newstead is known for trendy cafes and restaurants, upmarket studio apartments and renovated older homes with well-established gardens, it is one of the more expensive suburbs in which to purchase a property in Brisbane, with the mean unit price for the 2006 calendar year reaching $1,400,000. The suburb's present role as an up-market residential suburb belies its industrial past. Timber yards, asbestos works and woolstores once dominated the eastern side of the suburb; the tall iron structure of the No. 2 gasholder on Skyring Terrace is a remnant of the Newstead Gasworks, established in 1887 as Brisbane's second gas works.
The structure, was located at the Petrie Bight gasworks, where it was erected in 1873. The suburb was served by first horse drawn trams from 1885. From 1897 electric trams ran along Commercial Road and along Ann and Wickham Streets until April 1969. Light Street tram and bus depot was located in the suburb, it opened as a tram depot in 1885, saw its last trams in December 1968 and closed as a bus depot in the mid 1990s, making it one of Queensland's longest continually operating industrial sites. All traces of the depot and its heritage have been obliterated and the site redeveloped, although a remnant of its trackwork - a unique three way set of points - has been preserved at the Brisbane Tramway Museum. Newstead has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 199 Breakfast Creek Road: Newstead House In the 2011 census, Newstead had a population of 836 people; the median age of the Newstead population was 36 years of 1 year below the Australian median. Children aged under 15 years made up 4.2% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 16.5% of the population.
67.8% of people living in Newstead were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. The other top responses for country of birth were England 4.4%, New Zealand 3.8%, United States of America 1.9%, South Africa 1.3%, Saudi Arabia 1.1%. 81.6% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion in Newstead were No Religion 27.9%, Catholic 25.4%, Anglican 18.4%, Uniting Church 6.6%, Presbyterian and Reformed 3.1%. Brisbane Transport continues to serve the suburb by bus. A cross river ferry operated by Brisbane Transport, links the suburb to Bulimba; the suburb is linked to the city by "City Cat" catamaran ferry service. The suburb was served by a Queensland railways train line, which branched off the main north coast line at Bowen Hills and descended towards the river and Breakfast Creek Road, crossing it to reach the industry, wool stores and wharves along the river; the line closed on March 31, 1990. Some remnants of the rail line have been preserved in the wool stores precinct.
Pride of the suburb is Newstead House, Brisbane’s oldest existing home, built for pioneer Darling Downs squatter Patrick Leslie in 1846. It is set in superb grounds overlooking the mouth of the creek and is within easy walking distance of the famed Breakfast Creek Hotel - a flamboyant Victorian structure, described as'the soul of Brisbane'. Newstead House’s glory days came during the time of the residence of Captain John Clements Wickham, the official resident and magistrate of the Moreton Bay settlement and a noted and gracious host. Wickham had been Commander of HMS Beagle, made famous by its association with Charles Darwin. Teneriffe, Queensland University of Queensland: Queensland Places:Newstead "Newstead". BRISbites. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 21 July 2008. "Newstead". Our Brisbane. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 6 September 2007. Apartment information for Newstead
Sir Terence David John Pratchett was an English author of fantasy novels comical works. He is best known for his Discworld series of 41 novels. Pratchett's first novel, The Carpet People, was published in 1971; the first Discworld novel, The Colour of Magic, was published in 1983, after which Pratchett wrote an average of two books a year. His 2011 Discworld novel Snuff became the third-fastest-selling hardback adult-readership novel since records began in the UK, selling 55,000 copies in the first three days; the final Discworld novel, The Shepherd's Crown, was published in August 2015, five months after his death. Pratchett, with more than 85 million books sold worldwide in 37 languages, was the UK's best-selling author of the 1990s, he was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1998 and was knighted for services to literature in the 2009 New Year Honours. In 2001 he won the annual Carnegie Medal for The Amazing Maurice and his Educated Rodents, the first Discworld book marketed for children.
He received the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement in 2010. In December 2007, Pratchett announced that he had been diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, he made a substantial public donation to the Alzheimer's Research Trust, filmed a television programme chronicling his experiences with the condition for the BBC, became a patron for Alzheimer's Research UK. Pratchett died on 12 March 2015 aged 66. Pratchett was born on 28 April 1948 in Beaconsfield in Buckinghamshire, the only child of David and Eileen Pratchett, of Hay-on-Wye, his family moved to Bridgwater, Somerset in 1957, following which he passed his eleven plus exam in 1959, earning a place in High Wycombe Technical High School where he was a key member of the debating society and wrote stories for the school magazine. Pratchett described himself as a "non-descript student" and, in his Who's Who entry, credits his education to the Beaconsfield Public Library, his maternal grandparents came from Ireland. His early interests included astronomy.
He collected Brooke Bond tea cards about space, owned a telescope and wanted to be an astronomer but lacked the necessary mathematical skills. He developed an interest in reading science fiction and began attending science fiction conventions from about 1963–1964, but stopped when he got his first job a few years later, his early reading included the works of H. G. Wells, Arthur Conan Doyle, "every book you ought to read", which he regarded as "getting an education". Pratchett published his first short story entitled "Business Rivals" in the High Wycombe Technical School magazine in 1962, it is the tale of a man named Crucible who finds the Devil in his flat in a cloud of sulphurous smoke. "The Hades Business", published in the school magazine when he was 13, was published commercially when he was 15. Pratchett earned five O-levels and started A-level courses in Art and History, his initial career choice was journalism and he left school at 17, in 1965, to start an apprenticeship with Arthur Church, the editor of the Bucks Free Press, where he wrote, amongst other things, over eighty stories for the Children's Circle section under the name Uncle Jim.
Two of these episodic stories contain. While on day release from his apprenticeship he finished his A-Level in English and took the National Council for the Training of Journalists proficiency course where he received the highest marks of his group. Pratchett had his writing breakthrough in 1968 when he interviewed Peter Bander van Duren, co-director of a small publishing company, Colin Smythe Ltd. During the meeting, Pratchett mentioned he had written The Carpet People. Colin Smythe Ltd published the book with illustrations by the author; the book received strong, if few and was followed by the science fiction novels The Dark Side of the Sun and Strata. After various positions in journalism, in 1980 Pratchett became Press Officer for the Central Electricity Generating Board in an area which covered four nuclear power stations, he joked that he had demonstrated "impeccable timing" by making this career change so soon after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in Pennsylvania, US, said he would "write a book about my experiences, if I thought anyone would believe it".
The first Discworld novel, The Colour of Magic, was published in hardback by Colin Smythe Ltd in 1983. The paperback edition was published by Corgi, an imprint of Transworld, in 1985. Pratchett's popularity increased when the BBC's Woman's Hour broadcast The Colour of Magic as a serial in six parts, Equal Rites. Subsequently, the hardback rights were taken by the publishing house Victor Gollancz Ltd, which remained Pratchett's publisher until 1997, Colin Smythe having become Pratchett's agent. Pratchett was the first fantasy author published by Gollancz. Pratchett gave up working for the CEGB to make his living through writing in 1987, after finishing the fourth Discworld novel, Mort, his sales increased and many of his books occupied top places on the best-seller list. According to The Times, Pratchett was the top-selling and highest earning UK author in 1996; some of his books have been published by another Transworld imprint. In the US, Pratchett is published by HarperCollins. According to the Bookseller's Pocket Yearbook, in 2003 Pratchett's UK sales amounted to 3.4% of the fiction market by hardback sales and 3.8% by value, putting him in second place behind J. K. Rowling, whil
Graham Alan Gooch, is a former English first-class cricketer who captained Essex and England. He was one of the most successful international batsmen of his generation, through a career spanning from 1973 until 2000, he became the most prolific run scorer of all time, with 67,057 runs across first-class and limited-overs games, his List A cricket tally of 22,211 runs is a record. He is one of only twenty-five players to have scored over 100 first-class centuries. Internationally, despite being banned for three years following a rebel tour to ostracized South Africa, Gooch is the second highest Test run scorer for England, his playing years spanned much of the period of domination by the West Indies, against whom his mid-forties batting average is regarded as creditable. His score of 154 against them at Headingley in 1991 is regarded as one of the greatest centuries of all time by many critics and former players, his career-best score of 333 – added to his second innings century – remains the highest match aggregate at Lord's.
He is the first to make 20 Test appearances at Lord’s. As captain, Matthew Engel noted, "his fanatical fitness and work-ethic gave the team more purpose than it had shown in a decade."After 118 Tests, aged forty-two, he retired into coaching and as team selector, before becoming a commentator. In 2009 he was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame, he returned to coach Essex, before becoming England batting coach in 2012. Gooch was born in Whipps Cross University Hospital, Essex, he was educated in Leyton. Gooch played first-class cricket between 1973 and 1997. Famous for his upright stance, a high bat-lift and heavy bat he became one of the most prolific run scorers top-class cricket has seen. On 8 November 2011, he received an honorary award from University of East London. Gooch made his debut in Test cricket in 1975 at 21 against the touring Australia side captained by Ian Chappell, his debut was not a great success as Gooch got a pair, England lost the first Test by an innings and 85 runs.
In the second Ashes Test in the series he scored 6 and 31 and was dropped from the side. He was not selected again until 1978 where his scoring rate for Essex meant that he could not be ignored and he became a mainstay in the England line-up. In 1980 he was awarded the Wisden Cricketer of the Year. Gooch had a further hiatus in his career when he went on the controversial 1982 South African rebel tour, which resulted in all of the players concerned, including Geoff Boycott, Alan Knott and Bob Woolmer, being banned from Test cricket for three years. Geoffrey Boycott was perceived as the key player organising the tour party but it was Graham Gooch who captained the team who gained the most media attention and in some cases vilification. Gooch was not handed the captaincy, it could be argued that more attention was on Gooch however as he was reaching his peak as a Test Player, others were in the twilight years of their cricket careers and so the ban was arguably felt more acutely by the captain.
Gooch claimed in the film "Out of the Wilderness" that'others' decided he "had no place in England cricket", hence his decision to join the tour. Upon the expiration of the ban, Gooch was restored to the England team in 1985. Opting to miss the 1986–87 tour of Australia for personal reasons, a severe loss of form resulted in failing to win back his England place for the 1987 summer and Test series against Pakistan – indeed at one stage he was dropped to the Second XI at Essex: but his form returned at the end of the summer, with a superb century in the MCC Bicentennial match, he returned to the England team for the Cricket World Cup in India and Pakistan, the subsequent winter tour of Pakistan. His career blossomed after being appointed captain, a position he held twice: firstly, at the end of the "summer of four captains" in 1988, as a replacement for the injured Chris Cowdrey. In his first match, England at least showed some spirit, taking a first-innings lead for the only time in the series: but Gooch's second-innings 84 stood alone as the rest of the batting collapsed, England losing the match.
His second match, the one-off Test against Sri Lanka, was won, all seemed fair for Gooch to remain as captain for the tour of India that winter. But that tour was cancelled over the Indian government's refusal to grant visas to the eight players who had sporting links with South Africa, including Gooch himself. Gower was thus returned as captain for the losing 1989 Ashes series – in which, for a second time, Gooch's loss of form with the bat resulted in his being dropped, by his own request this time. After Gower's resignation following the 4–0 Ashes defeat of 1989, the loss of a large number of players with Test experience to a second rebel tour of South Africa under Gatting, Gooch was re-appointed captain for the 1989–90 winter tour of the West Indies. England unexpectedly won the first Test, England's first victory over the Windies since 1973 and came close to winning the 3rd. However, Gooch suffered a broken hand and missed the rest of the tour – England lost the two remaining matches and the series.
Returning for the summer of 1990, Gooch had a golden summer both as batsman and captain against India and New Zealand, scoring runs at will. Gooch scored a record 456 runs in the Lord's Test against India in 1990, 333 in the first innings and 123 in the second. Kumar Sangakkara of Sri Lanka is the only other player to score a triple century in the first innings and a century in the second innings
Professional Bull Riders
Professional Bull Riders, Inc. is an international professional bull riding organization based in Pueblo, United States. In the United States, Professional Bull Riders events have been televised on CBS and CBS Sports Network since 2013. More than 600 cowboys from the United States, Mexico, Brazil and other countries hold PBR memberships. More than 600 cowboys from the United States, Mexico, Brazil and other countries hold PBR memberships; these bull riders compete on over 300 televised events around the world. Every bull rider's dream is to qualify for the PBR World Finals; the champion receives a $20,000 belt buckle. There are 1,200 or more bull riders who compete in competitions sanctioned by the PBR in five countries: Australia, Canada and the United States; the PBR has become one of the most globally successful television sports programs. The PBR elite tour is televised weekly on CBS Sports, CBS Sports Network, other networks around the globe. PBR television broadcasts now reach half a billion households in 130 territories around the world.
A new digital network named RidePass that will start in February 2018 will add hundreds of hours of bull riding and other western sports to anytime availability. From 2007–2010, the PBR hosted a team competition format called the PBR World Cup, where 25 bull riders competed to win the title of best bull rider in the world. In 2017, a new event, the PBR Global Cup, again offers bull riders a chance to compete in a five country competition; this new event is a different format from the PBR World Cup. It's staged annually across five countries: Australia, Canada and United States. National team riders are matched against the best of each; the home country is granted a competitive advantage. It's a series that visits each nation each year and continues until one nation holds all five pieces of the Global Cup—including the native soil of each territory. Thus, only one country can claim The Toughest Nation on Dirt. Total viewership, including event attendees and the television audience, grew 52 percent between 2002 and 2004.
In 2004, 16.4 million fans attended a PBR event. By 2008, over 100 million watched the PBR on television, over 1.7 million attended a live event. In 1995 310,000 fans attended an event. Now, around 3 million fans attend a live event. Canada, Brazil and Mexico each have their own PBR tours, points earned on those tours count towards the U. S. qualifier a spot in the PBR World Finals. Some events are held in New Zealand as well. A qualified ride is worth up to 100 points; that is, 50 points for the rider and 50 points for the bull when he rides the bull for 8 seconds. An event has four judges; each judge may award up to 25 points. Two judges score the rider, two judges score the bull. All of the judge's scores are tallied together; that figure is divided by two for the official score. One-half of the possible score is based on the bull's performance; the two judge's score the bull on how rank he is. Two judges score the rider; the rider has to stay on top of the bull for 8 seconds. The rider has to ride with one free hand.
He is disqualified if he touches the bull with his free arm. Any ride, scored 90 points or higher is deemed exceptional; the highest score in the PBR 96.5 points, shared by three riders. Each elite series always has four judges. At the end of each event, the top 15 riders compete in the Championship Round. Heroes and Legends Celebrations have their own article Heroes and Legends Celebrations which lists the Ring of Honor, Brand of Honor, Jim Shoulders Award, Ty Murray Top Hand Award, the Sharon Shoulders Award; the Ring of Honor for bull riders is equivalent to a hall of fame induction. The PBR started their inaugural season in 1994 with one tour. Today, it offers three tours and eligibility of contestants at each level is based on previous performance. Starting in 2018, the elite series tour became known as the Unleash the Beast Series; the UTB opens at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York, in January every season as always. The UTB is where the best riders and bulls compete, it culminates in the PBR World Finals at the end of the year, which take place in Las Vegas, Nevada, at the T-Mobile Arena.
The Velocity Tour features young and up-coming talent competing against the established talent of the sport. The tour brings events to cities across the U. S. that are not included in the. The Finals take place in Las Vegas, just before the PBR World Finals each year; the Velocity Tour offers the chance to earn points to attempt to qualify for the UTB and the PBR World Finals. Additionally, every winner of a Velocity Tour regular-season event will be seeded at one UTB event during the season, providing another opportunity for the PBR’s newer talent to increase their position in the overall world standings. On January 1, 2010, the PBR announced a new minor tour; this new tour, the Touring Pro Division, replaced the Challenger and the Discovery Tours. Like the lower level tours it replaced, it offers up-and-coming bull riders and others not in BFTS events the ability to compete in PBR events so they can attempt to earn money to qualify for the elite series and the PBR World Finals.. and The PBR web site tracks many statistics regarding the performances of bull riders and bulls during the season and throughout its history.
There is the 90-Points Club, tracking rides that have been
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar
Ipswich and Rosewood railway line
The Ipswich and Rosewood line refers to the section of the Main Line to Toowoomba that has a regular suburban rail service, extending southwest from the Brisbane central business district. It is part of the Queensland Rail City network; the Main Line railway from Ipswich to Brisbane was opened in 1876, as part of an extension of the first railway line from Ipswich to Bigge's Camp on 31 July 1865. Built as single track, the section was duplicated from 1885–87, indicating how the traffic volume grew on the line; the Albert Bridge was built to accommodate two tracks in 1876. The line west of Ipswich was duplicated to Wulkuraka in 1902 and to Grandchester in 1913; the section from Roma Street to Corinda was quadruplicated in 1963, extended to Darra in 2011, which became the junction for the first section of the new Springfield line at that time. The Roma Street–Darra section was the first section electrified in 1979, with the section to Ipswich electrified in 1980; the line was electrified from Ipswich to Rosewood in 1993 while Minister for Transport was the local member.
The Brisbane Valley railway line, branching from the Main Line after Wulkuraka railway station, was opened to Lowood in 1884, Esk in 1886, Yarraman in 1913. Passenger services operated to Toogoolawah until 1989, freight services until closure of the line in sections in 1988 and 1993. A line to Marburg opened in 1912, branching from the Main Line 380 m east of Rosewood railway station, it was closed in sections from 1964 to 1995, some of it is today the Rosewood Railway Museum. A line to a coal loading balloon loop at Ebenezer was opened in 1990, junctioning from the Main Line west of Thagoona railway station; the initial section of the Springfield railway line from Darra to Richlands was opened one week early in January 2011 to assist with transportation when the Main Line between Darra and Ipswich was closed due to severe flooding. The Richlands–Springfield section opened in 2013. A new branch line has been proposed on an alignment extending south from Ipswich to Yamanto east to Ripley, connecting with the Springfield line.
Most services stop at all stations to Bowen Hills railway station. The typical travel time between Ipswich and Brisbane City is 58 minutes. Rosewood services act as a shuttle between Rosewood and Ipswich stations, with selected peak direction services continuing through Ipswich; the typical travel time between Rosewood and Ipswich is 18 minutes. During weekday peak times, a number of the Ipswich services skip stations between Darra and Milton, stopping only at Indooroopilly for faster travel times for commuters working in the Brisbane central business district. Passengers for/from the Rosewood line change at Ipswich, Gold Coast and Cleveland lines at Roma Street, all other lines at Bowen Hills; the Corinda–Yeerongpilly railway line known as the Tennyson line, connects the Beenleigh and Ipswich lines for coal and intermodal freight services to the Port of Brisbane and Acacia Ridge intermodal terminal. It was the only connection between the northern and southern portions of the Brisbane suburban network until the Merivale Bridge opened in 1978.
Commuter services were suspended in 2011 due to low patronage. TransLink - About trains Translink railway network map
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast. It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer, or by a variety of traditional methods such as communally by the indigenous peoples in Brazil when making cauim. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies; the basic ingredients of beer are a fermentable starch source such as malted barley. Most beer is flavoured with hops. Less used starch sources include millet and cassava. Secondary sources, such as maize, rice, or sugar, may be used, sometimes to reduce cost, or to add a feature, such as adding wheat to aid in retaining the foamy head of the beer; the proportion of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill.
Steps in the brewing process include malting, mashing, boiling, conditioning and packaging. There are three main fermentation methods, warm and spontaneous. Fermentation may take place in an closed fermenting vessel. There are several additional brewing methods, such as barrel aging, double dropping, Yorkshire Square. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, archaeological evidence suggests emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Descriptions of various beer recipes can be found in cuneiform from ancient Mesopotamia. In Mesopotamia the brewer's craft was the only profession which derived social sanction and divine protection from female deities/goddesses, specifically: Ninkasi, who covered the production of beer, used in a metonymic way to refer to beer, Siduri, who covered the enjoyment of beer. In pre-industrial times, in developing countries, women are the main brewers; as any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like beverages were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal.
Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced as far back as about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran. This discovery reveals one of the earliest known uses of fermentation and is the earliest evidence of brewing to date. In Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6,000-year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people drinking a beverage through reed straws from a communal bowl. A 3900-year-old Sumerian poem honouring Ninkasi, the patron goddess of brewing, contains the oldest surviving beer recipe, describing the production of beer from barley via bread; the invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization. The earliest chemically confirmed barley beer to date was discovered at Godin Tepe in the central Zagros Mountains of Iran, where fragments of a jug, at least 5,000 years old was found to be coated with beerstone, a by-product of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 5,000 years ago, was brewed on a domestic scale.
Ale produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century; the development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. More than 133 billion litres are sold per year—producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion in 2006. The basic ingredients of beer are water. A mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary saccharide, such as maize, rice, or sugar being termed an adjunct when used as a lower-cost substitute for malted barley.
Less used starch sources include millet and cassava root in Africa, potato in Brazil, agave in Mexico, among others. The amount of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill. WaterBeer is composed of water. Regions have water with different mineral components. For example, Dublin has hard water well suited to making stout, such as Guinness; the waters of Burton in England contain gypsum, which benefits making pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will add gypsum to the local water in a process known as Burtonisation. Starch source The starch source in a beer provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer; the most common starch source used in bee