United Utilities Group plc, the United Kingdom's largest listed water company, was founded in 1995 as a result of the merger of North West Water and NORWEB. The group manages the regulated water and waste water network in North West England, which includes Cumbria, Greater Manchester and Merseyside, which have a combined population of nearly seven million; the United Utilities Group was the distribution network operator for the North West until 2010, when the electricity subsidiary was sold to Electricity North West. United Utilities' headquarters are in Warrington and the company has 5,300 direct employees, its shares are listed on the FTSE 100 Index. North West England is the wettest region in England, water hardness across the region is soft to soft. In 1990, North West Water and NORWEB, the companies responsible for the provision of water and electricity to the North West, were privatised. In 1995, they retained their separate identities. In January 1998, United Utilities listed on the New York Stock Exchange, but delisted its shares in May 2007.
In 2000, the North West Water and NORWEB branding was phased out in favour of United Utilities, the rebranding was completed by the end of 2001. The company sold some of the businesses it had acquired, its telecoms business, Your Communications was sold in February 2006, Vertex in March 2007. In December 2007, United Utilities sold its electricity distribution network assets to North West Electricity Networks Limitied, a joint venture between funds run by Colonial First State and investment bank JPMorgan Chase. Electricity North West became the licensed Distribution Network Operator for the north west of England as a result. United Utilities operated and maintained the network on behalf of Electricity Northwest until 2010, when Electricity Northwest bought the electricity network operations and maintenance arm of United Utilities to establish one Group. In October 2011, United Utilities was selected as the preferred bidder by Severn Trent Water to purchase the Lake Vyrnwy estate for £11 million.
In February 2012, United Utilities proposed a national water pipeline linking water sources in Manchester to London. In April 2016, United Utilities received an 18-year loan of £500m from The European Investment Bank to support investment across the North West. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority granted United Utilities and Severn Trent Water approval to create a new joint venture company in preparation for the water market deregulation. In June 2016, United Utilities and Severn Trent Water formed Water Plus, in readiness to provide the retail services for their non household customers. United Utilities owns 184 reservoirs and is responsible for the provision and maintenance of water supply in the region; some reservoirs operated by the company are outside the North West such as the Longdendale Chain in Derbyshire, which were constructed by the Manchester Corporation in the 19th century, remain networked to the North West's water supply. United Utilities operates wastewater networks.
In North West England it is investing £3.6 billion between 2010–2015 to meet ever-increasing water quality standards, deliver environmental improvements and make their network more reliable. On 7 August 2015, United Utilities announced that cryptosporidium, a water borne parasite that can cause diarrhoea and vomiting, had been detected in the water supply to Blackpool, Fylde, South Ribble and Wyre affecting more than 300,000 customers. No cases of cryptosporidiosis were reported and the introduction of ultra-violet treatment units resulted in "boil water" notices being lifted in some areas. Investigations by UU and the Drinking Water Inspectorate had not identified the cause but work continued to remove it. On 6 September, the water supply was declared free from contamination, restrictions were lifted. United Utilities was subsequently fined £300,000 at Preston Crown Court on 10 October 2017 for supplying water unfit for human consumption, with an additional £150,000 costs, it paid around £18 million in compensation to its customers.
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Metropolitan Borough of Oldham
The Metropolitan Borough of Oldham is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England. It has a population of 233,800, spans 55 square miles; the borough is named after its largest town, but includes the outlying towns of Chadderton, Failsworth and Shaw and Crompton, the village of Lees, the parish of Saddleworth. Although a 20th-century creation, the borough has Bronze Age and Roman heritage, it encompasses several former mill towns, which expanded and coalesced during the late 19th century as a result of population growth and advances in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Although some parts contiguous with the city of Manchester are industrialised and densely populated, about two-thirds of the borough is composed of rural open space. For its first 12 years the borough had a two-tier system of local government. Since the Local Government Act 1985 Oldham Council has been a unitary authority, serving as the sole executive and legislative body responsible for local policy, setting council tax, allocating budget in the district.
The Metropolitan Borough of Oldham has 20 electoral wards. Noted as one of the more unpopular amalgamations of territory created by local government reform in the 1970s, the Oldham borough underwent a £100,000 rebranding exercise in early 2008; the town has no listed buildings with a Grade I rating, the borough's architecture has been described as "mediocre". There have been calls for the borough to be renamed, but that possibility was dismissed during the rebranding of 2008. Part of Oldham is rural and semi-rural, with a quarter of the borough lying within the Peak District National Park, it has high-density urban areas and suburbs and is a ‘Gateway to the Pennines’, located between the cities of Manchester and Leeds. The Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale lies to the north-west, the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees to the east, the Metropolitan Borough of Tameside to the south; the City of Manchester lies directly to the south west and the Derbyshire Borough of High Peak lies directly to the south east, but Derbyshire is only bordered by high moorland near Black Hill and is not accessible by road.
Following both the Local Government Act 1888 and Local Government Act 1894, local government in England had been administered via a national framework of rural districts, urban districts, municipal boroughs and county boroughs, shared power with strategic county councils of the administrative counties. The areas that were incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham in 1974 had formed part of Chadderton Urban District, Crompton Urban District, Failsworth Urban District, Lees Urban District and Royton Urban District from the administrative county of Lancashire, Saddleworth Urban District from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the politically independent County Borough of Oldham. By the early 1970s, this system of demarcation was described as "archaic" and "grossly inadequate to keep pace both with the impact of motor travel, with the huge increases in local government responsibilities". After the exploration of reform, such as the proposals made by the Redcliffe-Maud Report in the late 1960s, the Local Government Act 1972 restructured local government in England by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country.
The act formally established the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham as a local government district of the new metropolitan county of Greater Manchester on 1 April 1974. The district was granted honorific borough status on 23 November 1973 by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, which allowed the council to have a mayor; the new dual local authorities of Oldham Metropolitan Borough Council and Greater Manchester County Council had been running since elections in 1973 however. The leading article in The Times on the day the Local Government Act came into effect noted that the "new arrangement is a compromise which seeks to reconcile familiar geography which commands a certain amount of affection and loyalty, with the scale of operations on which modern planning methods can work effectively"; the borough is noted as one of the more unpopular amalgamations of territory created by local government reform in the 1970s. This being true of residents of the parish of Saddleworth who viewed the new arrangement as a "retrograde step".
It had been proposed in a government White paper that the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham include the former mill town of Middleton. However this was given to the Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale once it was decided that Rochdale and Bury would not be merged. Before its creation, it was suggested that the metropolitan borough be named New Oldham, but, rejected. In the early 20th century, following some exchanges of land, there were attempts to amalgamate Chadderton Urban District with the County Borough of Oldham. However, this was resisted by councillors from Chadderton Urban District Council; the Oldham borough underwent a rebranding exercise in 2008 with a view to improving cross-community unity. Officials believed the borough's image was outdated and that "often negative" national media coverage held and continues to hold back businesses and hampers attempts to attract new investors and external funding. There had been calls for the borough to be renamed to a "settlement-neutral" name as part of the rebranding.
However, consultants cited that this idea came from a "vocal minority" wishing to distance themselves
Scouthead is a hamlet within Saddleworth, a civil parish of the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, in Greater Manchester, England. It is traversed by the A62 road, occupies a hillside amongst the Pennines. A part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Scouthead stands on the old Wool Road between Lancashire and Yorkshire and contains several hostelries which were once important staging posts along the road. Scouthead hosts an annual band contest on Whit Friday. Scouthead occupies outlying land to the east of the Waterhead area of Oldham, Austerlands area of Saddleworth. For purposes of the Office for National Statistics, Scouthead forms the eastern fringe of the Greater Manchester Urban Area; the 350 is the main bus service running through Scouthead. It runs from Oldham bus station to Ashton bus station via Saddleworth, covering its major roads and villages; the service runs every half an hour Monday to Saturday, every hour on Sunday. A more minor service is the 82, which ends at Manchester Piccadilly Gardens.
This only runs at rush - hour times, runs for people in the villages of Delph and Springhead, as the main Manchester services, 180 and 184, don't cover them. The 353 running from Ashton to Delph was once extended to Oldham in the evenings, but because the 350 runs now more this stopped to run to Delph only as part of the major revision services in 2004
Grotton is an residential area in Saddleworth, a civil parish of the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, in Greater Manchester, England. Grotton is a suburb of the town of Oldham, located along the A669 road, forms a continuous urban area with Austerlands and Springhead, which in turn link to Lees and Oldham, all of which are to Grotton's west; the village of Grotton is not to be confused with the fictional County and Borough of the same name and the same location, nor is it to be confused with the fictional village of Grotton which has the same name and is in a similar location. Additionally, it should not be confused with the city of Groton which shares a similar name but different location, it should not be confused with the fictional, coastal gambling resort of Grotton which has the same name but is based in an different location. A part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Grotton was anciently a rural hamlet close to the boundary with Lancashire, was centred on Grotton Hall, a former manor house.
Although some buildings date from the 17th and 18th century, the urbanisation of Grotton broadly took place following the Industrial Revolution. Before the inter-war residential development, Grotton was home to light industry, including a brickworks and a couple of textile mills. All of these are now demolished; the former railway line to Oldham Mumps railway station has been converted into a linear country park, providing a traffic-free walk for most of the way into Oldham. The old Grotton and Springhead railway station is preserved; the platforms are visible, the buildings are now a private house. East of Grotton, the line ran to join the current trans-pennine railway line at Greenfield railway station, but while it is possible to walk east from the station to the western portal of Lydgate Tunnel, the tunnel itself is blocked off and impassable, although it is maintained by the former British Railways Property Board in order to prevent subsidence. Listed buildings in Saddleworth
Greater Manchester Police
Greater Manchester Police is the police force responsible for law enforcement within the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester in North West England. GMP is the fifth largest police service in the United Kingdom after the Metropolitan Police Service, Police Scotland, Police Service of Northern Ireland and West Midlands Police; as of September 2017, Greater Manchester Police employed. The GMP headquarters are at Central Park, on Northampton Road, in the Newton Heath area of Manchester. Greater Manchester Police was directly created from two amalgamated city police forces and Salford Police and parts of what were Lancashire Constabulary, Cheshire Constabulary and West Yorkshire Constabulary on 1st April 1974; the city forces were Manchester Borough Police which formed in the late 1830s and Salford Borough Police which began in 1844. Upon Manchester gaining city status in 1853, its police force changed its name to Manchester City Police to reflect its status. In 1926, Salford became a city, resulting in Salford Borough Police becoming Salford City Police.
These two city forces operated until 1968 when, as a result of compulsory amalgamation, as per the Police Act 1964, Salford City Police merged with Manchester City Police, resulting in the new force of Manchester and Salford Police. This new force lasted only 6 years, when in 1974 the Local Government Act 1972 created the Metropolitan County of Greater Manchester and with it, Greater Manchester Police. An increase of 284,241 acres in terms of policing area and 2,267,090 people over the abolished Manchester and Salford Police. Indirectly GMP can trace its heritage to a number of other borough forces, each with their own significant history, abolished in the late 1960s and, amalgamated into the county forces of Lancashire and Cheshire; these two county forces only policed these boroughs for around 6 years before Greater Manchester was created and GMP took over responsibility for providing police services. In the historic Lancashire county area these borough police forces were Bolton Borough Police, Oldham Borough Police, Rochdale Borough Police and Wigan Borough Police.
In the historic Cheshire county area this included Stockport Borough Police. The first Chief Constable of GMP was William James Richards. Richards had been the chief constable of the short lived Manchester and Salford Police and before that chief constable of Manchester City Police. Following his retirement on 30 June 1976, James Anderton became the new chief constable on 1 July 1976. James Anderton was a controversial figure during his 15 years in office due to his outspoken style of leadership and hardline views on crime and morality. In 1991 David Wilmot succeeded James Anderton. In 2002 Michael Todd was appointed to Chief Constable until his death, by suicide, in 2008. There was much press coverage of the death of the Chief Constable Michael J. Todd in March 2008. Todd was seen as a man of action and got more "bobbies on the beat", with himself doing so. GMP's Assistant Chief Constable became the Acting Chief Constable until the appointment of Peter Fahy head of Cheshire Police, as Chief Constable in September 2008.
Police Constable Ian Rodgers was the first GMP officer to be killed in the line of duty in 1975. His death occurred in a railway incident at Stockport. Since the formation of GMP 20 officers have been died in the line of duty. GMP assisted with the reconstruction of Manchester following the 1996 Manchester bombing, with Garry Shewan. In the 1990s, Manchester had gained the deriding tag of'Gunchester', in reference to the city's high gun crime rate at the time. Greater Manchester Police faced the problem of gun crime in Manchester in the deprived districts in south Manchester. Key gang leaders were jailed for life in 2009 and by 2011, the city had shaken off the tag. On 14 October 2010, Greater Manchester Police posted details of all calls made to them in a 24-hour period on Twitter; the service posted details of every incident reported to its officers in 24 hours to demonstrate how much of their time is spent on what the Chief Constable called "social work" instead of fighting crime. They repeated this exercise on 14 October 2014.
GMP have used social media as a helpful force rather than a hindrance. In the 2011 England riots, with criticism of the role social media such as Twitter and Facebook had in instigating the riots, GMP stated that support on social media had resulted in many responses from members of the public in trying to catch suspects. GMP naming and shamed any convicted individuals over the riots. From November 2012 to May 2017 the Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner was Tony Lloyd; the police and crime commissioner was scrutinised by the Greater Manchester Police and Crime Panel, made up of elected councillors from the local authorities in the police area. Before November 2012 the Greater Manchester Police Authority was the police governance. However, under new plans for an elected Mayor of Greater Manchester announced by George Osborne in November 2014, the position of Police and Crime Commissioner was removed and its responsibilities subsumed into the mayoral office; the first Mayoral election took place in 2017, in which Andy Burnham was elected Mayor of Greater Manchester.
The area GMP polices is split into geographical divisions, with each Metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester being assigned one. As of 2016, the two divisions covering the City of Manchester were merged, form
Saddleworth is a civil parish of the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham in Greater Manchester, England. It comprises hamlets as well as suburbs of Oldham. Amongst the west side of the Pennine hills: Austerlands, Denshaw, Dobcross, Grasscroft, Grotton, Scouthead, Uppermill. Saddleworth lies 11 miles northeast of Manchester, it is broadly rural and had a population of 25,460 at the 2011 Census, making it one of the larger civil parishes in the United Kingdom. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, for centuries Saddleworth was a centre of woollen cloth production in the domestic system. Following the Industrial Revolution, in the 18th and 19th centuries, Saddleworth became a centre for cotton spinning and weaving. By the end of Queen Victoria's reign, mechanised textile production had become a vital part of the local economy; the Royal George Mill, owned by the Whitehead family, manufactured felt used for pianofortes, billiard tables and flags. Following the Great Depression Saddleworth's textile sector declined.
Much of Saddleworth's architecture and infrastructure dates from its textile processing days however, notably the Saddleworth Viaduct and several cottages and terraces, many built by the local mill owners. For centuries Saddleworth was linked, with the parish of Rochdale and was long talked of as the part of Yorkshire where Lancastrians lived; the former Saddleworth Urban District was the only part of the West Riding to have been amalgamated into Greater Manchester in 1974. However, strong cultural links with Yorkshire remain amongst its communities. There are several brass bands in the parish; the first documentary evidence of Saddleworth appears in the Domesday Book in which it is referred to as "Quick", spelt "Thoac". Place names derived from Celtic and Anglian dialects, along with the discovery of flint arrowheads and gold Viking rings all point to a much earlier Saddleworth as old as the Stone Age. A Roman road from Chester to York passed through the area. Castleshaw Roman fort was built to patrol the local section of the road.
The first fort on the site was an Agricolan period fort, built in turf and timber c. AD 79; this was refurbished soon after construction and abandoned c. AD 95. Within the south eastern half of the fort, a fortlet was constructed in turf and timber, c. AD 105; this was redeveloped during its brief occupation and abandoned again in c. AD 125. In the Saddleworth area is a bowl barrow, which may be Bronze Age, located at:-. Despite excavations, no grave goods or human remains have been found in the barrow; the steep slopes of the Saddleworth area and the acidic soils of the region have never been conducive to intensive farming. Small, basic mills had been existent in Saddleworth before the industrial revolution, but these were replaced by larger more intensive establishments. By the end of Queen Victoria's reign, mechanised textile production had become a vital part of the local economy; the boom in industry that had occurred in Saddleworth during the Industrial Revolution called for greater transport links.
Construction of the Huddersfield Narrow Canal was begun in 1794, at the height of Canal Mania, connecting Huddersfield to Stalybridge via Saddleworth and completed seventeen years in 1811. The decline of canals and the rise of steam powered locomotives left the canal falling behind the competition, so it was decided that a railway tunnel would be built parallel to the canal, completed in 1848; the rise in traffic demanded a second tunnel be built, completed in 1871. Both of these were single line tunnels and superseded by the 1894 tunnel, a double line tunnel, the only one of the three still carrying passengers; the three brothers, Ralph Radcliffe Whitehead, James Heywood Whitehead and Francis Frederick Whitehead, were philanthropic and amongst other bequests in the 1850s built Christ Church in Friezland along with the Parsonage and Headmaster's house. The land on which these were built was purchased in 1849 from L. & N. W. Railway Company; the Church School has been rebuilt and the Parsonage and grounds, built in the Gothic Revival style, has become a Grade II listed building, now in private hands.
The boom in industry called for greater transport links, including the Huddersfield Narrow Canal and several railways. Unlike the majority of the Oldham Metropolitan Borough, where the industrial architecture was constructed from Accrington redbrick, Saddleworth's textiles mills and supporting infrastructure was made from the local millstone grit; this is in keeping with other settlements amongst the southwest Pennines, such as Milnrow near Rochdale. Although on the western side of the Pennine watershed, Saddleworth, or'Quick' as it was once known, has lain within the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire since the middle ages. From a ancient time, the area formed part of the Agbrigg Wapentake, in the "Land of the King in Eurvicsire". For a time, during the 17th century, Saddleworth constituted a chapelry within the ancient parish of Rochdale in Salfordshire, otherwise in the ancient county of Lancashire. In 1866 it became a civil parish in its own right and in 1889 became part of the administrative county of the West Riding of Yorkshire.
In 1894 the parish's boundaries were