Castling is a move in the game of chess involving a player's king and either of the player's original rooks. It is the only move in chess in which a player moves two pieces in the same move, it is the only move aside from the knight's move where a piece can be said to "jump over" another. Castling consists of moving the king two squares towards a rook on the player's first rank moving the rook to the square over which the king crossed. Castling may only be done if the king has never moved, the rook involved has never moved, the squares between the king and the rook involved are unoccupied, the king is not in check, the king does not cross over or end on a square attacked by an enemy piece. Castling is technically a king move; the notation for castling, in both the descriptive and the algebraic systems, is 0-0 with the kingside rook and 0-0-0 with the queenside rook. Castling on the kingside is sometimes called castling short while castling on the queenside is called castling long. Castling was added to European chess in the 14th or 15th century and did not develop into its present form until the 17th century.

The Asian versions of chess do not have such a move. Castling is permissible provided all of the following conditions hold: The king and the chosen rook are on the player's first rank. Neither the king nor the chosen rook has moved. There are no pieces between the chosen rook; the king is not in check. The king does not pass through a square, attacked by an enemy piece; the king does not end up in check. Conditions 4 through 6 can be summarized with the more memorable phrase: One may not castle out of, through, or into check, it is a common misperception that the requirements for castling are more stringent than the above. To clarify: The chosen rook may be under attack; the rook may move provided the king does not. The king may have been in check earlier in the game, provided the king did not move when resolving the check. In handicap games where odds of a rook are given, the player giving odds may still castle with the absent rook, moving only the king. Castling is an important goal in the opening, because it serves two valuable purposes: it moves the king into a safer position away from the center of the board, it moves the rook to a more active position in the center of the board.

The choice as to which side to castle hinges on an assessment of the trade-off between king safety and activity of the rook. Kingside castling is slightly safer, because the king ends up closer to the edge of the board and all the pawns on the castled side are defended by the king. In queenside castling, the king is placed closer to the center and the pawn on the a-file is undefended. In addition, queenside castling requires moving the queen, if not done. On the other hand, queenside castling places the rook more efficiently – on the central d-file, it is immediately active, whereas with kingside castling a tempo may be required to move the rook to a more effective square. It is common for both players to castle kingside, rare for both players to castle queenside. If one player castles kingside and the other queenside, it is called opposite castling. Castling on opposite sides results in a fierce fight, as both players' pawns are free to advance to attack the opposing king's castled position without exposing the player's own castled king.

An example is the Yugoslav Attack, in the Dragon Variation of the Sicilian Defence. If the king is forced to move before it has the opportunity to castle, the player may still wish to maneuver the king towards the edge of the board and the corresponding rook towards the center; when a player takes three or four moves to accomplish what castling would have accomplished in one move, it is sometimes called artificial castling, or castling by hand. Under the strict touch-move rules enforced in most tournaments, castling is considered a king move. Under current US Chess Federation rules, however, a player who intends to castle and touches the rook first would suffer no penalty, would be permitted to castle, provided castling is legal in the position. Still, the correct way to castle is to move the king first; as usual, the player may change their mind to another legal destination square for the king until it is released. When the two-square king move is completed, the player is committed to castling, the rook must be moved accordingly.

A player who performs a forbidden castling must return the king and the rook to their original places and move the king, if there is another legal king move, including castling on the other side. If there is no legal king move, the touch-move rule does not apply to the rook; the official rules require that the entire move be completed using only a single hand. Neither of these rules is enforced in casual play, nor known by non-competitive players; the right to castle must be the same on all three occasions for a valid draw claim under the threefold repetition rule. Some chess variants, for example Chess960, have modified castling rules to handle modified starting positions. Castling can be adapted to large chess vari

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