Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Lamb County, Texas
Lamb County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 13,977, its county seat is Littlefield. The county was created in 1876, but not organized until 1908, it is named for George A. Lamb. Lamb County was the home of the Texas House Speaker Bill W. Clayton, who served from 1975 until 1983, it is the birthplace of country music singer Waylon Jennings. Lamb County was formed in 1876 from portions of Bexar County, it was named after a soldier in the Battle of San Jacinto. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,018 square miles, of which 1,016 square miles are land and 1.5 square miles are water. Castro County Hale County Hockley County Bailey County Parmer County Lubbock County Cochran County As of the census of 2000, 14,709 people, 5,360 households, 3,991 families resided in the county; the population density was 14 people per square mile. The 6,294 housing units averaged 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.1% White, 4.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.1% Asian, less than 0.05% Pacific Islander, 16.9% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
About 43.5% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 5,360 households, 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were not families. About 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was distributed as 29.6% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,898, for a family was $31,833. Males had a median income of $36,434 versus $30,342 for females; the per capita income for the county was $30,169. About 18.0% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.3% of those under age 18 and 15.3% of those age 65 or over.
U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 385 Littlefield Municipal Airport is located in Lamb County, 3 nautical miles west of the central business district of Littlefield, Texas. Amherst Earth Littlefield Olton Sudan Springlake Spade Fieldton Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Lamb County Dry counties Plant X Llano Estacado West Texas Lamb County from the Handbook of Texas Online Lamb County at Curlie Lamb County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Parmer County, Texas
Parmer County is a county located in the southwestern Texas Panhandle on the high plains of the Llano Estacado in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,269; the county seat is Farwell. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1907, it is named in honor of Martin Parmer, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence and early judge. Parmer County was one of 10 prohibition, or dry, counties in the state of Texas, but is now a moist county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 885 square miles, of which 881 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 60 U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 84 State Highway 86 State Highway 214 Deaf Smith County Castro County Lamb County Bailey County Curry County, New Mexico As of the census of 2000, 10,016 people, 3,322 households, 2,614 families resided in the county; the population density was 11 people per square mile. The 3,732 housing units averaged four per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 66.01% White, 1.01% Black or African American, 0.76% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 29.51% from other races, 2.35% from two or more races.
49.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 3,322 households, 42.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.0% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.3% were not families. About 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.97 and the average family size was 3.43. In the county, the population was distributed as 32.9% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,813, for a family was $34,149. Males had a median income of $26,966 versus $19,650 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,184. About 14.2% of families and 17.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.9% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over.
Bovina Farwell Friona Lazbuddie Dry counties List of museums in the Texas Panhandle Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Parmer County Parmer County government’s website Parmer County from the Handbook of Texas Online Parmer County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Hale County, Texas
Hale County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 36,273; the county seat is Plainview. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1888, it is named for Lt. John C. Hale, a hero of the Battle of San Jacinto, it is home of the noted former Hale County Judge, Judge Bill Hollars a.k.a. "Hang'Em High" Hollars. Hale County comprises TX Micropolitan Statistical Area. 7000 b.c. Paleo-Indians first county inhabitants. Native American inhabitants include the Comanche. 1876 The Texas legislature forms Hale County from Bexar County. 1881 Brothers T. W. and T. N. Morrison, W. D. Johnson, establish the cattle Cross L Ranch and the XIT. 1883 New York Methodist minister Horatio Graves becomes the first white permanent settler in the county. 1886 The city of Plainview has its beginnings when sheep rancher Zachery Taylor Maxwell moves his family and 2,000 sheep from Floyd County to the site of two hackberry groves on the old military trail established by Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie.
The city’s name comes from the area’s vista. 1888 The county is organized. Plainview is the county seat. 1900 The county has 259 farms and ranches, with a population of 1,680. 1906 The Santa Fe Railway comes to Plainview. 1906 Wayland Baptist College is founded in Plainview. 1909 Businessman Levi Schick opens the Schick Opera House in Plainview. 1911 The county's first motor-driven irrigation well is drilled. 1912 The Texas Land and Development Company is organized in Plainview. The purpose is to entice settlers by dividing a large tract of land into individual farms, preparing each farm for occupancy. 1944 Plainview Site is discovered. In addition to bone and man-made artifacts, archeologists find the remains of 100 extinct bison about twice the size of modern size. 1946 Oil is discovered in the Anton-Irish field of Hale counties. 1969 Country artist Jimmy Dean, brother Don Dean, cousin-in-law Troy Pritchard found the Jimmy Dean Sausage Company and open the Jimmy Dean Meat Company in Plainview. 1986 Hale County is one of 62 counties in Texas still barring the sale of alcohol.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,005 square miles, of which 1,005 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Interstate 27/U. S. Highway 87 Interstate 27 Business U. S. Highway 70 State Highway 194 Swisher County Floyd County Lubbock County Lamb County Castro County Hockley County Crosby County As of the census of 2000, there were 36,602 people, 11,975 households, 9,136 families residing in the county; the population density was 36 people per square mile. There were 13,526 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 66.77% White, 5.79% Black or African American, 0.92% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 23.76% from other races, 2.42% from two or more races. 47.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,975 households out of which 40.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 11.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.70% were non-families.
21.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.32. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.20% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 18.30% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 102.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,280, the median income for a family was $35,250. Males had a median income of $26,007 versus $20,057 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,655. About 14.30% of families and 18.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.30% of those under age 18 and 14.80% of those age 65 or over. Abernathy Hale Center Petersburg Plainview Edmonson Seth Ward Cotton Center Hale City Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Hale County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Hale County Hale County government's website Hale County from the Handbook of Texas Online Hale County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties