The Autrigones were a pre-Roman tribe that settled in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, in what today is the western Basque Country and northern Burgos, Spain. Their territory limited with the Cantabri territory at west, the Caristii at east, the Berones at the southeast and the Turmodigi at the south, it is discussed whether the Autrigones were Celts, theory supported by the existence of toponyms of Celtic origin, such as Uxama Barca and other with -briga endings and that underwent a Basquisation along with other neighboring tribes such as the Caristii and Varduli Roman historians as Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder located them in the northern region of present-day province of Burgos. Pliny the Elder writes about the "ten states of the Autrigones" and says the only ones worth mentioning are Tritium Autrigonum and Virovesca in the valley of Oca River; the other Autrigones' towns were Deobriga, Uxama Barca, Antecuia, Vindeleia and the port of Portus Amanus/Flaviobriga. The Autrigones are mentioned for the first time on a document by Roman historian Livy in 76 BC, describing the actions of Quintus Sertorius in the Iberian Peninsula.
Strabo mentions them in his book Geographica, naming them allótrigones, a word adapted from Greek meaning "strange people". As with their neighbors, the Caristii and the Varduli, their origin is disputed, it is yet clear if they were a Central European Celtic people that originated from the Garonne valley area in Gaul in the 5th century BC where they mingled with the Belgae and migrated to the Iberian Peninsula in the 4th century BC or an Aquitanian one. However, based on the study of their toponyms - as happens with the Caristii and Varduli - it is they were a Celtic tribe who suffered a process of Basquisation; the known toponyms of the Autrigones are of Celtic origin, as Uxama Barca in present-day Álava, many others ending in -briga. The toponyms of rivers, as the Nervión, the anthroponyms, the archeological remains and weapons relate them culturally with the Celts, but with a clear differentiation of other close Celtic tribes, as the Celtiberians; the Autrigones were culturally related to the early Iron Age "Monte Bernorio-Miraveche" cultural group of northern Burgos and Palencia provinces.
Additional archeological evidence indicates that by the 2nd Iron Age they came under the influence of the Celtiberians. By the 1st century BC they were organized into a federation of autonomous mountain-top fortified towns on the mountain ranges of the upper Ebro, protected by stout adobe walls of the "Numantine" type. More archeological evidence have been found, emphasizing their celtiberian culture, such as the hospitality tesserae; these consisted on a zoomorphic-shaped metal tablet with an inscription using a variant of the Northeastern Iberian script, written in a form of celtiberian language. Around the beginning of the 4th century BC the Autrigones migrated to the Peninsula and overrun the entire area corresponding today to the modern provinces of Cantabria and Burgos, which became known as Autrigonia or Austrigonia. By the mid-4th century BC the Autrigones reached the Pisuerga valley where they established their capital Autraca or Austraca, located at the banks of the river Autra, they gained an outlet to the sea by seizing from the Aquitani-speaking Caristii further east the coastal highland region between the rivers Asón and Neroua, in the modern eastern Cantabria, Álava Basque provinces.
However, the Autrigones’ hold to this vast territory was not meant to last. Thrust back to their lands on the mountain ranges of the upper Ebro north of the Arlanzón valley around the 3rd-2nd Centuries BC, the Autrigones allied themselves with the Berones and evolved into a tribal society similar to the peoples of the north-west. By the 1st century BC, they were organized into a federation of ten autonomous mountain-top fortified towns, chiefly among them their new capital Virovesca in the Oca river valley, they seem to have taken no part in the Celtiberian Wars though as traditional allies of the Berones helped the latter in fighting off the Roman general Sertorius' incursion into northern Celtiberia in 76 BC, remained independent until the late 1st century BC, when the mounting pressure of Astures and Cantabri raids forced them to seek an alliance with Rome. Despite being aggregated in the new Hispania Tarraconensis province at the early 1st century AD, the Autrigones were only romanized, never became Christian and continued to provide the Roman Imperial army with auxiliary troops up to the late Empire.
The Autrigone people survived the overthrow of the Roman Empire in Spain by the Germanic invasions of the late 4th century and recreated their realm in parts of the current provinces of Burgos, Álava, Biscay which lasted for nearly two centuries, before being conquered by their Varduli neighbours and destroyed or absorbed by the Vascones in around AD 580. Celtiberian script Cantabrian Wars Caristii Sertorian Wars Varduli Origin of the Basques Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Ángel Montenegro et alii, Historia de España 2 - colonizaciones y formación de los pueblos prerromanos (1200
Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was used for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century, its most prominent features included the use of the rib vault and the flying buttress, which allowed the weight of the roof to be counterbalanced by buttresses outside the building, giving greater height and more space for windows. Another important feature was the extensive use of stained glass, the rose window, to bring light and color to the interior. Another feature was the use of realistic statuary on the exterior over the portals, to illustrate biblical stories for the illiterate parishioners; these technologies had all existed in Romanesque architecture, but they were used in more innovative ways and more extensively in Gothic architecture to make buildings taller and stronger. The first notable example is considered to be the Abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris, whose choir and facade were reconstructed with Gothic features.
The choir was completed in 1144. The style appeared in some civic architecture in northern Europe, notably in town halls and university buildings. A Gothic revival began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th century Europe and continued for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum, The term "Gothic architecture" originated in the 16th century, was very negative, suggesting barbaric. Giorgio Vasari used the term "barbarous German style" in his 1550 Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, in the introduction to the Lives he attributed various architectural features to "the Goths" whom he held responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, erecting new ones in this style; the Gothic style originated in the Ile-de-France region of northern France in the first half of the 12th century. A new dynasty of French Kings, the Capetians, had subdued the feudal lords, had become the most powerful rulers in France, with their capital in Paris.
They allied themselves with the bishops of the major cities of northern France, reduced the power of the feudal abbots and monasteries. Their rise coincided with an enormous growth of the population and prosperity of the cities of northern France; the Capetian Kings and their bishops wished to build new cathedrals as monuments of their power and religious faith. The church which served as the primary model for the style was the Abbey of St-Denis, which underwent reconstruction by the Abbot Suger, first in the choir and the facade, Suger was a close ally and biographer of the French King, Louis VII, a fervent Catholic and builder, the founder of the University of Paris. Suger remodeled the ambulatory of the Abbey, removed the enclosures that separated the chapels, replaced the existing structure with imposing pillars and rib vaults; this created higher and wider bays, into which he installed larger windows, which filled the end of the church with light. Soon afterwards he rebuilt the facade, adding three deep portals, each with a tympanum, an arch filled with sculpture illustrating biblical stories.
The new facade was flanked by two towers. He installed a small circular rose window over the central portal; this design became the prototype for a series of new French cathedrals. Sens Cathedral was the first Cathedral to be built in the new style. Other versions of the new style soon appeared in Noyon Cathedral; the Gothic style was adapted by some French monastic orders, notably the Cistercian order under Saint Bernard of Clairvaux It was used in an austere form without ornament at the new Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay and the church of Clairvaux Abbey, whose site is now occupied by a French prison. The new style was copied outside the Kingdom of France in the Duchy of Normandy. Early examples of Norman Gothic included Coutances Cathedral. Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the new style was introduced to England and spread from there to Low Countries, Spain, northern Italy and Sicily; the Gothic style did not replace the Romanesque everywhere in Europe. The Late Romanesque continued to flourish in the Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufens and Rhineland.
From the end of the 12th century until the middle of the 13th century, the gothic style spread from the Île-de-France to appear in other cities of northern France. New structures in the style included Chartres Cathedral; the early type of rib vault used of Saint Denis and Notre Dame, with six parts, was modified to four parts, making it simpler and stronger. Amiens and Chartres were among the first to use the flying buttress. At Reims, the buttresses were given greater weight and strength by the addition of heavy stone pinnacles on top; these were decorated with statues of ange
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
The Sahrawi Republic the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, is a recognized state that claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, but controls only the easternmost one-fifth of that territory. Until 1976, Western Sahara was known as a Spanish colony. SADR was proclaimed by the Polisario Front on February 27, 1976, in Bir Lehlou, Western Sahara, a former socialist liberation force which has since reformed its ideological and political views; the SADR government controls about 20–25% of the territory it claims. It calls the territories under the Free Zone. Morocco controls and administers the rest of the disputed territory and calls these lands its Southern Provinces; the SADR government considers the Moroccan-held territory to be occupied territory, while Morocco considers the much smaller SADR-held territory to be a buffer zone. The claimed capital of the SADR is former Western Sahara capital El-Aaiún, while the temporary capital moved from Bir Lehlou to Tifariti in 2008; the Sahrawi Republic maintains diplomatic relations with 40 UN states, is a full member of the African Union.
The name Sahrawi derives from the romanization of the Arabic word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي, meaning "Inhabitant of the Desert". The word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي is derived from the Arabic word Ṣaḥrā', meaning desert itself. Following the Spanish evacuation, Spain and Mauritania signed the Madrid Accords on November 14, 1975, leading to both Morocco and Mauritania moving in to annex the territory of Western Sahara. On 26 February 1976, Spain informed the United Nations that as of that date it had terminated its presence in Western Sahara and relinquished its responsibilities, leaving no Administering Power. Neither Morocco nor Mauritania gained international recognition, war ensued with the independence-seeking Polisario Front; the United Nations considers the Polisario Front to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, maintains that the people of Western Sahara have a right to "self-determination and independence". The creation of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was proclaimed on February 27, 1976, as the Polisario declared the need for a new entity to fill what they considered a political void left by the departing Spanish colonizers.
While the claimed capital is the former Western Sahara capital El-Aaiún, in Moroccan-controlled territory, the proclamation was made in the government-in-exile's provisional capital, Bir Lehlou, which remained in Polisario-held territory under the 1991 cease-fire. On February 27, 2008, the provisional capital was formally moved to Tifariti. Day-to-day business, however, is conducted in the Tindouf refugee camps in Algeria, which house most of the Sahrawi exile community. A new 1999 Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic took a form similar to the parliamentary constitutions of many European states, but with some paragraphs suspended until the achievement of "full independence". Among key points, the head of state is constitutionally the Secretary General of the Polisario Front during what is referred to as the "pre-independence phase," with provision in the constitution that on independence, Polisario is supposed to be dismantled or separated from the government structure. Provisions are detailed for a transitory phase beginning with independence, in which the present SADR is supposed to act as Western Sahara's government, ending with a constitutional reform and eventual establishment of a state along the lines specified in the constitution.
The broad guidelines laid down for an eventual Western Saharan state in the constitution include eventual multi-party democracy with a market economy. The constitution defines Sahrawis as a Muslim and Arab people; the Constitution declares a commitment to the principles of human rights and to the concept of a Greater Maghreb, as a regional variant of Pan-Arabism. Since August 1982, the highest office of the republic is the President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a post held by the secretary-general of the Polisario, presently Brahim Ghali, who appoints the Prime Minister, presently Mohamed Wali Akeik; the SADR's government structure consists of a Council of Ministers, a judicial branch and the parliamentary Sahrawi National Council. Since its inception in 1976, the various constitutional revisions have transformed the republic from an ad hoc managerial structure into something approaching an actual governing apparatus. From the late 1980s the parliament began to take steps to institute a division of powers and disentangle the republic's structures from those of the Polisario party, although without clear effect to date.
Its various ministries are responsible for a variety of functions. The judiciary, complete with trial courts, appeals courts and a supreme court, operates in the same areas; as a government-in-exile, many branches of government do not function, has affected the constitutional roles of the institutions. Institutions parallel to government structures have arisen within the Polisario Front, fused with the SADR's governing apparatus, with operational competences overlapping between these party and governmental institutions and offices. A 2012 report mentioned the existence of the Sahrawi Bar Association. In 2016, the bar association issued a report calling for the implementation of political and civil rights
In Spain, the legal designation Conjunto histórico is part of the national system of heritage listing. It is applied to buildings in a given locality, it is used to protect complete villages, such as Peñaranda de Duero, or historic quarters of towns such as Avilés. Conjunto means "group", as a group listing, the Conjunto histórico is comparable with the British concept of a Conservation Area. Conjunto histórico is a sub-category within a broader category of Bien de Interés Cultural, which protects Spain's cultural heritage and is regulated by the country's Ministry of Culture; as well as conjuntos históricos, the category of Bien de Interés Cultural includes the following sub-categories of non-movable heritage: Jardín histórico, historic garden Monumento Sitio histórico Zona arqueológica, archaeological zone A Conjunto histórico may include buildings which are individually protected as monuments, as is the case at, for example, Peñaranda de Duero or Covarrubias. Nogal de las Huertas Avilés Covarrubias Sos del Rey Católico Sanlúcar de Barrameda Peñaranda de Duero Santa Cruz de La Palma Gumiel de Izán UNESCO World Heritage Site "Patrimony and protected cultural goods", Ministry of Culture Guía de Conjuntos Histórico-Artísticos declarados en España
Bou Craa is a town in Western Sahara, south-east of the main city of El Aaiún. It is inhabited exclusively by employees of the Moroccan-controlled Bou Craa phosphate industry. Located in the Saguia el-Hamra region, Bou Craa is the site of a phosphate deposit of 1.7 billion tons. Mining began there in 1972. During the Spanish colonization time of the area, many early recruits of the nationalist movements Harakat Tahrir and Front Polisario were Sahrawi workers in the phosphate mines; the town became part of the Moroccan-controlled zone in the April 1976 partition resulting from the Madrid Accords. It has remained in Moroccan hands, though mining was halted in 1976 as a result of Polisario guerilla attacks; the phosphates are transported to the coast by an automated conveyor belt, the longest such belt in the world. During the Western Sahara War the Polisario vandalized and disabled this transportation system several times; these attacks ceased in the early 1980s when the town become enclosed by the Moroccan Wall, which consolidated Moroccan control over the north-western part of Western Sahara.
Mining resumed on a reduced scale in July 1982. Today, the mine produces around 3 million tonnes annually, which represents 10% of Morocco's total production. Castro Urdiales, Spain Llodio, Spain Low resolution view of the conveyor belt to the port at Laayoune-Plage, its location can be seen from the line of windswept sand accumulating on its south-western side. The mines and tailings the start of the conveyor belt at the mine
CastroVerde (political party)
CastroVerde is a green municipal political party in Castro Urdiales created in 2011 by members of various local social movements and platforms. Among its members and founders are people linked to associations such as Another Castro is Possible, the Platform to Save the Bay or the Platform to save the Peña de Santullán. In its founding manifesto "Castro, I love you green", the party defends the need to "dignify political life" and "direct the municipality towards economic and environmental sustainability", based on "projects related to municipal organization, resource planning and urban planning, as well as the relationship with the Neighborhood Councils and the Government of Cantabria". Another of the priorities of CastroVerde is citizen participation, based on participation councils, popular consultation and voluntary work. CastroVerde participated in the municipal elections on May 22, 2011; the list presented obtained 2,229 votes and four seats of the 21 that make up the City Council of Castro Urdiales.
CastroVerde won the municipal elections of May 24, 2015, obtaining 7 city councilors and the mayor of Castro Urdiales. In 2017 CastroVerde broke the coalition with the local Socialist Party, since the party has a minority government. Www.castroverde.tk
Jerez de la Frontera
Jerez de la Frontera, or Jerez, is a Spanish city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, in southwestern Spain, located midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Cádiz Mountains. As of 2015, the city, the largest in the province, had a population of 212,876, it is the fifth largest in Andalusia, has become the transportation and communications hub of the province, surpassing Cádiz, the provincial capital, in economic activity. Jerez de la Frontera is in terms of land area, the largest municipality in the province, its sprawling outlying areas are a fertile zone for agriculture. There are many cattle ranches and horse-breeding operations, as well as a world-renowned wine industry. Jerez, with 212,876 inhabitants, is the 25th largest city in Spain, the 5th in Andalusia and 1st in the Province of Cádiz, it belongs to the Municipal Association of the Bay of Cádiz, the 3rd largest Andalusian metropolitan area and the 12th in Spain, with over 650,000 inhabitants.
Its municipality covers an area of 1,188.14 km2 and includes the Los Alcornocales Natural Park and the Sierra de Gibalbín known as Montes de Propio de Jerez. The city is located 12 km from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Campiña de Jerez, region appropriate to cultivate the vineyards that produce the famous sherry; some famous places in to the city are Alcazar of Jerez, Church of San Miguel, Charterhouse of Jerez, the Cathedral of San Salvador. Since 1987 the Grand Prix motorcycle racing has been held at the Circuito de Jerez in early May. On this weekend, the city welcomes tens of thousands of bikers from around the world; the same circuit has hosted several Formula 1 Grands Prix, including the 1997 final race of the season, marred with controversy for a notable high-profile championship-deciding incident. Other popular festivals in the city are the Holy Week in Jerez. Jerez is known as the city of flamenco, sherry and motorcycles. In 2013, Jerez was the European Capital of Wine and 2014, it was the world's first Motorbike Capital.
The name Jerez goes back to the Phoenician Xera, Sèrès Romanized under the name of Ceret. The classical Latin name of Asta Regia, unrelated to the present name, referred to an ancient city now found within Mesas de Asta, a rural district 11 km from the center of Jerez; the current Castilian name came by way of the Arabic name شريش Sherīsh. In former times, during the Muslim period in Iberia, it was called Xerés; the name of the famous fortified wine, which originated here, represents an adaptation of the city's Arabic name, Sherish. Frontera refers to a Spanish frontier, located on the border between the Moorish and Christian regions of Spain during the 13th century, a regular host to skirmishes and clashes between the two regions. Over two centuries after the Castilian conquest of Granada in 1492, Xerez definitively lost its status as a frontier city, but did not lose that designation. After the Kingdom of Castile took Jerez on October 9, 1264, following the name given by the Muslims to the city in the period known as the Reconquista, the city was called Xerez in medieval Castilian, transcribing the consonant /ʃ/ with the letter ⟨x⟩, as was the rule at the time.
Thus the name was pronounced "Shereth", similar to the Moorish Arabic "Sherish". In the 16th century, the consonant /ʃ/ changed into the consonant /x/, with the corresponding spelling of Jerez; the old spelling "Xerez" as the name given to the city survived in several foreign languages until recently, today continues to influence the name given to sherry: Portuguese Xerez, Catalan Xerès, English sherry, French Xérès. The city's main football team continues to use Xerez. Traces of human presence in the area date from the upper Neolithic, humans have inhabited Jerez de la Frontera since at least the Copper or Neolithic Age, but the identity of the first natives remains unclear; the first major protohistoric settlement in the area is attributed to the Tartessians. Jerez became a Roman city under the name of Asta Regia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Vandals and the Visigoths ruled it until the Arabs conquered the area in 711. In the 11th century it became the seat of an independent taifa.
Some years ` Abdun ibn Muhammad ruled both. In 1053 it was annexed to Seville. From 1145 to 1147 the region of Arcos and Jerez operated as an emirate under dependency of Granada, led by Abu'l-Qasim Ahyal; the Almohads conquered the city. In the 12th and 13th centuries Jerez underwent a period of great development, building its defense system and setting the current street layout of the old town. In 1231 the Battle of Jerez took place within the town's vicinity: Christian troops under the command of Álvaro Pérez de Castro, lord of the House of Castro and grandson of Alfonso VII, king of Castile and León, defeated the troops of the Emir Ibn Hud, despite the numerical superiority of the latter. After a month-long siege in 1261, the city surrendered to Castile, but its Muslim population remained, it rebelled and was defeated in 1264. The discovery of the Americas and the conquest of Granada, in 1492, made Jerez one of the most prosperous cities of Andalusia through trade and through its proximity to the ports of Seville and Cádiz.
Despite the social and political deca