Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the nation's official airport directory, it contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes and certified airports. The CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule; the CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada and the Department of National Defence until 15 March 2007 edition, at which time Nav Canada took over production. The CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome; as well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including interception instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search and rescue information. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary.
The Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections: Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures. General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, other introductory information. Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings and tower. Included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Planning — general flight planning information, including flight plans and position reports, lists of significant new towers and other obstructions, chart updating, preferred IFR routes, similar information. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together with all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations and frequencies. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada and the U. S. Emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc.
Carrying "current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route" is a requirement under CAR 602.60 for night VFR, VFR Over-The-Top and instrument flight rules flights. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not require carriage of a copy of the CFS, but, one way to satisfy the regulation; because information in the CFS may be out of date with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre. While Nav Canada's CFS has the monopoly on paper-version airport directories in Canada, there are several competing internet publications, including the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association's Places to Fly user-editable airport directory. Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts and other information such as navaids. The WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions. Official website
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport
Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport is a small regional airport located on the Toronto Islands in Toronto, Canada. The airport is referred to as the Toronto Island Airport and was known as Port George VI Island Airport and Toronto City Centre Airport; the airport's name honours Billy Bishop, the Canadian World War I flying ace and World War II Air Marshal. It is used by civil aviation, air ambulances, regional airlines using turboprop planes. In 2016, it was ranked Canada's ninth-busiest airport and Ontario's third-busiest airport by passenger numbers and the sixth-busiest Canadian airport that serves the U. S. Conceived in the 1930s as the main airport for Toronto, the construction of the airport was completed in 1939 by the Toronto Harbour Commission. At the same time, the THC built Malton Airport as an alternate, but nearby Malton became Toronto's main passenger airline hub instead, leaving the island airport for general aviation and military purposes. During the 1940s and 1950s, several political leaders proposed an expansion of the island airport to enable scheduled passenger airlines and reduce the annual operating costs.
Malton was sold in 1962 to the Government of Canada in exchange for an expansion and improvements to the island airport. After the expansion, civil flights increased to a peak of over 200,000 annual flights in the 1960s. Although regional airlines were introduced in the 1970s, the annual number of flights went into decline and closure was discussed. In 1983, a 50-year tripartite agreement between the governments of Canada, City of Toronto and the Harbour Commission, which limited noise and banned jet use for scheduled airlines, allowed airport operations to continue. In the 1990s, in an era of government cost-cutting, questions about the airport's future were raised again due to its annual deficit. At the same time, redevelopment was taking over north of the airport and several studies suggested that the airport was incompatible with development. In 1999, the new Toronto Port Authority replaced the THC; the TPA's mandate was to make the port and airport self-sufficient and it determined that the airport needed to expand to end the annual subsidy.
Although an expansion of the airport was and is politically controversial, the TPA has worked with new regional airline Porter Airlines since 2003 to increase scheduled carrier flights. Under the new financial model, carriers pay landing fees and departing passengers pay airport improvement fees to the TPA. Porter launched in 2006 and passenger volumes increased to the point that airport operations became self-sufficient by 2010. In 2010, Porter opened a new terminal. In 2015, a pedestrian tunnel to the airport was opened, after a previous plan to build a bridge was cancelled. In 2013, Porter proposed expanding the airport further and modifying the operating agreement to allow it to use Bombardier CS100 jet planes at the airport; the proposal, estimated to cost CA$1 billion in public expenditure, went to PortsToronto for further study. In November 2015, after the 2015 Canadian federal election, the new government announced that it would not re-open the tripartite agreement to allow jets. Ports Toronto subsequently cancelled the expansion proposal studies.
The airport is located on south-west of Downtown Toronto. The airport has one main east–west runway, a shorter runway 20 degrees off, a seaplane base, Billy Bishop Toronto City Water Aerodrome; the airport is used for regional airline service and for general aviation, including medical emergency flights, small charter flights, private aviation. Under its operating agreement, jet aircraft are banned from the airport, with the exception of MEDEVAC flights. There is one passenger terminal at the airport, built in 2010; the airport is operated as a division of Ports Toronto, a federal corporation, which manages Toronto harbour. The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency; the CBSA officers at the airport can handle aircraft with up to 90 passengers. The airport does not have United States border preclearance, although this has been approved by both Canada and US governments; the airport's hours of operation are 6:45 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. except for MEDEVAC flights.
The airport's hours are governed by the 2003 update of the Tripartite Agreement, which set the hours of operation. Airfield crash fire rescue and EMS are provided by the Billy Bishop Airport Emergency Response Service, backed up by Toronto Fire Services and Toronto EMS; the airport is accessible from a pedestrian tunnel at the foot of Eireann Quay, free to use. From a pavilion on the mainland end, a 240 m pedestrian tunnel and a tunnel for sewage and water mains connect to the airport; the pedestrian tunnel has moving sidewalks, with elevators at both ends. On the island side, an escalator serves patrons. A consortium known as Forum Infrastructure Partners, composed of firms Arup, PCL and Technicore, built and maintains the tunnel. A ferry operates between the same location and the airport every 15 minutes from 5:15 a.m. to midnight. A free shuttle bus service operates between the intersection of York Street and Front Street and the airport. There is a taxi stand at the dock. Short-term and long-term parking is available on the island.
There is no curb-side parking. The 509 Harbourfront streetcar line, which connects to the subway, serves the intersection of Bathurst Street and Queens Quay, one block north of the ferry dock; the airport imposes a
Bearskin Lake Airport
Bearskin Lake Airport, is located 3 nautical miles northwest of Bearskin Lake, Canada. It is serviced with regular scheduled flights by Wasaya Airways. Page about this airport on COPA's Places to Fly airport directory Accident history for XBE at Aviation Safety Network
London International Airport
London International Airport is located 5 nautical miles northeast of the city of London, Canada. In 2016, the airport handled 514,685 passengers, and, in 2011, was the 20th busiest in Canada in terms of aircraft movements, with 94,747. Air Canada Express, WestJet and WestJet Encore serve London International Airport, it provides services for cargo airlines. The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle aircraft with no more than 180 passengers. In January 1927 the City of London selected a site for an airfield at Lambeth, Ontario near 42°55′00″N 081°17′00″W. A group of local businessmen acquired the site in 1928 and by 3 May 1929 an airport license was issued to London Airport Ltd; the London Flying Club became a tenant of the new airport. The airfield was used for flying instruction, private aviation, for air mail. By 1933 it had become too small for some commercial aircraft; the London Flying Club continued to use the Lambeth airfield until 7 August 1942.
In 1935 the city decided to replace the original London Airport. Site surveys and consultations took place and on 9 September 1939, at the start of World War II, work began on a new airport located near Crumlin; the city leased the new airport to the Government of Canada, Department of Transport on 24 January 1940 for the duration of the war. Runways 14-32 and 05-23 were paved and ready for use by July 1940 and the Royal Canadian Air Force established RCAF Station Crumlin on part of the airport; this air station was host to No. 3 Elementary Flying Training School and No. 4 Air Observer School, both part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. The airport remained under civilian management and was used for civil and military aviation during the war years; the licence for London City Airport was issued on 6 May 1941. Improvements made during this time include: main terminal building opened in July 1942 Trans-Canada Airlines began serve to the airport in July 1942. Runway 08-26 added in 1943.
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan operations ended on 31 December 1944 with the closure of No. 4 Air Observer School. The Royal Air Force Transport Command, No. 45 Group established the Mosquito Preparation and Despatching Unit at London on 10 January 1945. This detachment had twenty three members and test flew De Havilland Mosquitos built in Toronto before they were flown overseas. After the war the airport remained under the control of the Department of Transport. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed at 43°02′N 81°09′W with a Var. 5 degrees W and elevation of 899 feet. Two runways were listed as follows: After World War II RCAF reserve or auxiliary squadrons were given the task of defending Canada's major cities. 420 Squadron reformed as City of London 420 Auxiliary Squadron at the airport in September 1948. Equipped with Harvard aircraft, the squadron upgraded to Mustangs in 1952 and CT-133 jets in 1954; the squadron disbanded in 1957. Air Defence Command reformed 2420 Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron at London on 1 July 1956.
2420 trained Fighter Control operators and disbanded on 31 May 1961. RCAF Station London opened in 1950 to support a NATO Induction and Training Centre moved to Centralia; the station closed on 30 September 1958. As a tribute to this period, a Canadair T-33 aircraft in former Royal Canadian Air Force livery is mounted in front of the main terminal building; the airport has been continuously improved since World War II as navigation and air traffic control systems evolved, as commercial aircraft became larger and larger. These improvements include: 1950, installation of the Instrument Landing System on runway 14-32 1955, runway 14-32 lengthened to 6,000 feet to accommodate the Vickers Viscount 1960, Meteorological Branch weather station opened 1965, new terminal building opened 1968, Air Canada begins DC-9 jet service 1974, runway 14-32 lengthened to 8,800 feet to accommodate DC-8, Boeing 707 and 747, L-1011 aircraft 1988, runway 05-23 decommissioned 1990, new radar system installed 1998, control of the airport was transferred from Transport Canada to the Greater London International Airport Authority 2003, main terminal building renovated and expanded CHC Helicopter — Ornge Jet Aircraft Museum - The Jet Aircraft Museum operates 6 Canadair T-33 Silver Stars - otherwise known as the T-bird Executive Aviation — Esso-affiliated fixed-base operator Trek Aviation - Aircraft Maintenance and Consulting Services B&W Aviation — Shell-affiliated fixed-base operator Diamond Aircraft — Light aircraft manufacturer Discovery Air — Niche flight services Diamond Flight Centre - Flight training school Forest City Flight Centre — Flight training school AFS Aerial Photography — Aerial photography services Aero Academy 427 Wing - Air Force Association of Canada International Test Pilots SchoolLondon International Airport Fire Crash and Rescue Station provides fire and rescue operations at the airport with three crash tenders based on Blair Boulevard.
Shuttle service is available for passengers wishing to connect to flights at Toronto Pearson International Airport in Toronto. London Transit Commission provides service between Fanshawe College. On December 15, 2016, a Bombardier Dash 8, Air Canada Jazz Flight 8640, bound from London to Toronto slid off the runway into snow-covered grass following takeoff, it was snowing at the time of incident but the runway was reported to be in good condition. None of the 53 passengers or crew on board were injured. All passengers
Dryden Regional Airport
Dryden Regional Airport, is located 4.3 nautical miles northeast of Dryden, Canada. On March 10, 1989, Air Ontario Flight 1363, a Fokker F28-1000 Fellowship, crashed shortly after takeoff due to ice on the wings. 21 of the 65 people on board perished. Dryden Water Aerodrome Page about this airport on COPA's Places to Fly airport directory Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Dryden Regional Airport from Nav Canada as available. Official website
Muskoka Airport is located 4 nautical miles south of Bracebridge, Canada. The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency on a call-out basis from the Toronto Island Airport. CBSA officers at this airport can handle general aviation aircraft only, with no more than 15 passengers; the airport was opened in 1936 as Reay Airport and renamed to the current name in 1938. From 1942 to end of World War II, it served as a training facility for the Royal Norwegian Air Force. Known as "Little Norway", it replaced the Toronto Island Airport as their main training base in Canada; the Royal Canadian Air Force used this as an auxiliary airfield to CFB Borden during World War II. Military use ended and the airport transferred to Department of Transport; the airport has been owned by the District Municipality of Muskoka since 1996. During the mid 20th century the airport was an emergency landing facility for Trans Canada Airlines and the RCAF; the airport is used by general aviation and other operators: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Canadian Forces Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Official site Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Muskoka Airport from Nav Canada as available