Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions. Catabolism breaks down large molecules into smaller units. Catabolism is the breaking-down aspect of metabolism. Cells use the monomers released from breaking down polymers to either construct new polymer molecules, or degrade the monomers further to simple waste products, releasing energy. Cellular wastes include lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide and urea; the creation of these wastes is an oxidation process involving a release of chemical free energy, some of, lost as heat, but the rest of, used to drive the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. This molecule acts as a way for the cell to transfer the energy released by catabolism to the energy-requiring reactions that make up anabolism.. Catabolism therefore provides the chemical energy necessary for the growth of cells. Examples of catabolic processes include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the breakdown of muscle protein in order to use amino acids as substrates for gluconeogenesis, the breakdown of fat in adipose tissue to fatty acids, oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters by monoamine oxidase.

There are many signals. Most of the known signals are the molecules involved in metabolism itself. Endocrinologists have traditionally classified many of the hormones as anabolic or catabolic, depending on which part of metabolism they stimulate; the so-called classic catabolic hormones known since the early 20th century are cortisol and adrenaline. In recent decades, many more hormones with at least some catabolic effects have been discovered, including cytokines and melatonin; the word catabolism is from New Latin, which got the roots from Greek: κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw". Autophagy Dehydration synthesis Hydrolysis Nocturnal post absorptive catabolism Psilacetin § Pharmacology Sarcopenia Media related to Catabolism at Wikimedia Commons

Green Line Rivalry

The Green Line Rivalry known as the B-Line Rivalry, the Battle of Boston and Battle of Commonwealth Avenue, is the name for the sports rivalry between Boston College and Boston University. The rivalry is named after the Green Line, a light rail line that runs along Commonwealth Avenue and links the two schools as part of the MBTA, Boston's public transit system; the two campuses lie less than five miles apart. The Green Line Rivalry is considered one of the top rivalries in college sports and first among college hockey rivalries; the Green Line Rivalry is the third most played college hockey rivalry series after the Michigan–Michigan State rivalry and the Battle for the Gold Pan. The series dates to February 6, 1918, when BU first began playing hockey, played its lone game that year against BC, a 3–1 loss at the Boston Arena. Since no other opponent has appeared on either teams' schedule more often; the rivalry has been renewed annually since the 1946–47 season, the two teams have met at least twice a year since 1949.

The schools have met 275 times. With 18 NCAA championship game appearances between them, including a matchup in the 1978 championship game, Boston College and Boston University both field perennially competitive collegiate ice hockey teams, they compete in the Hockey East since 1984, having both been members of the ECAC since 1961. The two teams meet twice annually as part of their regular Hockey East season schedule, also meet in the Hockey East and NCAA postseason tournaments. Additionally, each first and second Monday in February, BC and BU, along with Harvard and Northeastern, take part in the annual Beanpot Tournament held at TD Garden, where the Eagles and Terriers square off in the championship game. In the 64 years of the tournament, the two teams have played for the Beanpot trophy 22 times, with BU winning 12 of the championship matchups and BC winning 10. Both teams have had stretches where they dominated the tournament, the Terriers have triumphed more winning the title 30 times compared to the Eagles' 20 titles.

The Eagles defeated the Terriers 1–0 in overtime of the 2016 Beanpot championship. Both teams have won the national championship five times; the two rivals faced off in the 1978 championship game in Providence, with BU claiming its third national championship with a 5–3 victory in Providence, RI. BU and BC have met in NCAA tournament play on one other occasion in the 2006 NCAA Men's Division I Ice Hockey Tournament Northeast Regional Final, with the Eagles skating to a 5–0 victory over the top-seeded Terriers; the rivalry is highlighted by its intensity and mutual contempt between both fans. For instance, after BU's victory over BC in the 1978 national championship, BU co-captain Jack O'Callahan was quoted as saying "We shouldn't have to beat BC for the nationals. Hell, we can do that anytime." In a 2005 Sports Illustrated article, BC senior captain Ryan Shannon said that "Every once in a while, out in a restaurant, you see familiar faces. But hockey culture is so humble. Outside the rink, you see those guys as human beings," but when the on the rink: "They're evil.

They're a Terrier." Games feature an array of chants and insults chanted by each schools' students sections, the BC Superfans and BU Dog Pound. The rivalry was amplified when on January 8, 2010, BC and BU faced off at Fenway Park, the first men's college hockey game to be played at Boston's iconic ballpark. BU edged BC 3–2 in front of a crowd of 38,000, the largest crowd to watch the two schools play. A documentary about the rivalry entitled The Battle of Comm Ave. was released in 2009 by Rival Films. The documentary contains game footage and interviews with numerous coaches. On November 8, 2013, the teams faced off in the first non York–Parker matchup since 1994; the Eagles defeated. Parker retired in the 2012–13 offseason after 40 years of coaching the Terriers. "The Green Line Rivalry" referred to the football rivalry between the schools, a series begun in 1893 and played annually from 1928–1942 and 1954–1962. With BC leading the series 27–4–1, BU discontinued the rivalry after the 1962 season.

BU terminated its football program in 1997. The club football team at Boston University expressed interest in renewing the football Green Line Rivalry with Boston College with a junior varsity team, in the 2015 season; the Green Line Rivalry has come to refer to the rivalry between BC and BU in other sports. In soccer, the two schools open the season against each other with the expectation of large freshman-filled crowds. List of NCAA college football rivalry games College rivalries

Malmesbury, Western Cape

Malmesbury is a town of 36,000 inhabitants in the Western Cape province of South Africa, about 65 km north of Cape Town. The town is the largest in the Swartland which took its name from the Renosterbos, an indigenous plant that turns black in the warm, dry summers; the area is known for its grain and wine cultivation as well as sheep and poultry farming. Malmesbury was named after the Earl of Malmesbury. Settlers were encouraged to make their homes here because of a tepid sulphur chloride mineral spring, renowned for curing rheumatism; the first farms were allocated in 1703. When the fifth Dutch Reformed congregation in the Cape was established here, it became known as Zwartlands-kerk but was renamed Malmesbury in 1829; the town acquired municipal status in 1860. In 1911 the Encyclopædia Britannica recorded the population of the town at 3811, however this may refer to a white population, as a census of 1849 recorded a total of 8520 residents; the town no longer attracts the ailing because this aspect was never developed by the local authority, today a shopping centre is located on top of the site with only a decorative fountain marking the location of the original spring.

Ryan Grebe McNeil Hendricks Maggie Laubser The following statistics describing Malmesbury are from the 2011 census. Area: 18.8 square kilometres Population: 35,897: 1,909.3 inhabitants per square kilometre Households: 9,473: 503.9 per square kilometre Municipality — Malmesbury was a municipality in its own right from 1860 to 2000. By 1931, the council had adopted an emblem depicting a plough in front of a sheaf of wheat, surrounded by a buckled strap inscribed Deo frumentoque vires; this device was depicted on a cigarette card issued in 1931. In 1963, the council assumed a coat of arms, designed by Cornelis Pama, it registered the arms with the Cape Provincial Administration in December 1963, had them formally granted by the provincial administrator on 8 July 1966 and registered them at the Bureau of Heraldry in September 1969. The arms were: Per chevron Sable and Gules, a chevron ermine between in chief two garbs and in base a sea-lion Or. In layman's terms: the shield was divided by an ermine chevron, the upper half displaying two golden sheaves of wheat on a black background and the lower half a golden heraldic sea-lion on a red background.

The sea-lion was evidently derived from the arms of Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff, who established the church from which the town developed. The crest was an upright spade between two rhenosterbos branches, the motto, once again, was Deo frumentoque vires. Divisional council — The Malmesbury divisional council, which administered the rural areas of the district outside the town, assumed a coat of arms, designed by Ivan Mitford-Barberton, on 24 June 1958; the arms were: Per fess Sable and Azure, a fess wavy Gules fimbriated Argent between in chief an eagle displayed between two ears of wheat palewise Or and in base a sea-lion naiant per pale Or and Argent. In layman's terms: the shield was divided horizontally into black and blue and displayed, from top to bottom, a golden eagle between two sheaves of wheat, a red wavy stripe edged in silver, a gold and silver heraldic sea-lion. Mother City SkyDiving operates out of a private airfield 12km to the north of Malmesbury and provides a service for experienced sport skydivers, offers Tandem Introductory Skydiving.

Malmesbury has a variety of Sports Facilities including Rugby & Bowling Club. The international organisation Parkrun hosts a regular 5km run for anyone to join for free