Peri Bathous, Or the Art of Sinking in Poetry
"Peri Bathous, Or the Art of Sinking in Poetry" is a short essay by Alexander Pope published in 1728. The aim of the essay is to ridicule contemporary poets. "Peri Bathous" is a blow Pope struck in an ongoing struggle against the "dunces". It is a prose parody of Longinus' Peri Hupsous, in that he imitates Longinus' system for the purpose of ridiculing contemporary poets. According to John Upton, the title reflects an actual phrase in Longinus' treatise, εἰ ἔστιν ὕψους τις ἢ βάθους τέχνη, in which "βάθους" is a scribal error for "πάθους". With the essay, Pope introduced the use of the term "bathos" to mean a failed attempt at sublimity, a ridiculous failure to sustain it, or, more an anticlimax. Although Pope's manual of bad verse offers numerous methods for writing poorly, of all these ways to "sink", the method, most remembered now is the act of combining serious matters with trivial ones; the radical juxtaposition of the serious with the frivolous does two things. First, it violates "decorum", or the fittingness of subject, second, it creates humor with an unexpected and improper juxtaposition.
In chapter X, titled Of Tropes and Figures: and first of the variegating and reversing Figures, Pope explains the comic use of the tropes and figures of speech. This part is continued in chapter XI, titled The Figures continued: Of the Magnifying and Diminishing Figures. Among the figures covered are: Catachresis; the nearest model for Pope's essay is the Treatise of the Sublime by Boileau of 1712. Pope admired Boileau, but one of Pope's literary adversaries, Leonard Welsted, had issued a "translation" of Longinus in 1726, a translation of Boileau; because Welsted and Pope's other foes were championing this "sublime," Pope commented upon and countered their system with his Peri Bathous in the Swift-Pope-Gay-Arbuthnot Miscellanies. Whereas Boileau had offered a detailed discussion of all the ways in which poetry could ascend or be "awe-inspiring," Pope offers a lengthy schematic of the ways in which authors might "sink" in poetry, satirizing the men who were allied with Ambrose Philips. Pope and Philips had been adversaries since the publication of Pope's Odes, the rivalry broke down along political lines.
One example of Pope's style and satire shows in his description of sinking in painting. In the commonplace Academic hierarchic ranking of pictorial genres, still life ranked the lowest. However, Pope describes how it might fall and, with the single word "stiffen," evokes the unnatural deadness, a mark of failure in this "low" genre: Many Painters who could never hit a Nose or an Eye, have with Felicity copied a Small-Pox, or been admirable at a Toad or a Red-Herring, and are we without Genius's for Still Life, which they can work up and stiffen with incredible Accuracy.. 1728 in poetry Alexander Pope, The Major Works, Oxford University Press, 2006. Contains Pope's Peri Bathous at pp.195–238
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire. Developed in reaction to World War I, the Dada movement consisted of artists who rejected the logic and aestheticism of modern capitalist society, instead expressing nonsense and anti-bourgeois protest in their works; the art of the movement spanned visual and sound media, including collage, sound poetry, cut-up writing, sculpture. Dadaist artists expressed their discontent with violence and nationalism, maintained political affinities with the radical far-left. There is no consensus on the origin of the movement's name. Others note that it suggests the first words of a child, evoking a childishness and absurdity that appealed to the group. Still others speculate that the word might have been chosen to evoke a similar meaning in any language, reflecting the movement's internationalism; the roots of Dada lie in pre-war avant-garde. The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 to characterize works which challenge accepted definitions of art.
Cubism and the development of collage and abstract art would inform the movement's detachment from the constraints of reality and convention. The work of French poets, Italian Futurists and the German Expressionists would influence Dada's rejection of the tight correlation between words and meaning. Works such as Ubu Roi by Alfred Jarry, the ballet Parade by Erik Satie would be characterized as proto-Dadaist works; the Dada movement's principles were first collected in Hugo Ball's Dada Manifesto in 1916. The Dadaist movement included public gatherings and publication of art/literary journals. Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Marcel Duchamp, Emmy Hennings, Hans Arp, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Tristan Tzara, Francis Picabia, George Grosz, John Heartfield, Man Ray, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, Hans Richter, Max Ernst, Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven among others; the movement influenced styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, groups including Surrealism, nouveau réalisme, pop art and Fluxus.
Dada was an informal international movement, with participants in North America. The beginnings of Dada correspond to the outbreak of World War I. For many participants, the movement was a protest against the bourgeois nationalist and colonialist interests, which many Dadaists believed were the root cause of the war, against the cultural and intellectual conformity—in art and more broadly in society—that corresponded to the war. Avant-garde circles outside France knew of pre-war Parisian developments, they had seen Cubist exhibitions held at Galeries Dalmau, Galerie Der Sturm in Berlin, the Armory Show in New York, SVU Mánes in Prague, several Jack of Diamonds exhibitions in Moscow and at De Moderne Kunstkring, Amsterdam. Futurism developed in response to the work of various artists. Dada subsequently combined these approaches. Many Dadaists believed that the'reason' and'logic' of bourgeois capitalist society had led people into war, they expressed their rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to reject logic and embrace chaos and irrationality.
For example, George Grosz recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a protest "against this world of mutual destruction."According to Hans Richter Dada was not art: it was "anti-art." Dada represented the opposite of everything. Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend; as Hugo Ball expressed it, "For us, art is not an end in itself... but it is an opportunity for the true perception and criticism of the times we live in."A reviewer from the American Art News stated at the time that "Dada philosophy is the sickest, most paralyzing and most destructive thing that has originated from the brain of man." Art historians have described Dada as being, in large part, a "reaction to what many of these artists saw as nothing more than an insane spectacle of collective homicide."Years Dada artists described the movement as "a phenomenon bursting forth in the midst of the postwar economic and moral crisis, a savior, a monster, which would lay waste to everything in its path... a systematic work of destruction and demoralization...
In the end it became nothing but an act of sacrilege." To quote Dona Budd's The Language of Art Knowledge, Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of the First World War. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zürich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense and intuition; the origin of the name Dada is unclear. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara's and Marcel Janco's frequent use of the words "da, da," meaning "yes, yes" in the Romanian language. Another theory says that the name "Dada" came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French–German dictionary happened to point to'dada', a French word for'hobbyhorse'; the movement involved
Timon of Athens
Timon of Athens is a play by William Shakespeare written in collaboration with Thomas Middleton in about 1605–1606, published in the First Folio in 1623. It is about the fortunes of an Athenian named Timon; the central character is a beloved citizen of Athens who through tremendous generosity spends his entire fortune on corrupt hangers-on only interested in getting the next payout. The earliest-known production of the play was in 1674, when Thomas Shadwell wrote an adaptation under the title The History of Timon of Athens, The Man-hater. Multiple other adaptations followed over the next century, by writers such as Thomas Hull, James Love and Richard Cumberland; the straight Shakespearean text was performed at Smock Alley in Dublin in 1761, but adaptations continued to dominate the stage until well into the 20th century. Timon of Athens was grouped with the tragedies, but some scholars name it one of the problem plays. In the beginning, Timon is a generous Athenian gentleman, he hosts a large banquet, attended by nearly all the main characters.
Timon gives away money wastefully, everyone wants to please him to get more, except for Apemantus, a churlish philosopher whose cynicism Timon cannot yet appreciate. He accepts art from Poet and Painter, a jewel from the Jeweller, but by the end of Act 1 he has given that away to another friend. Timon's servant, has been wooing the daughter of an old Athenian; the man is angry, but Timon pays him three talents in exchange for the couple's being allowed to marry, because the happiness of his servant is worth the price. Timon is told that Ventidius, is in debtors' prison, he sends money to pay Ventidius's debt, Ventidius is released and joins the banquet. Timon gives a speech on the value of friendship; the guests are entertained by a masque, followed by dancing. As the party winds down, Timon continues to give things away to his friends: his horses, as well as other possessions; the act is divided rather arbitrarily into two scenes, but the experimental and/or unfinished nature of the play is reflected in that it does not break into a five-act structure.
Now Timon has given away all his wealth. Flavius, Timon's steward, is upset by the way Timon has spent his wealth, overextending his munificence by showering patronage on the parasitic writers and artists, delivering his dubious friends from their financial straits. Timon is upset that he has not been told this before, begins to vent his anger on Flavius, who tells him that he has tried in the past without success, now he is at the end. Shadowing Timon is another guest at the banquet: the cynical philosopher Apemantus, who terrorises Timon's shallow companions with his caustic raillery, he was the only guest not angling for money or possessions from Timon. Along with a Fool, he attacks Timon's creditors when they show up to make their demands for immediate payment. Timon cannot pay, sends out his servants to make requests for help from those friends he considers closest. Timon's servants are turned down, one by one, by Timon's false friends, two giving lengthy monologues as to their anger with them.
Elsewhere, one of Alcibiades's junior officers has reached an further point of rage, killing a man in "hot blood." Alcibiades pleads with the Senate for mercy, arguing that a crime of passion should not carry as severe a sentence as premeditated murder. The senators disagree, when Alcibiades persists, banish him forever, he vows revenge, with the support of his troops. The act finishes with Timon discussing with his servants the revenge he will carry out at his next banquet. Timon hosts; the serving trays are brought in. Timon sprays them with the water, throws the dishes at them, flees his home; the loyal Flavius vows to find him. Cursing the city walls, Timon goes into the wilderness and makes his crude home in a cave, sustaining himself on roots. Here he discovers an underground trove of gold; the knowledge of his discovery spreads. Alcibiades and three bandits are able to find Timon before Flavius does. Accompanying Alcibiades are two prostitutes and Timandra, who trade barbs with the bitter Timon on the subject of venereal disease.
Timon offers most of the gold to the rebel Alcibiades to subsidise his assault on the city, which he now wants to see destroyed, as his experiences have reduced him to misanthropy. He gives the rest to his whores to spread disease, much of the remainder to Poet and Painter, who arrive soon after, leaving little for the senators who visit him; when Apemantus appears and accuses Timon of copying his pessimistic style there is a mutually misanthropic exchange of invective. Flavius arrives, he wants the money as well, but he wants Timon to come back into society. Timon acknowledges that he has had one true friend in Flavius, a shining example of an otherwise diseased and impure race, but laments that this man is a mere servant, he invites the last envoys from Athens, who hoped Timon might placate Alcibiades, to go hang themselves, dies in the wilderness. Alcibiades, marching on Athens throws down his glove, ends the play reading the bitter epitaph Timon wrote for himself, part of, composed by Callimachus: The play's date is uncertain, though its bitter tone links it with Coriolanus and King Lear.
John Day's play Humour Out of Breath, published in 1608, contains a reference to "the lord that gave all to his followers, begged more for himself"—a possible allusion to Timon that would, if valid, suppor
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
Catechesis is basic Christian religious education of children and adults. It started as education of converts to Christianity, but as the religion became institutionalized, catechesis was used for education of members, baptized as infants; as defined in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, paragraph 5: Catechesis is an education in the faith of children, young people and adults which includes the teaching of Christian doctrine imparted speaking, in an organic and systematic way, with a view to initiating the hearers into the fullness of Christian life. In the Catholic Church, catechist is a term used of anyone engaged in religious formation and education, from the bishop to lay ecclesial ministers and clergy to volunteers at the local level; the primary catechists for children are their communities. Protestant churches have Sunday School classes for educating children in religion, as well as adult classes for continuing education. In ecclesiology, a catechumen is a person receiving instruction from a catechist in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism.
The title and practice is most used by Anglican, Methodist, Reformed/Presbyterian, Roman Catholic Christians. Ecumenical organisations such as the North American Association for the Catechumenate are helping to, across several denominations, "shape ministries with adult seekers involving an extended time of faith formation and a meaningful experience of adult baptism at Easter." The word catechumen comes from the passive form of the Greek word κατηχέω, used seven times in the New Testament. In the passive, it means "to be instructed, informed." The catechumenate developed from the development of doctrine and the need to test converts against the dangers of falling away. The Bible records that the Apostle Paul while visiting some people who were described as "disciples", established they had received the baptism of John for the repentance of sins but had not yet heard of or received the Holy Spirit. Further, from the second century it appears that baptisms were held only at certain times of year, indicating that periods of instruction were the rule rather than the exception.
The Catholic Encyclopedia notes: "As the acceptance of Christianity involved belief in a body of doctrine and the observance of the Divine law, it is clear that some sort of preliminary instruction must have been given to the converts." See Council of Jerusalem. Justin Martyr, in his First Apology, cites instruction as occurring prior to baptism: As many as are persuaded and believe that what we teach and say is true, undertake to be able to live accordingly, are instructed to pray and to entreat God with fasting, for the remission of their sins that are past, we praying and fasting with them, they are brought by us where there is water, are regenerated in the same manner in which we were ourselves regenerated. The "persuasion" would be carried out by the preaching of an evangelist; that person would receive the sign of the Cross and aspersion with holy water from a minister, indicating their entry to the state of catechumen. In the early church, catechumens were instructed in the basic elements of the faith such as the Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, sacraments in preparation for baptism.
Catechumens were limited as to their attendance in formal services. As unbaptized, they could not take part in any service, for, reserved for those baptized. One practice permitted them to remain in the first part of the mass, but in the earliest centuries dismissed them before the Eucharist. Others had them entering through a side door, or observing from the side, from a gallery, or near the font, their desire for baptism was held to be sufficient guarantee of their salvation, if they died before the reception. In event of their martyrdom prior to baptism by water, this was held to be a "baptism by blood", they were honored as martyrs. In the fourth century, a widespread practice arose of enrolling as a catechumen and deferring baptism for years until shortly before death, when so ill that the normal practice of immersion was impossible, so that aspersion or affusion—the baptism of the sick—was necessary. Constantine was the most prominent of these catechumens. See Deathbed conversion. During the fourth and fifth centuries, baptism had become a several-week-long rite leading up to the baptism on Easter.
During this time, catechumens attended several meetings of intensive catechetical preaching by the bishop himself, accompanied by special prayers and other rites. Catechumens recited the Apostles' Creed on Holy Saturday to show that one had completed catechetical instruction. By the sixth century, most of those presented for baptism were infants, pre-baptismal catechesis was abandoned; the decline of preaching and education in general following the barbarian invasions affected the decline of catechesis. Instructors would teach Christians, baptized as children, to prepare for practicing the religion as thinkin
A spoonerism is an error in speech in which corresponding consonants, vowels, or morphemes are switched between two words in a phrase. These are named after the Oxford don and ordained minister William Archibald Spooner, famous for doing this. An example is saying "The Lord is a shoving leopard" instead of "The Lord is a loving shepherd." While spoonerisms are heard as slips of the tongue, getting one's words in a tangle, they can be used intentionally as a play on words. It is named after the Reverend William Archibald Spooner, Warden of New College, notoriously prone to this mistake; the term "Spoonerism" was well established by 1921. An article in The Times from that year reports that, The boys of Aldro School, Eastbourne... have been set the following task for the holidays: Discover and write down something about: The Old Lady of Threadneedle-street, a Spoonerism, a Busman's Holiday... In 1937, The Times quoted a detective describing a man as "a bricklabourer's layer" and used "Police Court Spoonerism" as the headline.
A spoonerism is known as a marrowsky, purportedly after a Polish count who suffered from the same impediment. Most of the quotations attributed to Spooner are apocryphal. Spooner himself claimed that "The Kinquering Congs Their Titles Take" was his sole spoonerism. Most spoonerisms were never uttered by William Spooner himself but rather made up by colleagues and students as a pastime. Richard Lederer, calling "Kinkering Kongs their Titles Take" one of the "few" authenticated Spoonerisms, dates it to 1879, he gives nine examples "attributed to Spooner, most of them spuriously." They are as follows: "Three cheers for our queer old dean!" "Is it kisstomary to cuss the bride?" "The Lord is a shoving leopard." "A blushing crow." "A well-boiled icicle" "You were fighting a liar in the quadrangle." "Is the bean dizzy?" "Someone is occupewing my pie. Please sew me to another sheet." "You have hissed all my mystery lectures. You have tasted a whole worm. Please leave Oxford on the next town drain." A newspaper column attributes this additional example to Spooner: "A nosey little cook.".
In modern terms, "spoonerism" refers to any changing of sounds in this manner. On the TV series Hee Haw, comedian/writer Archie Campbell was well known for using spoonerisms in his skits, most famously the "Pee Little Thrigs" and "Rindercella" skits, as well as doing so in his own comedy recordings well before the country/western-themed TV variety series, such as his "Beeping Sleauty" sketch. In Maisie and the Pinny Gig by Ursula Dubosarsky, a little girl named Maisie has a recurrent dream about a giant guinea pig, which she calls a "pinny gig." The Washington, D. C. political comedy sketch group Capitol Steps has a long-standing tradition of performing a routine called "Lirty Dies" during every performance, which features a 10-minute-long barrage of rapid-fire topical spoonerisms. A few examples over the years range from "Resident Pagan" and the US's periodic practice of "Licking their Peaders" to the NSA "poopin' on Snutin" and "phugging everybody's bones". Comedienne Jane Ace was notorious for her spoonerisms and other similar plays on words during her run as star of the radio sitcom Easy Aces.
"Puck Flattsburgh" is a common rallying cry in the sports rivalry between Oswego and Plattsburgh State Universities' men's ice hockey teams when Oswego is victorious. The phrase is a double entendre: if read at face value, indicates the sport and the Plattsburgh team playing "flat. To the above example, "Buck Fama" is a popular slogan in the rivalry between Louisiana State University and the University of Alabama; this slogan can be heard often from LSU fans. In the Robert McCloskey books Homer Price and Centerburg Tales, the sheriff uses spoonerisms, such as "sarber bhop" for "barber shop" and "waul them ahay" for "haul them away." Former Swansea City manager Bob Bradley was referred to as'Brad Bobley's Megnuts' by Swansea supporters and football-related TV shows such as Soccer AM, who poked fun at his American accent and terminology The dialogue in Jim Henson's The Frog Prince included a partly-spoonerized instruction to disable a disguised witch's enchantment on a princess: the spoonerism was spoken by the princess herself as "Bake the hall in the candle of her brain", when the actual phrase was meant to say, "Break the ball in the handle of her cane", referring to a crystal ball that held the disguised witch's powers.
In Gummi Bears, Zummi Gummi speaks in spoonerisms. Sir Stafford Cripps was once mistakenly called Sir Stifford Crapps by McDonald Hobley on the BBC. Shel Silverstein's book Runny Babbit is completely written in spoonerisms, from character names to anything else. In his poem "Translation," Brian P. Cleary describes a boy named Alex. Humorously, Cl
A euphemism is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the user wishes to downplay. Euphemisms may be used to mask profanity or refer to taboo topics such as disability, excretion, or death in a polite way. Euphemism comes from the Greek word euphemia which refers to the use of'words of good omen'. Eupheme is a reference to the female Greek spirit of words of positivity, etc.. The term euphemism. Reasons for using euphemisms vary by intent. Euphemisms are used to avoid directly addressing subjects that might be deemed negative or embarrassing. Euphemisms are used to downplay the gravity of large-scale injustices, war crimes, or other events that warrant a pattern of avoidance in official statements or documents. For instance, one reason for the comparative scarcity of written evidence documenting the exterminations at Auschwitz, relative to their sheer number, is "directives for the extermination process obscured in bureaucratic euphemisms".
The act of labeling a term as a euphemism can in itself be controversial, as in the following two examples: Affirmative action, meaning a preference for minorities or the disadvantaged in employment or academic admissions. This term is sometimes said to be a euphemism for reverse discrimination, or in the UK positive discrimination, which suggests an intentional bias that might be prohibited, or otherwise unpalatable. Enhanced interrogation is sometimes said to be a euphemism for torture. For example, columnist David Brooks called the use of this term for practices at Abu Ghraib, Guantánamo, elsewhere an effort to "dull the moral sensibility". Phonetic euphemism is used diminishing their intensity. Modifications include: Shortening or "clipping" the term, such as Jeez and what the— Mispronunciations, such as frak, what the fudge, what the truck, oh my gosh, darn, oh shoot, be-yotch, etc; this is referred to as a minced oath. Using first letters as replacements, such as SOB, what the eff, S my D, POS, BS.
Sometimes, the word "word" is added after it, such as S-word, B-word, etc.. The letter can be phonetically respelled. For example, the word piss was shortened to pee in this way. Ambiguous statements Understatements Metaphors Comparisons Metonymy Euphemism may be used as a rhetorical strategy, in which case its goal is to change the valence of a description from positive to negative; the use of a term with a softer connotation, though it shares the same meaning. For instance, screwed up is a euphemism for fucked up. There is some disagreement over whether certain terms are not euphemisms. For example, sometimes the phrase visually impaired is labeled as a politically correct euphemism for blind or a blind person. However, visual impairment can be a broader term, for example, people who have partial sight in one eye, those with uncorrectable mild to moderate poor vision, or those who wear glasses, groups that would be excluded by the word blind. Expressions or words from a foreign language may be imported for use as a replacement for an offensive word.
For example, the French word enceinte was sometimes used instead of the English word pregnant. This practice of word substitution became so frequent that the expression "pardon my French" was adopted in attempts to excuse the use of profanity. Euphemisms may be formed in a number of ways. Periphrasis, or circumlocution, is one of the most common: to "speak around" a given word, implying it without saying it. Over time, circumlocutions become recognized as established euphemisms for particular words or ideas. To alter the pronunciation or spelling of a taboo word to form a euphemism is known as taboo deformation, or a minced oath. In American English, words that are unacceptable on television, such as fuck, may be represented by deformations such as freak in children's cartoons. Feck is a minced oath popularised by the sitcom Father Ted; some examples of rhyming slang may serve the same purpose: to call a person a berk sounds less offensive than to call a person a cunt, though berk is short for Berkeley Hunt, which rhymes with cunt.
Bureaucracies spawn euphemisms intentionally, as doublespeak expressions. For example, in the past, the US military used the term "sunshine units" for contamination by radioactive isotopes. An effective death sentence in the Soviet Union during the Great Purge used the clause "imprisonment without right to correspondence": the person sentenced never had a chance to correspond with anyone because soon after imprisonment they w