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Cataclysmic variable star

Cataclysmic variable stars are stars which irregularly increase in brightness by a large factor drop back down to a quiescent state. They were called novae, from the Latin'new', since ones with an outburst brightness visible to the naked eye and an invisible quiescent brightness appeared as new stars in the sky. Cataclysmic variable stars are binary stars; the stars are so close to each other that the gravity of the white dwarf distorts the secondary, the white dwarf accretes matter from the companion. Therefore, the secondary is referred to as the donor star; the infalling matter, rich in hydrogen, forms in most cases an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Strong UV and X-ray emission is seen from the accretion disc, powered by the loss of gravitational potential energy from the infalling material. Material at the inner edge of disc falls onto the surface of the white dwarf primary. A classical nova outburst occurs when the density and temperature at the bottom of the accumulated hydrogen layer rise high enough to ignite runaway hydrogen fusion reactions, which convert the hydrogen layer to helium.

If the accretion process continues long enough to bring the white dwarf close to the Chandrasekhar limit, the increasing interior density may ignite runaway carbon fusion and trigger a Type Ia supernova explosion, which would destroy the white dwarf. The accretion disc may be prone to an instability leading to dwarf nova outbursts, when the outer portion of the disc changes from a cool, dull mode to a hotter, brighter mode for a time, before reverting to the cool mode. Dwarf novae can recur on a timescale of days to decades. Cataclysmic variables are subdivided into several smaller groups named after a bright prototype star characteristic of the class. In some cases the magnetic field of the white dwarf is strong enough to disrupt the inner accretion disk or prevent disk formation altogether. Magnetic systems show strong and variable polarization in their optical light, are therefore sometimes called polars. There are over 1600 known CV systems; the catalog was frozen as of 1 February 2006. Cataclysmic variables are among the classes of astronomical objects most found by amateurs, since a cataclysmic variable in its outburst phase is bright enough to be detectable with modest instruments, the only celestial objects confused with them are bright asteroids whose movement from night to night is clear.

Verifying that an object is a cataclysmic variable is fairly straightforward: they are quite blue objects, they exhibit rapid and strong variability, they tend to have peculiar emission lines. They emit in the X-ray ranges. Around six galactic novae are discovered each year, whilst models based on observations in other galaxies suggest that the rate of occurrence ought to be between 20 and 50; some cataclysmic variables experience periodic brightenings caused by deformations of the accretion disk when its rotation is in resonance with the orbital period of the binary. A Catalog and Atlas of Cataclysmic Variables Catalogue of Cataclysmic Binaries, Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries and Related Objects CVnet, a website and community for CV enthusiasts and researchers – features announcements of new discoveries A Beginner's Guide to Cataclysmic Variables – features a good categorisation of the different classes of stars Cataclysmic Variables, NASA's High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center page


Curracloe is a village in County Wexford, a few miles northeast of the town of Wexford, Ireland. It lies on the R742 regional road at the junction with R743, is linked to the long and sandy Curracloe Strand by the short R743 road, 4 km to the east. Curracloe sees a huge influx of holiday travellers every summer, who stay in bed & breakfast inns, mobile homes and caravan parks. Ballinesker Beach, Curracloe Strand, were used for the filming of the D-Day sequence in Saving Private Ryan, due to similarity to Omaha Beach in Normandy. Filming began 27 June 1997, lasted for two months; the village of Curracloe lacked 3-phase electricity but when the film company decided to film there, it was connected. Curracloe Strand was used for the Irish beach scene in the movie Brooklyn. List of towns and villages in Ireland


Wilo SE is a European manufacturer of pumps and pump systems for the building technology and industrial sectors with headquarters in Dortmund, Germany. Founded in 1872 as copper and brass factory by Louis Opländer, the company has over 60 subsidiaries in more than 50 countries and employs about 7,800 people worldwide. Wilo SE is the managerial holding of the WILO group, a result of a merger between Wilo-Salmson AG and Wilo GmbH in 2002. For the year 2018, the company registered a revenue of EUR 1,463.5 million with an EBIT of EUR 91.9 million. EUR 66.3 million was spent by the group for research and development in 2018. The group manufactures pumps and pump systems at 15 production facilities across Europe and America. Caspar Ludwig Opländer founded the company in 1872 as a brassware factory in Dortmund; the Caspar Ludwig Opländer Foundation, founded by the Opländer family in 2011, is the majority shareholder of the WILO SE with a stake of 90 percent. WILO group is managed by an Executive Board and a Supervisory Board composed of internationally recognised business leaders.

The Wilo Executive Board members include Georg Weber and Mathias Weyers. Wilo is a manufacturer of submersible mixers and related intelligent control systems; the product portfolio includes complete range of centrifugal pumps starting from small circulator, multistage, end-suction, split case, vertical turbine to packaged Pumping stations. Product development and manufacturing of Wilo products is based in Germany. Salmson is a manufacturer of pumps and pump systems for domestic and municipal applications based in France. Founded in 1890, Salmson has been a brand under Wilo group since 1984. From 24 September 2018, the company has decided to dissolve Salmson and concentrate on Wilo as its sole brand; as a result, Salmson products have been replaced by Wilo products and the Salmson brand will disappear over time. Mather and Platt which started operations in India in 1913 is a specialist manufacturer of large capacity engineered centrifugal pumps such as Multi-stage, Vertical Turbine, Non-clog and Axial Split Case for water and sewage applications.

Mather and Platt Pumps Ltd. became a part of WILO SE in the year 2005. The subsidiary, renamed as Wilo Mather and Platt Pvt. Ltd, will be known as Wilo India from 2020. GVA is a specialist manufacturer of aeration systems and agitators for biological wastewater treatment based in Germany. WILO SE acquired GVA in January 2016 and since the brand has been renamed as GVA – A WILO BRAND. 1872 Foundation of the company "Messingwarenfabrik Louis Opländer Maschinenbau" 1928 Invention of the world's first circulation accelerator 1965 Wilo international: Foundation of own subsidiaries 1984 Acquisition of the French pump manufacturer Pompes Salmson 1988 Launch of Wilo "Star-E", the world's first electronically regulated circulation pump 1994 New production plant, Wilo Pumps Ltd. opened in Korea 2001 In-house electronic production, Dortmund 2003 Acquisition of the EMU Unterwasserpumpen GmbH and EMU Anlagenbau GmbH 2005 Acquisition of Mather & Platt Pumps Ltd. India 2006 Acquisition of Circulating Pumps Ltd.

King's Lynn, Norfolk / England 2008 Change from WILO AG to WILO SE 2011 Foundation of the Caspar Ludwig Opländer Foundation 2014 Formation of Wilo Salmson France SAS merging Wilo France and Pompes Salmson 2016 Acquisition of GVA Gesellschaft für Verfahren der Abwassertechnik mbH & Co. 2016 New production plant in Moscow, Russia WILO SE, Dortmund/Germany WILO SE, Oschersleben/Germany WILO SE, Hof/Germany WILO EMU Anlagenbau GmbH, Roth/Germany Wilo Salmson France SAS, Laval/France WILO Intec S. A. S. Aubigny / France WILO USA LLC, Thomasville/USA WILO RUS o.o.o. Moscow/Russia WILO China Ltd. Beijing/China WILO ELEC China Ltd. Qinhuangdao/China WILO Pumps Ltd. Busan/Korea WILO Mather and Platt Pumps Pvt. Ltd. Pune/India WILO Mather and Platt Pumps Pvt. Ltd. Kolhapur/India WILO Pompa Sistemleri A.Ş. Istanbul/Turkey WILO SYSTEMS ITALIA SRL, Bari/ Italy

Eeltail catfish

The eeltail catfish are a family of catfish whose tails are elongated in an eel-like fashion. These catfishes are native to the Indian Ocean and western Pacific from Japan to Fiji; the family includes about 41 species in 10 genera. About half of the species are freshwater, occurring in New Guinea; these fish have eel-like bodies. Their tails are bluntly rounded. Most species have four pairs of barbels; the adipose fin is absent. The tail fin is formed by the joining of the second dorsal fin, the caudal fin, the anal fin, forming a single, continuous fin; some of these catfishes can inflict painful wounds. They use the barbels around their mouths to detect food. Unlike most marine teleosts, eeltails have an extra-branchial salt-secreting dendritic organ for osmoregulation; the dendritic organ is a product of convergent evolution with other vertebrate salt-secreting organs. The role of this organ was discovered by its high NKA and NKCC activity in response to increasing salinity. However, the Plotosidae dendritic organ may be of limited use under extreme salinity conditions, compared to more typical gill-based ionoregulation

Wilhelm Derfelden

Wilhelm Christoforovich Derfelden was a Imperial Russian General of the Cavalry from a family of Baltic Germans. He fought in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792, Polish–Russian War of 1792, Kościuszko Uprising of 1794. In the latter conflict he led troops in the battles of Praga. After a period of unemployment, he joined Alexander Suvorov's army in 1799 as a military mentor to Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich of Russia, he subsequently led a corps at Novi, Gotthard Pass, in Suvorov's Switzerland campaign. Duffy, Christopher. Eagles Over the Alps: Suvarov in Italy and Switzerland, 1799. Chicago, Ill.: The Emperor's Press. ISBN 1-883476-18-6. Smith, Digby; the Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill. ISBN 1-85367-276-9

87th Street (Woodruff) station

87th Street is an electrified commuter rail station along the Metra Electric Main Line in the Chatham neighborhood of the City of Chicago, Illinois. The station is located at 87th Street and Dauphin Avenue and is 10.86 miles away from the northern terminus at Millennium Station. In Metra's zone-based fare system, 87th Street-Woodruff Station is in zone C. Like much of the main branch of the Metra Electric line, 87th Street-Woodruff is built on elevated tracks near the embankment of a bridge over 87th Street; this bridge carries the Amtrak line that runs parallel to it, carrying the City of New Orleans and Saluki trains. East of this station is another Metra Electric station on 87th Street on the South Chicago Branch at 87th Street and Baltimore Avenue. Another Metra station on 87th Street is the Gresham station at 87th Street and Halsted Avenue, which serves the diesel-powered Rock Island District line; the Gresham Rock Island Metra station is about two miles west of the Woodruff Metra Electric station.

One mile west of the Woodruff station is the 87th Street station on the CTA Red Line at the Dan Ryan Expressway. At the Woodruff station, street-side parking is available on the southwest and southeast corners of 87th Street and Dauphin Avenue at the north end of Dauphin Park; this can be found on the west side of the station just south of 87th Street. Though Metra's official website claims no bus connections are available, CTA's 87 bus does stop at Dauphin and Ingleside Avenues near the station, as well as on South Dobson Avenue on the east side of the station; the northbound 4 Cottage Grove bus stops on the southeast corner of 87th Street and Cottage Grove Avenue and the southbound 4 stops on the northwest corner of 87th Street and Cottage Grove. This intersection is about a quarter-mile west of the Woodruff station. CTA 87 87th Metra – Stations – 87th Street 87th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View