Porta San Sebastiano
The Porta San Sebastiano is the largest and one of the best-preserved gates passing through the Aurelian Walls in Rome. Known as the Porta Appia, the gate sat astride the Appian Way, the regina viarum, which originated at the Porta Capena in the Servian Wall. During the Middle Ages it was called Accia, a name whose etymology is quite uncertain, but arguably associated with the river Almone, called "acqua Accia", that flowed nearby. A document ca. AD 1434 calls it Porta Domine quo vadis; the present name is attested only since the second half of 15th century, due to the vicinity to the Basilica of San Sebastiano and its catacombs. The original structure was constructed by Aurelian ca. AD 275 and included a double-arched opening surmounted by bow windows and two semi-cylindrical towers; the façade was faced with travertine. After a restoration, the towers were enlarged and linked, through two parallel walls, to the preexisting Arch of Drusus. In AD 401-402 Emperor Honorius reshaped the gate with a single fornix and a higher attic with two rows of six bow windows each.
The bases of the towers were incorporated within two square-plan platforms, faced with marble. A modification yielded the gate's present form, in which a floor has been added to the whole structure, towers included. Due to the absence of the usual plate commemorating the works, some archaeologists doubt that the work has not been carried out by Honorius, who left panegyric epigraphs on any other restored part of the walls or the gates; the latch was released by means of two wooden gates and a shutter that rolled, through still visible grooves, from the control room placed above, whose supporting travertine shelves are still existing. Some notches on the jambs could indicate that wooden beams were employed to strengthen the latch; because of the importance of the Appian Way, that just here entered the town, the whole area was concerned with great traffic movements during ancient Rome. It seems that close to the door there was an area designed for parking of the private means of transport that accessed the town from here.
This rule was effective for the members of the Imperial family, whose private means were parked in a reserved area just a little farther at the beginning of the Appian Way. Some lumps, still visible on the travertine upholstery in the basis of the monument, are quite interesting: they could be reference marks for the stone cutters. According to historian Antonio Nibby, in the centre of the arch of the hate, on the inner side, there is a carved Greek cross inscribed into a circumference, with an inscription in Greek, dedicated to Saint Conon and Saint George, dating back to 6th-7th century, but today there is no visible trace left. On the right jamb of the gate there is a carved figure portraying Archangel Michael killing a drake, alongside of a blackletter inscription written in Medieval Latin, that commemorates the battle fought on 29 September 1327 by Roman Ghibelline militiamen of the Colonnas, led by Giacomo de’ Pontani, against the Guelph army of Robert of Anjou, King of Naples, led by John II and Gaetano Orsini: ANNO DNI MC… XVII INDICTIONE XI MENSE SEPTEM BRIS DIE PENULTIM A IN FESTO SCI MICHA ELIS INTRAVIT GENS FORASTERA MURI A ET FUIT DEBELLA TA A POPULO ROMA NO QUI STANTE IA COBO DE PONTIA NIS CAPITE REG IONIS In addition to such remains, that are interesting from an historic viewpoint, the whole monument is noteworthy for the abundance of graffiti traces that, though not official at all, provide evidence of the daily life that occurred around the gate along the centuries.
On the left jamb, in front of Archangel Michael, there are several crosses and a christogram carved by pilgrims. On 5 April 1536, on the occasion of the entry in Rome of Emperor Charles V, Antonio da Sangallo the Younger changed the gate into a real triumphal arch, decorating it with statues and friezes, as well as arranging - through the demolition of former buildings - a triumphal way up to the Roman Forum; the event is commemorated by an inscription above the arch, which - using an adulation maybe a bit excessive - compares Charles to Scipio: “CARLO V ROM. IMP. AUG. III. AFRICANO”. On 4 December 1571, the triumphal procession in honor of Marcantonio Colonna, the winner of the battle of Lepanto passed through the gate; the feature of that procession that raised curiosity and interest was the parade of the one hundred and seventy chained Turkish prisoners. On that occasion Pasquino, the famous Roman talking statue, expressed its opinion, but this time without talking: it was primped with the blooding head of a Turk and a sword.
Since the 5th century, at least until the 15th, the farming out or the sell of town gates and of the toll collection for their transit to private citizens is attested as a usual practice. A document
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
The Five-Columns monument is a dedicatory addition to the Rostra in the Roman Forum dating to the early fourth century CE. This monument was part of the Tetrarchy’s expansion of the Forum and is connected to the tenth anniversary of the Caesares within the four-ruler system, it is referred to as the Fünfsäulendenkmal as well as the four-column monument, depending on Jupiter’s inclusion. Rebuilding the Roman Forum following the fire of 284 CE became an important task for the early reign of Diocletian and Maximian, they repaired the Basilica Iulia, the Curia, the Augustan Rostra. Among these projects was a northern extension of Augustus’ Rostra, located at the western side of the Roman Forum; this rebuilding included additional support for five large columns topped with porphyry statues of the two Augusti, the two Caesares, Jupiter. On the eastern side of the Forum, the Tetrarchs constructed a second Rostra that consisted of five column monuments as well. According to Gregor Kalas, the main proponent of mirrored Five-Columns monuments, the two speaker's platforms framed a visual link at opposite ends of the Forum that may have served to legitimize the Tetrarchic transformation of the principate created by Augustus.
This monument was dedicated during Diocletian’s first visit to Rome in 303 CE during his twentieth year as emperor, in celebration of the tenth anniversary of the younger Caesares of the Tetrarchy who would succeed him. The rescheduling of Caesares Constantius and Galerius’ celebration from 302, the end of their ninth year as was customary, to 303 reiterates the importance of synchronicity for the Tetrarchic anniversaries. Epigraphic evidence does not identify senatorial sponsorship of the monument, instead reinforcing the message of the imperial anniversary. After Pietro Rosa's excavations in the Forum between 1872 and 1874, only some brickwork from the southeast corner of the eastern Rostra survives, bearing remnants of fittings for ship's prows. Although dual Five-Columns Monuments could have existed on both the western and eastern Rostra, the evidence that remains is located at the Augustan western Rostra. At present, the sole surviving column base has been placed on a repurposed brick plinth not far from its original location, near the Arch of Septimius Severus to the left of the Via Sacra.
The monument's specific location on the Rostra has been debated. Some speculate that the columns were placed behind the speaker's platform, while others maintain that the columns were located on the Rostra; the columns would have had white marble bases with carved relief on all four sides. Fragments of columns that are presumed to have belonged to this monument suggest undecorated monoliths of pink Aswan granite topped with porphyry statues. All of the statues would have been more than life-sized, at 2.5 to 2.8 meters each, with the four rulers atop columns 36 Roman Feet-tall, Jupiter's column at the center would have been 40 RF high. Approximate measurements have been calculated based on the surviving marble plinth, with the tops of the columns reaching 13 meters above the Rostra floor, excluding the statue heights. Although insufficient evidence remains to make similar conjectures about the columns at the eastern Rostra, it is reasonable to suppose that the eastern monument would have been of similar proportions.
The Five-Columns monument is most recognized for its only preserved marble plinth, called the decennalia base. With relief carvings of ceremonial and ritual scenes on all four sides, this column base was uncovered in 1547 and now stands close to the findspot; the side with the decennalia inscription, from which the base name derives, is agreed to have been the most prominent side of the plinth. As for the other three sides, scholars vary in the order of their descriptions. Together, these reliefs represent the rites involved with taking vows for another decade of Tetrarchic reign; some scholars have observed a sequence among the panel reliefs in which the animals are being led toward the sacrificial altar, with the imperial procession heading for the altar scene. This northern side faces the via Sacra, in its center, two winged Victories hold a shield with the inscription “Caesarum decennalia feliciter,” celebrating the tenth anniversary of the Caesares. However, neither emperor is identified a fact which Kalas believes “anticipated the continuity of joint rulership beyond the first Tetrarchy”.
This southern side shows a small Victory crowning emperor, though unclear which one, making a libation at the altar of Mars. The god himself watches over the event from the left; the flamen Martialis priest, as identified by his pointed cap, stands between Victory. Positioned in front of the flamen is one child bearing the incense box and another playing flutes or pipes. To the emperor's right is a toga-clad personification of the Senate, genius senatus, with another senator on the far left of the scene. On the far right of the sacrifice are a headless seated Roma and a radiant Sol Invictus, who as a pair symbolize eternal Rome. Together with Mars and Victory, the emperor's offering unites military victory with the eternal glory of Rome; this western side depicts a scene of preparations of a bull and pig for sacrificial offering, in a ritual called the suovetaurilia. With the animals are attendants and a priest to perform the sacrifice, as part of the Tetrarchic decennial vows; this eastern side, facing the rest of the Forum, shows a procession of Roman senators.
Four of them are carrying banners. A few inscribed marble bases believed to come from this monument were uncovered in the area during the Renaissance. Although they have since been lost, one of them is recorded to have said, “Augustorum vicennalia feliciter” celebrating the twentie
Porta Cavalleggeri was one of the gates of the Leonine Wall in Rome. Its remains are now walled in the stretch of wall facing the square that takes its name after it: this is a recreation, since the original location of the gate, until 1904, was some meters away, on the other side of Piazza del Sant’Uffizio, its former name was Porta ad Scholam Longobardorum, due to its vicinity to a community of Lombards that had settled close to it. It was named Porta Turrionis, as it rose alongside the tower, still visible at the entrance of Galleria Principe Amedeo; when Pope Pius IV built the barracks of the Cavalry Guard Regiment in the vicinity, the gate took the name it still bears. The age of its construction is quite controversial. According to Nibby, it was erected soon after the return of the Popes from the Avignon Papacy, at the end of the 14th century, when the pontiffs, coming back to Rome from Avignon with a large retinue, took up definitively their residence in Vatican; the three gates of the Leonine Wall turned out to be too few to meet the needs of the resulting population and building increase.
On the other hand Stefano Piale, on the basis of a 1590 document and some previous quotes, maintains that it was built by Pope Nicholas V, thus dating it back to mid-14th century. Other quotes backdate it to the building of the walls of Pope Leo IV, in about 850, but they appear to be scarcely reliable, as they clash with most of the texts, some of which are accredited. Moreover, references to Porta Turrionis appear just in reports and chronicles subsequent to the end of the 14th century. On the top of the arch are still visible two coats of arms of the House of Borgia, placed by Pope Alexander VI in memory of the restoration works that involved the gate and the surrounding stretch of wall about in 1500; the aspect of the gate and of the restoration is the one still visible nowadays. In this place, on 30 April 1849, the Brigade of General Pierre Alexandre Jean Mollière launched its first attack against the Roman Republic; the gate was defended by the 2nd Brigade of the 8th Battalion, led by General Luigi Masi, made up of 1,000 men from the National Guard and 1,700 men from the Papal troops, among which there was the actor Tommaso Salvini.
On that occasion the French were rejected. Mauro Quercioli, Le mura e le porte di Roma, Newton Compton, 1982 Laura G. Cozzi, “Le porte di Roma”, F. Spinosi Ed. Rome, 1968 Trevelyan, George Macaulay. Garibaldi's Defence of the Roman Republic. Bologna: Zanichelli. Fracassi, Claudio. La meravigliosa storia della repubblica dei briganti Roma 1849. Mursia. ISBN 88-425-3425-0
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Arch of Dolabella
The Arch of Dolabella and Silanus or Arch of Dolabella is an ancient Roman arch. It was built by senatorial decree in 10 AD by the consuls P. Cornelius Dolabella and C. Junius Silanus; the arch is located at the north corner of the site of the Castra Peregrina. It spans the modern Via di S. Paolo della Croce, along the line of the ancient Clivus Scauri, its location indicates that it was a rebuilding of one of the gates of the Servian Walls, though which one is unclear: the Porta Querquetulana or the Porta Caelimontana. Although the latter is considered the more original, there is no indication that any important road went out of the city through the Caelimontana; the extension of the Aqua Claudia undertaken during the reign of Nero made use of the Arch of Dolabella for the last section. Its original purpose was to support a branch of the Aqua Marcia; the travertine arch was not decorated with sculptural relief. Bill Thayer's photo at LacusCurtius
Daniel (biblical figure)
Daniel is the hero of the biblical Book of Daniel. A noble Jewish youth of Jerusalem, he is taken into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and serves the king and his successors with loyalty and ability until the time of the Persian conqueror Cyrus, all the while remaining true to the God of Israel; the consensus of modern scholars is that Daniel never existed, the book is a cryptic allusion to the reign of the 2nd century BCE Greek king Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Six cities claim the Tomb of Daniel, the most famous being that in Susa, in southern Iran, at a site known as Shush-e Daniyal, he is not a prophet in Judaism, but the rabbis reckoned him to be the most distinguished member of the Babylonian diaspora, unsurpassed in piety and good deeds, firm in his adherence to the Law despite being surrounded by enemies who sought his ruin, in the first few centuries CE they wrote down the many legends that had grown up around his name. The various branches of the Christian church do recognise him as a prophet, although he is not mentioned in the Quran, Muslim sources describe him as a prophet.
Daniel's name means "God is my judge". While the best known Daniel is the hero of the Book of Daniel who interprets dreams and receives apocalyptic visions, the Bible briefly mentions three other individuals of this name: The Book of Ezekiel refers to a legendary Daniel famed for wisdom and righteousness. In chapter 20, Ezekiel says of the sinful land of Israel that "even if these three, Noah and Job, were in it, they would deliver but their own lives by their righteousness." In chapter 28, Ezekiel taunts the king of Tyre, asking rhetorically, "art thou wiser than Daniel?" The author of the Book of Daniel appears to have taken this legendary figure, renowned for his wisdom, to serve as his central human character. Ezra 8:2 mentions a priest named Daniel. Daniel is a son of David mentioned at 1 Chronicles 3:1. Daniel is the name of a figure in the Aqhat legend from Ugarit.. This legendary Daniel is known for his righteousness and wisdom and a follower of the god El, who made his will known through dreams and visions.
It is unlikely that Ezekiel knew the far older Canaanite legend, but it seems reasonable to suppose that some connection exists between the two. The authors of the tales in the first half of the Book of Daniel were also unaware of the Ugaritic Daniel and took the name of their hero from Ezekiel; the Book of Daniel begins with an introduction telling how Daniel and his companions came to be in Babylon, followed by a set of tales set in the Babylonian and Persian courts, followed in turn by a set of visions in which Daniel sees the remote future of the world and of Israel. The tales in chapters 1–6 can be dated to the 3rd or early 2nd centuries BCE. In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim and his friends Hananiah and Azariah were among the young Jewish nobility carried off to Babylon following the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon; the four are chosen for their intellect and beauty to be trained in the Babylonian court, are given new names. Daniel is given the Babylonian name Belteshazzar, while his companions are given the Babylonian names Shadrach and Abednego.
Daniel and his friends refuse the food and wine provided by the king of Babylon to avoid becoming defiled. They receive wisdom from God and surpass "all the magicians and enchanters of the kingdom." Nebuchadnezzar dreams of a giant statue made of four metals with feet of mingled iron and clay, smashed by a stone from heaven. Only Daniel is able to interpret it: the dream signifies four kingdoms, of which Babylon is the first, but God will destroy them and replace them with his own kingdom. Nebuchadnezzar dreams of a great tree that shelters all the world and of a heavenly figure who decrees that the tree will be destroyed; when Nebuchadnezzar's son King Belshazzar uses the vessels from the Jewish temple for his feast, a hand appears and writes a mysterious message on the wall, which only Daniel can interpret. The Medes and Persians overthrow Nebuchadnezzar and the new king, Darius the Mede, appoints Daniel to high authority. Jealous rivals attempt to destroy Daniel with an accusation that he worships God instead of the king, Daniel is thrown into a den of lions, but an angel saves him, his accusers are destroyed, Daniel is restored to his position.
In the third year of Darius, Daniel has a series of visions. In the first, four beasts come out of the sea, the last with ten horns, an eleventh horn grows and achieves dominion over the Earth and the "Ancient of Days" gives dominion to "one like a son of man". An angel interprets the vision. In the second, a ram with two horns is attacked by a goat with one horn. A little horn arises and attacks the people of God and the temple, Daniel is informed how long the little horn's dominion will endure. In the third, Daniel is troubled to read in holy scripture (the book is not n