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1. Sensor – A sensor is always used with other electronics, whether as simple as a light or as complex as a computer. Moreover, analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used, applications include manufacturing and machinery, airplanes and aerospace, cars, medicine, robotics and many other aspects of our day-to-day life. A sensors sensitivity indicates how much the output changes when the input quantity being measured changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1 cm when the changes by 1 °C. Some sensors can also affect what they measure, for instance, Sensors are usually designed to have a small effect on what is measured, making the sensor smaller often improves this and may introduce other advantages. Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a scale as microsensors using MEMS technology. In most cases, a microsensor reaches a higher speed. Most sensors have a transfer function. The sensitivity is defined as the ratio between the output signal and measured property. For example, if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage output, the sensitivity is the slope of the transfer function. Converting the sensors electrical output to the measured units requires dividing the output by the slope. In addition, an offset is added or subtracted. For example -40 must be added to the output if 0 V output corresponds to -40 C input, for an analog sensor signal to be processed, or used in digital equipment, it needs to be converted to a digital signal, using an analog-to-digital converter. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property, the sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity error and this is an error in the slope of a linear transfer function. If the output differs from the correct value by a constant. This is an error in the y-intercept of a transfer function. Nonlinearity is deviation of a transfer function from a straight line transfer function

2. Mirror – This is different from other light-reflecting objects that do not preserve much of the original wave signal other than color and diffuse reflected light. The most familiar type of mirror is the mirror, which has a flat screen surface. Curved mirrors are used, to produce magnified or diminished images or focus light or simply distort the reflected image. Mirrors are commonly used for personal grooming or admiring oneself, decoration, Mirrors are also used in scientific apparatus such as telescopes and lasers, cameras, and industrial machinery. Most mirrors are designed for light, however, mirrors designed for other wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are also used. The first mirrors used by people were most likely pools of dark, still water, the requirements for making a good mirror are a surface with a very high degree of flatness, and a surface roughness smaller than the wavelength of the light. The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidian, examples of obsidian mirrors found in Anatolia have been dated to around 6000 BC. Mirrors of polished copper were crafted in Mesopotamia from 4000 BC, polished stone mirrors from Central and South America date from around 2000 BC onwards. In China, bronze mirrors were manufactured from around 2000 BC, some of the earliest bronze, Mirrors made of other metal mixtures such as copper and tin speculum metal may have also been produced in China and India. Mirrors of speculum metal or any precious metal were hard to produce and were owned by the wealthy. Stone mirrors often had poor reflectivity compared to metals, yet metals scratch or tarnish easily, depending upon the color, both often yielded reflections with poor color rendering. The poor image quality of ancient mirrors explains 1 Corinthians 13s reference to seeing as in a mirror, glass was a desirable material for mirrors. Because the surface of glass is smooth, it produces reflections with very little blur. In addition, glass is very hard and scratch resistant, however, glass by itself has little reflectivity, so people began coating it with metals to increase the reflectivity. According to Pliny, the people of Sidon developed a technique for creating crude mirrors by coating glass with molten lead. Glass mirrors backed with gold leaf are mentioned by Pliny in his Natural History and these circular mirrors were typically small, from only a fraction of an inch to as much as eight inches in diameter. These small mirrors produced distorted images, yet were prized objects of high value and these ancient glass mirrors were very thin, thus very fragile, because the glass needed to be extremely thin to prevent cracking when coated with a hot, molten metal. Due to the quality, high cost, and small size of these ancient glass mirrors

3. Catoptrics – Catoptrics deals with the phenomena of reflected light and image-forming optical systems using mirrors. A catoptric system is called a catopter. Catoptrics is the title of two texts from ancient Greece, The Pseudo-Euclidean Catoptrics and this book is attributed to Euclid, although the contents are a mixture of work dating from Euclids time together with work which dates to the Roman period. It has been argued that the book may have been compiled by the 4th century mathematician Theon of Alexandria, the book covers the mathematical theory of mirrors, particularly the images formed by plane and spherical concave mirrors. Written by Hero of Alexandria, this concerns the practical application of mirrors for visual effects. In the Middle Ages, this work was ascribed to Ptolemy. It only survives in a Latin translation, the Latin translation of Alhazens main work, Book of Optics, exerted a great influence on Western science, for example, on the work of Roger Bacon, who cites him by name. His research in catoptrics centred on spherical and parabolic mirrors and spherical aberration and he made the observation that the ratio between the angle of incidence and refraction does not remain constant, and investigated the magnifying power of a lens. His work on catoptrics also contains the known as Alhazens problem. The first practical catoptric telescope was built by Isaac Newton as a solution to the problem of chromatic aberration exhibited in telescopes using lenses as objectives

4. Lens (optics) – A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple lens consists of a piece of transparent material, while a compound lens consists of several simple lenses. Lenses are made from such as glass or plastic, and are ground. A lens can focus light to form an image, unlike a prism, devices that similarly focus or disperse waves and radiation other than visible light are also called lenses, such as microwave lenses, electron lenses, acoustic lenses, or explosive lenses. The word lens comes from the Latin name of the lentil, the genus of the lentil plant is Lens, and the most commonly eaten species is Lens culinaris. The lentil plant also gives its name to a geometric figure, the variant spelling lense is sometimes seen. While it is listed as a spelling in some dictionaries. The oldest lens artifact is the Nimrud lens, dating back 2700 years to ancient Assyria, david Brewster proposed that it may have been used as a magnifying glass, or as a burning-glass to start fires by concentrating sunlight. Another early reference to magnification dates back to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs in the 8th century BC, the earliest written records of lenses date to Ancient Greece, with Aristophanes play The Clouds mentioning a burning-glass. Some scholars argue that the evidence indicates that there was widespread use of lenses in antiquity. Such lenses were used by artisans for fine work, and for authenticating seal impressions, both Pliny and Seneca the Younger described the magnifying effect of a glass globe filled with water. The Viking lenses were capable of concentrating enough sunlight to ignite fires, between the 11th and 13th century reading stones were invented. Often used by monks to assist in illuminating manuscripts, these were primitive plano-convex lenses initially made by cutting a sphere in half. As the stones were experimented with, it was understood that shallower lenses magnified more effectively. Lenses came into use in Europe with the invention of spectacles. Spectacle makers created improved types of lenses for the correction of vision based more on knowledge gained from observing the effects of the lenses. With the invention of the telescope and microscope there was a deal of experimentation with lens shapes in the 17th. Opticians tried to construct lenses of varying forms of curvature, wrongly assuming errors arose from defects in the figure of their surfaces

6. Panoramic format – A panorama is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model. The word was coined in the 18th century by the English painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh. The motion-picture term panning is derived from panorama, a panoramic view is also purposed for multi-media, cross-scale applications to an outline overview along and across repositories. This so-called cognitive panorama is a view over, and a combination of. The device of the panorama existed in painting, particularly in murals, as early as 20 A. D. in those found in Pompeii, cartographic experiments during the Enlightenment era preceded European panorama painting and contributed to a formative impulse toward panoramic vision and depiction. In the mid-19th century, panoramic paintings and models became a popular way to represent landscapes, topographic views. Audiences of Europe in this period were thrilled by the aspect of illusion, immersed in a winding 360 degree panorama, the panorama was a 360-degree visual medium patented under the title Apparatus for Exhibiting Pictures by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. The earliest that the word appeared in print was on June 11,1791 in the British newspaper The Morning Chronicle. The inaugural exhibition, a View of Edinburgh, was first shown in that city in 1788, by 1793, Barker had built The Panorama rotunda at the center of Londons entertainment district in Leicester Square, where it remained until closed in 1863. Large scale installations enhance the illusion for an audience of being surrounded with a real landscape, the Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland was created by Edouard Castres in 1881. The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a circumference of 112 meters, in the United States of America is the Atlanta Cyclorama, depicting the Civil War Battle of Atlanta. It was first displayed in 1887, and is 42 feet high by 358 feet circumference, also on a gigantic scale, and still extant, is the Racławice Panorama located in Wrocław, Poland, which measures 15 x 120 metres. In addition to historical examples, there have been panoramas painted and installed in modern times, prominent among these is the Velaslavasay Panorama in Los Angeles. Panoramic photography soon came to painting as the most common method for creating wide views. Not long after the introduction of the Daguerreotype in 1839, photographers began assembling multiple images of a view into a wide image. Pinhole cameras of a variety of constructions can be used to make panoramic images and this generates an egg-shaped image with more than 180° view. They could run autonomously with silent synchronization pulses to control projector advance and fades, precisely overlapping slides placed in slide mounts with soft-edge density masks would merge seamlessly on the screen to create the panorama. Cutting and dissolving between sequential images generated animation effects in the panorama format, digital photography of the late twentieth century greatly simplified this assembly process, which is now known as image stitching

7. Camera – Thumb|A2016 Nikon D810 A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both. The images may be individual still photographs or sequences of images constituting videos or movies, the camera is a remote sensing device as it senses subjects without physical contact. The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means dark chamber and is the Latin name of the device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura, the functioning of the camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. A camera may work with the light of the spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A still camera is a device which creates a single image of an object or scene. All cameras use the basic design, light enters an enclosed box through a converging lens/convex lens. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time that light can enter the camera, a display, often a liquid crystal display, permits the user to view scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed, exposure, and shutter speed. A movie camera or a video camera operates similarly to a camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession. When the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved, the forerunner to the photographic camera was the camera obscura. The oldest known record of this principle is a description by Han Chinese philosopher Mozi, Mozi correctly asserted that the camera obscura image is inverted because light travels in straight lines from its source. In the 11th century Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham s wrote very influential essays about experiments with light through an opening in a darkened room. The use of a lens in the opening of a wall or closed window shutter of a room to project images used as a drawing aid has been traced back to circa 1550. Since the late 17th century portable camera obscura devices in tents, before the development of the photographic camera, it had been known for hundreds of years that some substances, such as silver salts, darkened when exposed to sunlight. The first person to use this chemistry to create images was Thomas Wedgwood, to create images, Wedgwood placed items, such as leaves and insect wings, on ceramic pots coated with silver nitrate, and exposed the set-up to light. These images werent permanent, however, as Wedgwood didnt employ a fixing mechanism and he ultimately failed at his goal of using the process to create fixed images created by a camera obscura. The first permanent photograph of an image was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a sliding wooden box camera made by Charles. Niépce had been experimenting with ways to fix the images of a camera obscura since 1816, the photograph Niépce succeeded in creating shows the view from his window

8. Geophone – A geophone is a device that converts ground movement into voltage, which may be recorded at a recording station. The deviation of this voltage from the base line is called the seismic response and is analyzed for structure of the earth. The term geophone derives from the Greek word γῆ meaning earth, geophones have historically been passive analog devices and typically comprise a spring-mounted magnetic mass moving within a wire coil to generate an electrical signal. The response of a geophone is proportional to ground velocity. MEMS have a higher noise level than geophones and can only be used in strong motion or active seismic applications. The frequency response of a geophone is that of an oscillator, fully determined by corner frequency. Since the corner frequency is proportional to the root of the moving mass. It is possible to lower the corner electronically, at the price of higher noise. Although waves passing through the earth have a nature, geophones are normally constrained to respond to single dimension - usually the vertical. However, some require the full wave to be used. In analog devices, three moving coil elements are mounted in an arrangement within a single case. The majority of geophones are used in seismology to record the energy waves reflected by the subsurface geology. In this case the primary interest is in the motion of the Earths surface. However, not all the waves are upwards travelling, a strong, horizontally transmitted wave known as ground-roll also generates vertical motion that can obliterate the weaker vertical signals. By using large areal arrays tuned to the wavelength of the ground-roll the dominant noise signals can be attenuated, analog geophones are very sensitive devices which can respond to very distant tremors. These small signals can be drowned by larger signals from local sources and it is possible though to recover the small signals caused by large but distant events by correlating signals from several geophones deployed in an array. Signals which are registered only at one or few geophones can be attributed to unwanted, local events and it can be assumed that small signals that register uniformly at all geophones in an array can be attributed to a distant and therefore significant event. The sensitivity of passive geophones is typically 30 Volts/, so they are in general not a replacement for broadband seismometers, conversely, some applications of geophones are interested only in very local events

9. Hydrophone – A hydrophone is a microphone designed to be used underwater for recording or listening to underwater sound. Most hydrophones are based on a piezoelectric transducer that generates electricity when subjected to a pressure change, such piezoelectric materials, or transducers, can convert a sound signal into an electrical signal since sound is a pressure wave. Some transducers can also serve as a projector, but not all have this capability, a hydrophone can listen to sound in air but will be less sensitive due to its design as having a good acoustic impedance match to water, which is a denser fluid than air. The earliest widely used design was the Fessenden oscillator, an electrodynamically driven clamped-edge circular plate transducer operating at 500,1000, ernest Rutherford, in England, led pioneer research in hydrophones using piezoelectric devices, and his only patent was for a hydrophone device. The acoustic impedance of piezoelectric materials facilitated their use as underwater transducers, the piezoelectric hydrophone was used late in World War I, by convoy escorts detecting U-boats, greatly impacting the effectiveness of submarines. From late in World War I until the introduction of active sonar, hydrophones were the method for submarines to detect targets while submerged. A small single cylindrical ceramic transducer can achieve near perfect omnidirectional reception and this type of hydrophone can be produced from a low-cost omnidirectional type, but must be used while stationary, as the reflector impedes its movement through water. A new way to direct is to use a body around the hydrophone. The array may be steered using a beamformer, most commonly, hydrophones are arranged in a line array but may be in two- or three-dimensional arrangements. These are capable of clearly recording extremely low frequency infrasound, including many unexplained ocean sounds, communication with submarines Underwater acoustics Sonar Reflection seismology Pike, John. How to build & use low-cost hydrophones, dOSITS—Hydrophone introduction at Discovery of Sound in the Sea orcasound. High Quality Hydrophones— High quality manufacturer of Hydrophones

Mirror [videos]
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the
A mirror, reflecting a vase
A first surface mirror coated with aluminum and enhanced with dielectric coatings. The angle of the incident light (represented by both the light in the mirror and the shadow behind it) exactly matches the angle of reflection (the reflected light shining on the table).
Photographer taking picture of himself in curved mirror at the Universum museum in Mexico City
Lens (optics) [videos]
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple lens
A biconvex lens
Real image of a lamp is projected onto a screen (inverted). Reflections of the lamp from both surfaces of the biconvex lens are visible.
Close-up view of a flat Fresnel lens.
A catadioptric optical system is one where refraction and reflection are combined in an optical system, usually via
A 150 mm aperture catadioptric telescope (Maksutov)
An example of 'iris blur' or bokeh produced by a catadioptric lens, behind an in-focus light.
Image: 500mm Mirror Lens
Image: Sony Alpha 55 with Minolta 500 F8 Reflex
Camera [videos]
A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to
A 1966 Canon FT camera with a 135mm 1:3.5 lens
A 2016 Nikon D810
Manual shutter control and exposure settings can achieve unusual effects.
Image: View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
Geophone [videos]
A geophone is a device that converts ground movement (velocity) into voltage, which may be recorded at a recording
Geophone (SM-24), Bandwidth 10Hz to 240Hz, standard resistance 375Ω
Geosource Inc. MD-79—8Hz, 335Ω geophone
Man using a geophone
Microphone [videos]
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike , is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.
Shure Brothers microphone, model 55s, Multi-Impedance "Small Unidyne" Dynamic from 1951
A Sennheiser dynamic microphone
NTi Audio outdoor measurement microphone
David Edward Hughes invented a carbon microphone in the 1870s.
Seismometer [videos]
A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic
Japan Meteorological Agency Optical Electromagnetic Seismometer
Replica of Zhang Heng's seismoscope Houfeng Didong Yi
Milne horizontal pendulum seismometer. One of the Important Cultural Properties of Japan. Exhibit in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan.
Defect detector [videos]
A defect detector is a device used on railroads to detect axle and signal problems in passing trains. The detectors are
Standard North American installation of a combination Hot box / Dragging Equipment Detector.
Hotbox Detector
Bogie Performance Detector - TBOGI system
Sensors for the wheel condition monitor
A radar speed gun (also radar gun and speed gun) is a device used to measure the speed of moving objects. It is used in
Microdigicam Laser in use in Brazil
U.S. Army soldier uses a radar speed gun to catch speeding violators at Tallil Air Base, Iraq.
Disassembled radar speed gun. The copper cone is the microwave horn antenna. At the right end is the Gunn diode oscillator which generates the microwaves.
Speedometer [videos]
A speedometer or a speed meter is a gauge that measures and displays the instantaneous speed of a vehicle. Now
A Ford speedometer
A modern Toyota Corolla Speedometer
A speedometer showing mph and km/h along with an odometer and a separate "trip" odometer (both showing distance traveled in miles).
Image: Dashboard Speedometers
Smoke detector [videos]
A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial security devices issue a
Smoke Detector COFEM with approved EN 54-7
Inside a basic ionization smoke detector. The black, round structure at the right is the ionization chamber. The white, round structure at the upper left is the piezoelectric horn that produces the alarm sound.
An Americium container from a smoke detector
Optical smoke detector with the cover removed
Galvanometer [videos]
A galvanometer is an electromechanical instrument for detecting and indicating electric current. A galvanometer works
An early D'Arsonval galvanometer showing magnet and rotating coil
Modern closed-loop galvanometer-driven laser scanning mirror from Scanlab.
A galvanometer mechanism (center part), used in an automatic exposure unit of an 8 mm film camera, together with a photoresistor (seen in the hole on top of the leftpart).
Thomson mirror galvanometer, patented in 1858.
Magnetometer [videos]
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a
Helium Vector Magnetometer (HVM) of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft
The Magnetometer experiment for the Juno orbiter for Juno can be seen here on the end of a boom. The spacecraft uses two fluxgate magnetometers. (see also Magnetometer (Juno))
The compass is a simple type of magnetometer.
Coast and Geodetic Survey Magnetometer No. 18.
A radio direction finder (RDF) is a device for finding the direction, or bearing, to a radio source. The act of
Amelia Earhart's Lockheed Model 10 Electra with the circular RDF aerial visible above the cockpit
W.G. Wade of the National Bureau of Standards uses a large multi-loop antenna to perform RDF in this 1919 photo. This is a fairly small unit for the era.
This Royal Navy model is typical of B-T goniometers. The two sets of "field coils" and the rotating "sense coil" are visible.
World War II US Navy high frequency radio direction finder
Test light [videos]
A test light, test lamp, voltage tester, or mains tester is a simple piece of electronic test equipment used to
Neon test lamp for line voltages
A voltage tester with three lamps to give an approximate indication of voltage magnitude
Neon-lamp type tester, which has no amplifier; this type requires a direct metallic contact to the circuit to be tested.
Neon screwdriver test light in use. Current flows through a high ohm resistor and the lamp and the distributed capacitance and resistance of the user's body.
Electroscope [videos]
An electroscope is an early scientific instrument that is used to detect the presence and magnitude of electric charge
Gilbert's versorium.
Image: Gold leaf electroscope 2
Image: Электрометр Кольбе
Metal detector [videos]
A metal detector is an electronic instrument which detects the presence of metal nearby. Metal detectors are useful for
A U.S. Army soldier uses a metal detector to search for weapons and ammunition in March 2004.
Early metal detector, 1919, used to find unexploded bombs in France after World War 1.
Image: Stringer 156 nugget
U.S. Army soldiers use a metal detector in 2002.
Oxygen sensor [videos]
An oxygen sensor (or lambda sensor) is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or
A three-wire oxygen sensor suitable for use in a Volvo 240 or similar vehicle
A diving breathing gas oxygen analyser
A dissolved oxygen meter for laboratory use
A planar zirconia sensor (schematic picture)
Electronic nose [videos]
An electronic nose is a device intended to detect odors or flavors. — Over the last decade, "electronic sensing" or
Electronic nose developed in Analytical Chemistry Department (Chemical Faculty of Gdańsk University of Technology) allows for rapid classification of food or environmental samples
Cyranose 320 with labelling
Image: An Electronic Nose Estimates Odor Pleasantness
Glass electrode [videos]
A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific
A silver chloride reference electrode (left) and glass pH electrode (right)
Image: PH graph
Scheme of typical pH glass electrode.
Hydrophone [videos]
A hydrophone (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ = water and φωνή = sound) is a microphone designed to be used underwater for recording
A hydrophone
A hydrophone being lowered into the North Atlantic
Curb feeler [videos]
Curb feelers or curb finders are springs or wires installed on a vehicle which act as "whiskers" to alert drivers when
Curb feeler mounted behind the front wheel of a 1950s Rambler American.
Curb feeler on a 1973 VAZ-2103 Ziguli (left).
Mass flow sensor [videos]
A mass (air) flow sensor (MAF) is used to find out the mass flow rate of air entering a fuel-injected internal
A mass airflow sensor
A Holden Commodore's MAF sensor
Omniview technology [videos]
Omniview technology (also known as "surround view" or "bird view technology") is a vehicle parking assistant technology
Input images of the omniview system
A common output interface of the omniview system
Parking sensor [videos]
Parking sensors are proximity sensors for road vehicles designed to alert the driver to obstacles while parking. These
Ultrasonic parking sensor
Parking sensor on a fender
Breathalyzer [videos]
A breathalyzer or breathalyser (a portmanteau of breath and analyzer/analyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol
A law enforcement grade Breathalyzer, specifically an Alco-Sensor IV
An evidential breath tester
Carbon monoxide detector [videos]
A carbon monoxide detector or CO detector is a device that detects the presence of the carbon monoxide (CO) gas in
Carbon Monoxide detector connected to a North American power outlet
Carbon monoxide alarm
Magnetic anomaly detector [videos]
A magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) is an instrument used to detect minute variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The
The SH-60B Seahawk helicopter carries a yellow and red towed MAD array known as a ‘MAD bird’, seen on the aft fuselage
Hall effect sensor [videos]
A Hall effect sensor is a transducer that varies its output voltage in response to a magnetic field. Hall effect
The magnetic piston (1) in this pneumatic cylinder will cause the Hall effect sensors (2 and 3) mounted on its outer wall to activate when it is fully retracted or extended.
Engine fan with Hall effect sensor
Commonly used circuit symbol
Sensor [videos]
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in
An infrared sensor
Air–fuel ratio meter [videos]
An air–fuel ratio meter monitors the air–fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine. Also called air–fuel ratio gauge,
Narrowband O2 oxygen sensor voltage vs AFR for a gas engine
Blind spot monitor [videos]
The blind spot monitor is a vehicle-based sensor device that detects other vehicles located to the driver’s side and
Blind spot detector on side mirrors
Throttle position sensor [videos]
A throttle position sensor (TPS) is a sensor used to monitor the throttle position of a vehicle. The sensor is usually
Throttle body showing throttle position sensor on the right
A catalytic bead sensor is a type of sensor that is used for combustible gas detection from the family of gas sensors
Image: Sensor MSA 94150
Nondispersive infrared sensor [videos]
A nondispersive infrared sensor (or NDIR sensor) is a simple spectroscopic sensor often used as a gas detector. It is
NDIR-analyzer with one double tube for CO and another double tube for hydrocarbons
Pellistor [videos]
A pellistor is a solid-state device used to detect gases which are either combustible or which have a significant
Robust sensor with stainless steel case and sintered port
Zinc oxide nanorod sensor [videos]
A zinc oxide nanorod sensor or ZnO nanorod sensor is an electronic or optical device detecting presence of certain gas
Image: Zn O nanorod gas sensor
MEMS magnetic field sensor [videos]
A MEMS magnetic field sensor is a small-scale microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device for detecting and measuring
Tri-axis Electronic Magnetometer by AKM Semiconductor, inside Motorola Xoom
Actinometer [videos]
Actinometers are instruments used to measure the heating power of radiation. They are used in meteorology to measure
Actinometer instrument designed by Jules Violle and used to estimate the temperature of the Sun's surface.
Ceilometer [videos]
A ceilometer is a device that uses a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud ceiling or cloud
Laser ceilometer
Gas detector [videos]
A gas detector is a device that detects the presence of gases in an area, often as part of a safety system. This type
Portable gas detector
Catoptrics [videos]
Catoptrics (from Greek: κατοπτρικός katoptrikós, "specular", from Greek: κάτοπτρον katoptron "mirror") deals with the
Light path of a Newtonian (catoptric) telescope
Crankshaft position sensor [videos]
A crank sensor is an electronic device used in an internal combustion engine, both petrol and diesel, to monitor the
Typical inductive crankshaft position sensor
Tire-pressure monitoring system [videos]
A tire-pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is an electronic system designed to monitor the air pressure inside the
Image: TPMS warning icon
Image: TPMS failure icon
Electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor sensor [videos]
An Electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor (EIS) sensor is a sensor that is made of these three components: — an electrolyte
Principle of EIS sensor
Ion selective electrode [videos]
An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that
Valinomycin