Charles Williams (British writer)
Charles Walter Stansby Williams was a British poet, playwright, literary critic, member of the Inklings. Williams was born in London in 1886, the only son of Walter Stansby Williams, a journalist and foreign business correspondent for an importing firm, writing in French and German, a'regular and valued' contributor of verse and articles to many popular magazines, his wife Mary, a former milliner, of Islington, he had one sister, born in 1889. The Williams family lived in'shabby-genteel' circumstances, owing to Walter's increasing blindness and the decline of the firm by which he was employed, in Holloway. In 1894 the family moved to St Albans in Hertfordshire, where Williams lived until his marriage in 1917. Educated at St Albans School, Williams was awarded a scholarship to University College London, but he left school in 1904 without attempting to gain a degree due to an inability to pay tuition fees. Williams began work in 1904 in a Methodist bookroom, he was hired by the Oxford University Press as a proofreading assistant in 1908 and climbed to the position of editor.
He continued to work at the OUP in various positions of increasing responsibility until his death in 1945. One of his greatest editorial achievements was the publication of the first major English-language edition of the works of Søren Kierkegaard. Although chiefly remembered as a novelist, Williams published poetry, works of literary criticism, drama, biography, a voluminous number of book reviews; some of his best known novels are War in Heaven, Descent into Hell, All Hallows' Eve. T. S. Eliot, who wrote an introduction for the last of these, described Williams's novels as "supernatural thrillers" because they explore the sacramental intersection of the physical with the spiritual while examining the ways in which power spiritual power, can corrupt as well as sanctify. All of Williams's fantasies, unlike those of J. R. R. Tolkien and most of those of C. S. Lewis, are set in the contemporary world. Williams has been described by Colin Manlove as one of the three main writers of "Christian fantasy" in the twentieth century.
More recent writers of fantasy novels with contemporary settings, notably Tim Powers, cite Williams as a model and inspiration. W. H. Auden, one of Williams's greatest admirers re-read Williams's extraordinary and unconventional history of the church, The Descent of the Dove, every year. Williams's study of Dante entitled The Figure of Beatrice was highly regarded at its time of publication and continues to be consulted by Dante scholars today, his work inspired Dorothy L. Sayers to undertake her translation of The Divine Comedy. Williams, regarded his most important work to be his dense and complex Arthurian poetry, of which two books were published, Taliessin through Logres and The Region of the Summer Stars, more remained unfinished at his death; some of Williams's essays were collected and published posthumously in Image of the City and Other Essays, edited by Anne Ridler. Williams gathered many disciples during his lifetime, he was, for a period, a member of the Salvator Mundi Temple of the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross.
He met fellow Anglican Evelyn Underhill in 1937 and was to write the introduction to her published Letters in 1943. When World War II broke out in 1939, Oxford University Press moved its offices from London to Oxford. Williams was reluctant to leave his beloved city, Florence refused to go. From the nearly 700 letters he wrote his wife during the war years a generous selection has been published, but the move to Oxford did allow him to participate in Lewis’s literary society known as the Inklings. In this setting Williams was able to read his final published novel, All Hallows' Eve, as well as to hear J. R. R. Tolkien read aloud to the group some of his early drafts of The Lord of the Rings. In addition to meeting in Lewis's rooms at Oxford, they regularly met at The Eagle and Child pub in Oxford. During this time Williams gave lectures at Oxford on John Milton, William Wordsworth, other authors, received an honorary M. A. degree. Williams is buried in Holywell Cemetery in Oxford: his headstone bears the word "poet", followed by the words "Under the Mercy", a phrase used by Williams himself.
In 1917 Williams married his first sweetheart, Florence Conway, following a long courtship during which he presented her with a sonnet sequence that would become his first published book of poetry, The Silver Stair. Their son Michael was born in 1922. Williams was an unswerving and devoted member of the Church of England, reputedly with a tolerance of the scepticism of others and a firm belief in the necessity of a "doubting Thomas" in any apostolic body. Although Williams attracted the attention and admiration of some of the most notable writers of his day, including T. S. Eliot and W. H. Auden, his greatest admirer was C. S. Lewis, whose novel That Hideous Strength has been regarded as inspired by his acquaintance with both the man and his novels and poems. Williams came to know Lewis after reading Lewis's then-recently published study The Allegory of Love. Coincidentally, Lewis had just finished reading Williams's novel The Place of the Lion and
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved wide recognition in his day and—while influential within the continental tradition of philosophy—has become influential in the analytic tradition as well. Although Hegel remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy is universally recognized. Hegel's principal achievement was his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism, sometimes termed absolute idealism, in which the dualisms of, for instance and nature and subject and object are overcome, his philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, art and philosophy. His account of the master–slave dialectic has been influential in 20th-century France. Of special importance is his concept of spirit as the historical manifestation of the logical concept and the "sublation" of contradictory or opposing factors: examples include the apparent opposition between nature and freedom and between immanence and transcendence.
Hegel has been seen in the 20th century as the originator of the thesis, synthesis triad, but as an explicit phrase it originated with Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Hegel has influenced many writers whose own positions vary widely. Karl Barth described Hegel as a "Protestant Aquinas" while Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that "all the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, German existentialism, psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel." He was born on August 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, capital of the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, he was known as Wilhelm to his close family, his father, Georg Ludwig, was Rentkammersekretär at the court of Duke of Württemberg. Hegel's mother, Maria Magdalena Louisa, was the daughter of a lawyer at the High Court of Justice at the Württemberg court, she died of a "bilious fever". Hegel and his father caught the disease, but they narrowly survived. Hegel had Christiane Luise. At the age of three, he went to the German School.
When he entered the Latin School two years he knew the first declension, having been taught it by his mother. In 1776, he entered Stuttgart's gymnasium illustre and during his adolescence read voraciously, copying lengthy extracts in his diary. Authors he read include the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and writers associated with the Enlightenment, such as Christian Garve and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, his studies at the Gymnasium were concluded with his Abiturrede entitled "The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey". At the age of eighteen, Hegel entered the Tübinger Stift, where he had as roommates the poet and philosopher Friedrich Hölderlin and the philosopher-to-be Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Sharing a dislike for what they regarded as the restrictive environment of the Seminary, the three became close friends and mutually influenced each other's ideas. All admired Hellenic civilization and Hegel additionally steeped himself in Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Lessing during this time.
They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm. Schelling and Hölderlin immersed themselves in theoretical debates on Kantian philosophy, from which Hegel remained aloof. Hegel at this time envisaged his future as that of a Popularphilosoph, i.e. a "man of letters" who serves to make the abstruse ideas of philosophers accessible to a wider public. Although the violence of the Reign of Terror in 1793 dampened Hegel's hopes, he continued to identify with the moderate Girondin faction and never lost his commitment to the principles of 1789, which he would express by drinking a toast to the storming of the Bastille every fourteenth of July. Having received his theological certificate from the Tübingen Seminary, Hegel became Hofmeister to an aristocratic family in Bern. During this period, he composed the text which has become known as the Life of Jesus and a book-length manuscript titled "The Positivity of the Christian Religion", his relations with his employers becoming strained, Hegel accepted an offer mediated by Hölderlin to take up a similar position with a wine merchant's family in Frankfurt, to which he relocated in 1797.
Here, Hölderlin exerted an important influence on Hegel's thought. While in Frankfurt, Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on Religion and Love". In 1799, he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate", unpublished during his lifetime. In 1797, the unpublished and unsigned manuscript of "The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism" was written, it was written in Hegel's hand, but thought to have been authored by either Hegel, Schelling, Hölderlin, or an unknown fourth person. In 1801, Hegel came to Jena with the encouragement of his old friend Schelling, who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University there. Hegel secured a position at the University as a Privatdozent after submitting the inaugural dissertation De Orbitis Planetarum, in
Now Wait for Last Year
Now Wait for Last Year is a 1966 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, it is set in 2055. Dr. Eric Sweetscent and his wife Kathy get addicted to a powerful drug that appears to cause time travel; the doctor's patient is UN Secretary General. Of the twenty-eight novels Dick published in the 1960s and 1970s, this novel is one of the five chosen to represent this period of his career in The Library of America series, Volume Two. Set during a war between the'Starmen and six-limbed insectoid creatures called the reegs, Now Wait for Last Year is the story of Eric Sweetscent, an organ-transplant doctor who gets wrapped up in Earth-Lilistar politics. At the onset of the story, Sweetscent is the personal org-trans surgeon for Virgil Ackerman, the president of Tijuana Fur & Dye. Using an extraterrestrial amoeba which can imitate the cell-structure of anything it touches, TF&D had been the largest manufacturer of synthetic furs on the planet, but like all major corporations on Earth, TF&D has been requisitioned to produce for the war effort.
Ackerman invites Sweetscent to "Wash-35", a recreation of his boyhood native Washington DC in a simulated 1935 and his vacation getaway on Mars, where he announces an ulterior motive in the retreat. Waiting for them when they arrive is a guest—Gino Molinari, the elected leader of Earth. Known as "the Mole", he is rumored to have the enigmatic ability to come back from the dead, he has requested the services of Sweetscent. Ackerman gladly passes Sweetscent on to Molinari. Meanwhile, Sweetscent's wife, tries JJ-180, a new hallucinogenic drug which proves to be toxic and addictive; the effects of JJ-180 are not clear at first, only hours off of it, Kathy finds herself unable to function and violently craving JJ-180 again. She is visited by'Starmen who claim the reegs invented JJ-180 as a chemical weapon against the'Starmen and Terrans stating that there is no known cure for the drug's addiction and'That's why we put you on it'. Kathy is now a slave to JJ-180. The'Starmen inform Kathy of her husband's new position with Molinari and suspect the latter's possible defection to the reegs.
Kathy is promised more JJ-180. Threatened with deportation, Kathy agrees to their terms, she takes a second dose of the drug as her ability to function becomes nearly impossible due the effects of the withdrawal. Jumping into a taxi-cab, both she and the cab are plunged back in time to the 1930s; as the effects of the drug wear off, they make their way back to the present time, uncertain as to whether the past they visited was their own or an alternate one. An paranoid Kathy sets off to visit her husband. Under his new employer Eric Sweetscent is let in on certain State secrets: Molinari seems to have a psychosomatic condition that mirrors any illness or disease of anyone in his vicinity; the effects of this condition appear to be real, yet the Mole pulls through every time, always returning from the brink of death. Molinari, like everyone else, has realized that in siding with the'Starmen Earth has doomed itself to the wrong side of a losing war. However, there does not seem to be any safe way of defecting to the reegs, Molinari fears that his deteriorating health will not instill confidence in the Terrans should the'Starmen retaliate, as they are certain to do.
Sweetscent is shown footage of a healthier, younger Molinari in uniform and is led to believe that an android look-alike of the President has been created for public appearances, a notion that does not account for the fact that there is at least one other Molinari on the premises, a bullet-ridden corpse, being preserved for use in the event of certain possible future developments. Kathy arrives to inform her husband of her addiction, in an effort to motivate him to find a cure she slips a pill of JJ-180 into his drink. Without enough time to be furious, Eric slips a year into the future of an alternate world where his colleagues inform him that he disappeared the day Kathy came to visit. Sweetscent witnesses that in the new timeline Earth has sided with the reegs and Lilistar has lost the war. Upon returning to the present of his own timeline, Sweetscent is eager to present this information to Molinari, who reveals that he too has been taking JJ-180, that the effect is different for each user.
Certain users are sent to the past. Each trip is in an alternate universe, therefore no one can change their own past or future. However, aside from minor details, events in all observed universes seem to be moving in the same direction, therefore, information obtained from one alternate world's future will most be applicable to another. In Molinari's case he slips sideways in time under the drug's influence and is able to pull alternate versions of his present self into his own timeline and keep them there. Having learned the secret to Molinari's alter-aliases as well as confirming the feasibility of an alliance with the reegs, Eric takes a larger dose of JJ-180 which propels him further into the future. While there, he obtains a cure for JJ-180's addiction, an item of wide accessibility in the future, as well as obtaining more information about the possible future of the war in his own timeline, he gathers information as to the effects of JJ-180 on the brain as he is worried about Kathy's mental condition.
Taking a fraction of a pill so as to not return to his own time, Eric again ends up one year in his own future where the'Starmen have occupied Earth after learning of the Terrans' defection to the reegs. He is arrested by a'St
Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer known as the Milwaukee Cannibal or the Milwaukee Monster, was an American serial killer and sex offender who committed the rape and dismemberment of 17 men and boys from 1978 to 1991. Many of his murders involved necrophilia and the permanent preservation of body parts—typically all or part of the skeleton. Although diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, a psychotic disorder, Dahmer was found to be sane at his trial. Convicted of 15 of the 16 murders he had committed in Wisconsin, Dahmer was sentenced to 15 terms of life imprisonment on February 15, 1992, he was sentenced to a 16th term of life imprisonment for an additional homicide committed in Ohio in 1978. On November 28, 1994, Dahmer was beaten to death by Christopher Scarver, a fellow inmate at the Columbia Correctional Institution. Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer was born at the Evangelical Deaconess Hospital in Milwaukee, United States, on May 21, 1960, the first of two sons born to Joyce Annette and Lionel Herbert Dahmer.
Dahmer's mother worked as a teletype machine instructor, his father was a student at Marquette University, working towards a degree in chemistry. His father was of German and Welsh ancestry, his mother was of Norwegian and Irish ancestry, it has been claimed. As Dahmer's mother found the routine of breastfeeding exhausting and irritating, she refused to feed her son in this manner. Other sources, suggest that Dahmer was doted upon as an infant and toddler by both parents, although his mother was known to be tense, greedy for both attention and pity, argumentative with her husband and their neighbors; as her son entered first grade, Joyce Dahmer began to spend an increasing amount of her time in bed recovering from weakness. Lionel's university studies kept him away from home much of the time, she worked herself into a state of anxiety over trivial matters to appease her husband. On one occasion, Joyce Dahmer attempted suicide from an overdose of the Equanil pills to which she had become addicted.
Neither parent devoted much time to their son. Dahmer has been described as being an "energetic and happy child" until he became notably subdued after undergoing a double hernia surgery, performed shortly before his fourth birthday, he recalled his early years of family life as being of "extreme tension" which he noted between his parents, whom he observed to be arguing with each other. At elementary school, he was regarded as both timid by his peers. On his first grade report card, one teacher described Dahmer as a reserved child whom she sensed felt neglected; this teacher did note. Nonetheless, although reserved and uncommunicative in grade school, Dahmer did have a small number of friends. From an early age, Dahmer manifested an interest in animals. Friends recalled Dahmer collected large insects and butterflies, which he placed inside jars, he collected animal carcasses from the roadside accompanied by one or more of his few friends. According to one friend, Dahmer dismembered these animals and stored the parts in jars in the family's wooden toolshed, always explaining that he was curious as to how each animal "fitted together".
In one instance, he decapitated the carcass of a dog before nailing the animal's body to a tree. He impaled the skull of this dog upon a stake beside a wooden cross in woodland behind his house. Dahmer's fascination with dead animals might have begun when, at the age of four, he noted his father removing animal bones from beneath the family home. According to Lionel Dahmer, his son was "oddly thrilled" by the sound the bones made, developed a fixation for playing with and collecting animal bones, he searched beneath and around the family home for additional bones. With live animals, he explored their bodies to discover; the Dahmer family relocated to Doylestown, Ohio, in October 1966. At the time, Joyce Dahmer was pregnant with her second child; when she gave birth to a baby boy on December 18, 1966, Jeffrey was allowed to choose the name of the baby. He chose the name David for his younger brother; the same year, Lionel Dahmer achieved his degree and subsequently obtained employment as an analytical chemist in the city of Akron, Ohio.
In 1968, the family relocated to Ohio. Two years over a family meal of chicken, Dahmer asked his father what would happen if the bones of the chicken were to be placed in a bleach solution. Lionel Dahmer was, by this stage, concerned as to his elder son's placid and lethargic attitude and his solitary existence, he willingly demonstrated to his son how to safely preserve animal bones. This knowledge regarding the cleansing and preserving of bones was used by Dahmer on many of the animal remains which he continued to avidly collect. From his freshman year at Revere High School, Dahmer was seen by his peers as an outcast with few friends. Many of Dahmer's classmates recollected being disturbed by the fact that he drank both beer and hard alcohol, which he smuggled into school inside the lining of his army fatigue jacket and concealed in his locker; this drinking occurred before and after school, was first noted when Dahmer was 14. On one occasion, a cl
Philip K. Dick
Philip Kindred Dick was an American writer known for his work in science fiction. His work explored philosophical and political themes, with stories dominated by monopolistic corporations, alternative universes, authoritarian governments, altered states of consciousness, his writing reflected his interest in metaphysics and theology, drew upon his life experiences in addressing the nature of reality, drug abuse and transcendental experiences. Born in Illinois, he moved to California and began publishing science fiction stories in the 1950s, his stories found little commercial success. His 1962 alternative history novel The Man in the High Castle earned Dick early acclaim, including a Hugo Award for Best Novel, he followed with science fiction novels such as Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Ubik. His 1974 novel Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said won the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for best novel. Following a series of religious experiences in February 1974, Dick's work engaged more explicitly with issues of theology and the nature of reality, as in such novels as A Scanner Darkly and VALIS.
A collection of his non-fiction writing on these themes was published posthumously as The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick, he died at age 53, due to complications from a stroke. Dick's writing produced 44 published novels and 121 short stories, most of which appeared in science fiction magazines during his lifetime. A variety of popular films based on Dick's works has been produced, including Blade Runner, Total Recall, Minority Report, A Scanner Darkly, The Adjustment Bureau, Blade Runner 2049; the Man in the High Castle, was made into a multi-season television series. In 2005, Time named Ubik one of the hundred greatest English-language novels published since 1923. In 2007, Dick became the first science fiction writer to be included in The Library of America series. Philip Kindred Dick and his twin sister, Jane Charlotte Dick, were born six weeks prematurely on December 16, 1928, in Chicago, Illinois, to Dorothy and Joseph Edgar Dick, who worked for the United States Department of Agriculture, his paternal grandparents were Irish.
The death of Philip's twin Jane six weeks after their birth, on January 26, 1929, profoundly affected Philip's life, leading to the recurrent motif of the "phantom twin" in his books. His family moved to the San Francisco Bay Area; when Philip was five, his father was transferred to Nevada. Both parents fought for custody of Philip, awarded to the mother. Dorothy, determined to raise Philip alone, took a job in Washington, D. C. and moved there with her son. Philip was enrolled at John Eaton Elementary School, his lowest grade was a "C" in Written Composition, although a teacher remarked that he "shows interest and ability in story telling". He was educated in Quaker schools. In June 1938, Dorothy and Philip returned to California, it was around this time that he became interested in science fiction. Dick stated that he read his first science fiction magazine, Stirring Science Stories in 1940 at the age of 12. Dick attended Berkeley High School in California, he and fellow science fiction author Ursula K.
Le Guin did not know each other at the time. After graduation, he attended the University of California, with an honorable dismissal granted January 1, 1950. Dick did not declare a major and took classes in history, psychology and zoology. Through his studies in philosophy, he believed that existence is based on internal human perception, which does not correspond to external reality. After reading the works of Plato and pondering the possibilities of metaphysical realms, Dick came to the conclusion that, in a certain sense, the world is not real and there is no way to confirm whether it is there; this question from his early studies persisted as a theme in many of his novels. Dick dropped out according to his third wife Anne's memoir, she says he disliked the mandatory ROTC training. At Berkeley, Dick befriended poet Robert Duncan and poet and linguist Jack Spicer, who gave Dick ideas for a Martian language. Dick claimed to have hosted a classical music program on KSMO Radio in 1947. From 1948 to 1952, Dick worked at a record store on Telegraph Avenue.
Dick sold his first story in 1951, about “a dog who imagined that the garbagemen who came every Friday morning were stealing valuable food which the family had stored away in a safe metal container”, from on wrote full-time. During 1952, his first speculative fiction publications appeared in July and September numbers of Planet Stories, edited by Jack O'Sullivan, in If and The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction that year, his debut novel was Solar Lottery, published in 1955 as half of Ace Double #D-103 alongside The Big Jump by Leigh Brackett. The 1950s were a difficult and impoverished time for Dick, who once lamented, "We couldn't pay the late fees on a library book." He published exclusively within the science fiction genre, but dreamed of a career in mainstream fiction. During the 1950s, he produced a series of non-genre conventional novels. In 1960, he wrote that he was willing to "take twenty to thirty years to succ
Silas Marner: The Weaver of Raveloe is the third novel by George Eliot, published in 1861. An outwardly simple tale of a linen weaver, it is notable for its strong realism and its sophisticated treatment of a variety of issues ranging from religion to industrialisation to community; the novel is set in the early years of the 19th century. Silas Marner, a weaver, is a member of a small Calvinist congregation in Lantern Yard, a slum street in Northern England, he is falsely accused of stealing the congregation's funds while watching over the ill deacon. Two clues are given against Silas: a pocket knife, the discovery in his own house of the bag containing the money. There is the strong suggestion that Silas' best friend, William Dane, has framed him, since Silas had lent his pocket knife to William shortly before the crime was committed. Lots are drawn in the belief – shared by Silas – that God will direct the process and establish the truth; however Silas is proclaimed guilty. The woman Silas was to marry instead marries William.
With his life shattered, his trust in God lost and his heart broken, Silas leaves Lantern Yard and the city for a rural area where he is unknown. Marner travels south to the Midlands and settles near the rural village of Raveloe in Warwickshire, where he lives isolated and alone, choosing to have only minimal contact with the residents beyond his work as a linen weaver, he devotes himself wholeheartedly to his craft and comes to adore the gold coins he earns and hoards from his weaving. One foggy night, the two bags of gold are stolen by Dunstan Cass, a dissolute younger son of Squire Cass, the town's leading landowner. On discovering the theft, Silas sinks into a deep depression, despite the villagers' attempts to aid him. Dunsey disappears, but the community makes little of this disappearance, since he has vanished several times before. Godfrey Cass, Dunsey's elder brother harbours a secret past, he is married to, but estranged from, Molly Farren, an opium-addicted working-class woman living in another town.
This secret prevents Godfrey from marrying a young middle-class woman. On a winter's night, Molly tries to make her way to Squire Cass's New Year's Eve party with her two-year-old girl to announce that she is Godfrey's wife. On the way, she loses consciousness; the child wanders away and into Silas' house. Silas discovers the woman dead; when he goes to the party for help, Godfrey heads outdoors to the scene of the accident, but resolves to tell no one that Molly was his wife. Molly's death, conveniently for Godfrey and Nancy, puts an end to the marriage. Silas keeps the child and names her Eppie, after his deceased mother and sister, both named Hephzibah. Eppie changes Silas' life completely. Silas has been robbed of his material gold, but thinks that he has it returned to him symbolically in the form of the golden-haired child. Godfrey Cass is now free to marry Nancy, but continues to conceal the fact of his previous marriage—and child—from her. However, he aids Marner in caring for Eppie with occasional financial gifts.
More practical help and support in bringing up the child is provided by Dolly Winthrop, a kindly neighbour of Marner's. Dolly's help and advice assist Marner not only in bringing up Eppie, but in integrating them into village society. Sixteen years pass, Eppie grows up to be the pride of the village, she has a strong bond with Silas, who through her has found a place in the rural society and a purpose in life. Meanwhile and Nancy mourn their own childless state, after the death of their baby; the skeleton of Dunstan Cass—still clutching Silas' gold—is found at the bottom of the stone quarry near Silas' home, the money is duly returned to Silas. Shocked by this revelation, coming to the realisation of his own conscience, Godfrey confesses to Nancy that Molly was his first wife and that Eppie is his child, they offer to raise her as a gentleman's daughter, but this would mean Eppie would have to forsake living with Silas. Eppie politely but refuses, saying, "I can't think o' no happiness without him."
Silas revisits Lantern Yard, but his old neighbourhood has been "swept away" in the intervening years and replaced by a large factory. No one seems to know. However, Silas contentedly resigns himself to the fact that he will never know and now leads a happy existence among his self-made family and friends. In the end, Eppie marries a local boy she has grown up with, Dolly's son Aaron, they move into Silas' house, newly improved courtesy of Godfrey. Silas' actions through the years in caring for Eppie have provided joy for everyone, the extended family celebrates its happiness. Silas Marner: lower class by birth, a weaver, betrayed at Lantern Yard by his treacherous friend William Dane, moves away to Raveloe, becomes taken for a miser, as he accumulates a small fortune, only to have it stolen by Dunstan Cass. After these misfortunes, he finds his happiness and virtue by the arrival of young Eppie who he raises as his adopted child. Eppie turns out to be a beautiful girl and it is decided that she will get married to Aaron winthrop Squire Cass, Lord of the Manor of Raveloe and host of the party on the night when Eppie comes into Silas's life so unexpectedly.
Godfrey Cass: upper class by birth but troubled by money, eldest son of the local squire, blackmailed by his dissolute brother Dunstan over his secret first marriage to Molly. When Molly dies, he feels relief, escapes punishment for his betrayal and deceit, instead marrying
The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo is an adventure novel by French author Alexandre Dumas completed in 1844. It is one of the author's most popular works, along with The Three Musketeers. Like many of his novels, it was expanded from plot outlines suggested by his collaborating ghostwriter Auguste Maquet. Another important work by Dumas, written prior to his work with Maquet, was the short novel Georges; the story takes place in France and islands in the Mediterranean during the historical events of 1815–1839: the era of the Bourbon Restoration through the reign of Louis-Philippe of France. It begins just before the Hundred Days period; the historical setting is a fundamental element of the book, an adventure story concerned with themes of hope, vengeance and forgiveness. It centres on a man, wrongfully imprisoned, escapes from jail, acquires a fortune, sets about exacting revenge on those responsible for his imprisonment, his plans have devastating consequences for both the guilty. The book is considered a literary classic today.
According to Luc Sante, "The Count of Monte Cristo has become a fixture of Western civilization's literature, as inescapable and identifiable as Mickey Mouse, Noah's flood, the story of Little Red Riding Hood." Dumas wrote that the idea of revenge in The Count of Monte Cristo came from a story in a book compiled by Jacques Peuchet, a French police archivist, published in 1838 after the death of the author. Dumas included this essay in one of the editions from 1846. Peuchet told of a shoemaker, Pierre Picaud, living in Nîmes in 1807, engaged to marry a rich woman when three jealous friends falsely accused him of being a spy for England. Picaud was placed under a form of house arrest in the Fenestrelle Fort, where he served as a servant to a rich Italian cleric; when the cleric died, he left his fortune to Picaud. Picaud spent years plotting his revenge on the three men who were responsible for his misfortune, he stabbed the first with a dagger on which were printed the words "Number One", he poisoned the second.
The third man's son he lured into crime and his daughter into prostitution stabbing the man himself. This third man, named Loupian, had married Picaud's fiancée. In another of the "True Stories", Peuchet describes a poisoning in a family; this story quoted in the Pleiade edition served as a model for the chapter of the murders inside the Villefort family. The introduction to the Pleiade edition mentions other sources from real life: Abbé Faria existed and died in 1819 after a life with much resemblance to that of the Faria in the novel; as for Dantès, his fate is quite different from his model in Peuchet's book, since the latter is murdered by the "Caderousse" of the plot. But Dantès has "alter egos" in two other Dumas works. On the day of his wedding to Mercédès, Edmond Dantès, first mate of the Pharaon, is falsely accused of treason and imprisoned without trial in the Château d'If, a grim island fortress off Marseilles. A fellow prisoner, Abbé Faria deduces that his jealous rival Fernand Mondego, envious crewmate Danglars, double-dealing Magistrate De Villefort framed him.
Faria guides him to a fortune in treasure. As the powerful and mysterious Count of Monte Cristo, he arrives from the Orient to enter the fashionable Parisian world of the 1830s and avenge himself on the men who conspired to destroy him. In 1815, Edmond Dantès, a young merchant sailor, granted the succession of his captain Leclère, returns to Marseille to marry his Catalan fiancée Mercédès. Leclère, a supporter of the exiled Napoléon I, found himself dying at sea and charged Dantès to deliver two objects: a package to General Bertrand, a letter from Elba to an unknown man in Paris. On the eve of Dantès' wedding to Mercédès, Fernand Mondego is given advice by Dantès' colleague Danglars to send an anonymous note accusing Dantès of being a Bonapartist traitor. Caderousse is drunk while the two conspirators set the trap for Dantès and stays quiet as Dantès is arrested sentenced. Villefort, the deputy crown prosecutor in Marseille, destroys the letter from Elba when he discovers that it is addressed to his own father, since if this letter came into official hands, it would destroy his ambitions and reputation as a staunch Royalist.
To silence Dantès, he condemns him without trial to life imprisonment. After six years of imprisonment in the Château d'If, Dantès is on the verge of suicide when he befriends the Abbé Faria, an Italian fellow prisoner who had dug an escape tunnel that ended up in Dantès' cell. Over the next eight years, Faria gives Dantès an extensive education in language and science. Knowing himself to be close to death, Faria tells Dantès the location of a treasure on the Italian island of Monte Cristo; when Faria dies, Dantès takes his place in the burial sack. When the guards throw the sack into the sea, Dantès swims to a nearby island, he is rescued by a smuggling ship. After recovering the treasure, Dantès returns to