Oriolo Romano Observatory is an amateur astronomical observatory in Oriolo Romano, Italy. Built in 2007, the observatory has a Celestron 8" Schmidt-Cassegrain F/10 telescope; the observatory was designed to be robotic, uses a QSI WS40 CCD camera with clear filter for data acquisition. The observatory is only used for educational outreach. Website contains a guide in Italy specialized in Physics. Astrophysics and Astronomy. In addition to the "orioloromano observatory" being an astronomical observatory, it functions as a local weather station with webcam always on line; the weather station's main purpose is to provide data for planning observing sessions by gathering information about the condition inside and outside the observatory. Conditions at the observatory are logged by a weather station; the station provides indoor and outdoor temperature as well as barometric pressure, rainfall, wind speed and dew point. The data is reported real time, as well as logged; the station is configured to upload data to this website in 15-minute intervals.
This data is made available to forecasters, ships or anyone who needs it
Brera Astronomical Observatory
The Brera Observatory is an astronomical observatory in the Brera district of Milan, Italy. It was built in the historic Palazzo Brera in 1764 by the Jesuit astronomer Roger Boscovich. Following the suppression of the Jesuits by Clement XIV on 21 July 1773, the palace and the observatory passed to the rulers of northern Italy, the Austrian Habsburg dynasty; the observatory has since remained under state control. In 1862, The Government of Italy funded the purchase of a 218mm Merz Equatorial Refracting Telescope, ordered to the German constructor Georg Merz, in 1862
University of Catania
The University of Catania is a university located in Catania, Sicily. Founded in 1434, it is the oldest university in Sicily, the 13th oldest in Italy, the 29th oldest university in the world. With a population of over 60,000 students, it is the main university in Sicily. Following the Italian higher education reform introduced by the law 240/10 and adopted by the University of Catania in its new Statute, faculties have been deactivated and departments have been reorganized; the University of Catania has now 17 departments, the Faculty of Medicine, two special didactic units established in the decentralized offices of Ragusa and Syracuse. That, additionally to the traditional assignments of scientific research, are in charge of the organization and management of educational activities. A special didactic unit is the school of excellence "Scuola Superiore di Catania", a higher education centre of the University of Catania conceived in 1998 to select the best young minds and offer them a course of studies including analysis and experimentation.
The university was founded by King Alfonso V of Aragon on 19 October 1434. A charter was granted after two royal councillors convinced the king to accept the founding of a "Studium Generale" in Catania, with the papal recognition arriving ten years from Pope Eugene IV. Alfonso V with this gesture wanted to compensate the city for moving the Sicilian capital from Catania to Palermo; the activity of the Atheneum started a year in 1445, with 6 professors and 10 students. The first four faculties were Medicine, Philosophy and Civil Law and Theology. Lessons were held in a building in Piazza del Duomo, next to the Cathedral of St. Agatha, moved to the Palazzo dell'Università in the late 1690s; this building remains the seat of the university to this day. The first degree was awarded to Antonio Mantello, from Syracuse, in 1449. During the course of the 16th century 20-25 degrees were awarded each year; the University was named "Studium Generale" because it was the only entity that could release degrees equal to those released in the old Studia of Salamanca, Valladolid and this contributed to spread envy in the other Sicilian cities that in culture and traditions didn't feel inferior to Catania.
In 1934, the university celebrated its 500th anniversary with King Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy, and, in 1984 the 550th one. In the early centuries of its existence, the university was administered by the comune of Catania, overseen by the bishop of Catania and protected by the royal power, but with a reform operated by the viceroy in 1679 the authority of the bishop prevailed: he had the control over the lecturers, the freshmen and students' curriculum. This led to various conflicts between the religious authorities. From 1818 the office of Gran Cancelliere was assigned to the President of the Great Civil Court, instead of the bishop. Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida, important Italian politician and journalist, was elected the first Socialist mayor of Catania in 1902. Mario Rapisardi, noted Italian poet and translator, taught at the University in the 1870s. "Love truth more than glory, more than life. Make it your sword and your shield." Luigi Capuana, important writer, literary critic and theorist.
He taught literature in the early years of the 20th Century. Giovanni Verga, famed Italian realist writer, author of the Cavalleria Rusticana and I Malavoglia. Santo Mazzarino, leading 20th-century historian of ancient Rome and Greece. Vitaliano Brancati, Italian novelist and screenwriter, winner of the 1950 Bagutta Prize. Elémire Zolla, Italian essayist and historian of religion, taught linguistics in the late 1960s. Mario Pieri, taught descriptive and higher geometry from 1900 to 1908 and supervised 6 doctoral students with dissertations in algebraic geometry. See The Legacy of Mario Pieri in Geometry and Arithmetic, Birkhäuser (E. A. Marchisotto & J. T. Smith. Giuseppe Mercalli, inventor of the Mercalli Scale of earthquake intensity, was professor of geology in the late 1880s. Annibale Ricco, named Chair of Astrophysics in 1890, was the first director of the Catania Observatory, he was Chancellor of the University from 1898 to 1900. The crater Ricco on the Moon as well as the asteroid 18462 Ricco are named for him.
Guido Fubini, author of Fubini's theorem, was a professor of mathematics in the early years of the 20th Century. The asteroid, 22495 Fubini, is named in his honor. Remo Ruffini, former assistant professor at Princeton University, was professor of theoretical physics from 1976 to 1978, he was named Space Scientist of the Year in 1992. Paolo Maffei, director of the Catania Observatory from 1975 to 1980, was one of the pioneers of infrared astronomy, he discovered 2 galaxies, Maffei 1 and Maffei 2 in 1967. A main belt asteroid, 18426 Maffei, is named for him. Giuseppe Colombo and astronomer, NASA consultant and early proponent of tethered satellites. Asteroid 10387 Bepicolombo is named in his honor, as is the Colombo Gap, a 150 km gap in the C ring of the planet Saturn. Napoleone Ferrara, molecular biologist, winner of the 2010 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, is a 1981 graduate of the Faculty of Medicine. Orto Botanico dell'Università di Catania, the university's botanical garden, founded in 1858.
Catania Astrophysical Observatory, the university's observatory, fo
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed. Observatories were as simple as containing an astronomical sextant or Stonehenge. Astronomical observatories are divided into four categories: space-based, ground-based, underground-based. Ground-based observatories, located on the surface of Earth, are used to make observations in the radio and visible light portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most optical telescopes are housed within a dome or similar structure, to protect the delicate instruments from the elements. Telescope domes have a slit or other opening in the roof that can be opened during observing, closed when the telescope is not in use. In most cases, the entire upper portion of the telescope dome can be rotated to allow the instrument to observe different sections of the night sky. Radio telescopes do not have domes.
For optical telescopes, most ground-based observatories are located far from major centers of population, to avoid the effects of light pollution. The ideal locations for modern observatories are sites that have dark skies, a large percentage of clear nights per year, dry air, are at high elevations. At high elevations, the Earth's atmosphere is thinner, thereby minimizing the effects of atmospheric turbulence and resulting in better astronomical "seeing". Sites that meet the above criteria for modern observatories include the southwestern United States, Canary Islands, the Andes, high mountains in Mexico such as Sierra Negra. A newly emerging site which should be added to this list is Mount Gargash. With an elevation of 3600 m above sea level, it is the home to the Iranian National Observatory and its 3.4m INO340 telescope. Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory in the US, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, Paranal Observatory in Chile.
Specific research study performed in 2009 shows that the best possible location for ground-based observatory on Earth is Ridge A — a place in the central part of Eastern Antarctica. This location provides the least atmospheric disturbances and best visibility. Beginning in 1930s, radio telescopes have been built for use in the field of radio astronomy to observe the Universe in the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; such an instrument, or collection of instruments, with supporting facilities such as control centres, visitor housing, data reduction centers, and/or maintenance facilities are called radio observatories. Radio observatories are located far from major population centers to avoid electromagnetic interference from radio, TV, other EMI emitting devices, but unlike optical observatories, radio observatories can be placed in valleys for further EMI shielding; some of the world's major radio observatories include the Socorro, in New Mexico, United States, Jodrell Bank in the UK, Arecibo in Puerto Rico, Parkes in New South Wales and Chajnantor in Chile.
Since the mid-20th century, a number of astronomical observatories have been constructed at high altitudes, above 4,000–5,000 m. The largest and most notable of these is the Mauna Kea Observatory, located near the summit of a 4,205 m volcano in Hawaiʻi; the Chacaltaya Astrophysical Observatory in Bolivia, at 5,230 m, was the world's highest permanent astronomical observatory from the time of its construction during the 1940s until 2009. It has now been surpassed by the new University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory, an optical-infrared telescope on a remote 5,640 m mountaintop in the Atacama Desert of Chile; the oldest proto-observatories, in the sense of a private observation post, Wurdi Youang, Australia Zorats Karer, Armenia Loughcrew, Ireland Newgrange, Ireland Stonehenge, Great Britain Quito Astronomical Observatory, located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. Chankillo, Peru El Caracol, Mexico Abu Simbel, Egypt Kokino, Republic of Macedonia Observatory at Rhodes, Greece Goseck circle, Germany Ujjain, India Arkaim, Russia Cheomseongdae, South Korea Angkor Wat, CambodiaThe oldest true observatories, in the sense of a specialized research institute, include: 825 AD: Al-Shammisiyyah observatory, Iraq 869: Mahodayapuram Observatory, India 1259: Maragheh observatory, Iran 1276: Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory, China 1420: Ulugh Beg Observatory, Uzbekistan 1442: Beijing Ancient Observatory, China 1577: Constantinople Observatory of Taqi ad-Din, Turkey 1580: Uraniborg, Denmark 1581: Stjerneborg, Denmark 1642: Panzano Observatory, Italy 1642: Round Tower, Denmark 1633: Leiden Observatory, Netherlands 1667: Paris Observatory, France 1675: Royal Greenwich Observatory, England 1695: Sukharev Tower, Russia 1711: Berlin Observatory, Germany 1724: Jantar Mantar, India 1753: Stockholm Observatory, Sweden 1753: Vilnius University Observatory, Lithuania 1753: Navy Royal Institute and Observatory, Spain 1759: Trieste Observatory, Italy 1757: Macfarlane Observatory, Scotland 1759: Turin Observatory, Italy 1764: Brera Astronomical Observatory, Italy 1765: Mohr Observatory, Indonesia 1774: Vatican Observatory, Vatican 1785: Dunsink Observatory, Ireland 1786: Madras Observatory, India 1789: Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland 1790: Real Observatorio de Madrid, Spain, 1803: National Astronomical Observatory, Bogotá, Colombia.
1811: Tartu Old Observatory, Estonia 1812: Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Italy 1830/1842: Depot of Charts & Instruments
Medicina Radio Observatory
The Medicina Radio Observatory is an astronomical observatory located 30 km from Bologna, Italy. It is operated by the Institute for Radio Astronomy of the National Institute for Astrophysics of the government of Italy; the site includes: 32-metre diameter parabolic antenna for observing between 23 GHz. The 32-m antenna is used as a single-dish instrument for astrophysical observations, SETI experiments and radar monitoring of Near Earth Objects. In interferometric mode it functions as part of the European VLBI Network. 564 by 640 m multi-element Northern Cross cylindrical-parabolic transit radio telescope for observing at 408 MHz. The Northern Cross Radio Telescope is one of the largest transit radio telescopes in the world. Observations are focused around corresponding to 73.5 cm wavelength. The older receivers of the telescope function with a 2.5 MHz wide frequency band, while the upgraded parts have a 16 MHz bandwidth. The telescope is steerable only in declination, meaning that it can observe objects that are culminating on the local celestial meridian.
The telescope is T-shaped and consists of: E/W arm - Single reflector 560 m x 35 m N/S arm - Array of 64 reflectors 640 m x 23.5 m The telescope can provide 22880 possible theoretical independent beams and has a field of view of 55.47 degrees by 1.8 degrees. The resolution is around 4-5 arcminutes in the North-South direction, 4 arcminutes in the East-West direction. While less than the resolution of large optical telescopes, the amount of radiation which can be gathered with the Northern Cross is much greater, proportional to the mirror surface of 27400 square meters. Northern Cross represents the largest UHF-band antenna in the Northern hemisphere, with an aperture efficiency of 60%, making it second in the world, after the Arecibo radio telescope; this allows the Northern Cross to identify and measure faint sources, making the telescope is suitable to extragalactic researches. There are plans upgrade of the East-West arm telescope to a LOFAR SuperStation, due to the good performances of a cylindrical-parabolic antenna in the 100-700 MHz frequency range.
Since LOFAR operates in the 120-240 MHz range, some of the sensors on the Northern Cross Radio Telescope, optimized for 408 MHz, will have to be replaced with broadband antennas. This installation will have an effective area much larger than any other remote LOFAR station. If extended to the whole 22000 square meters area of the East-West arm, this single element effective area of 20 standard remote LOFAR stations; the resulting system will provide signification improvement in observation sensitivity. The Cross is used as a pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array; the work is focused on studying the amplification and filtering of signals between the LNA output and the Analog-to-Digital Converter input for the SKA. The Medicina Radio Observatory is studying all problems related to "antenna array implementation" through a prototype installation called MAD; the observatory staff have built new receiver demonstrators for the SKA called BEST, part of the EU-funded SKADS programme. The project started in 2005 and finished in 2009.
It involved the installation of the new receivers on some reflectors of the North-South section of the Northern Cross telescope, along with new analog fiber-optic and coaxial digital finks from the front-end receiver boxes to the back-ends. The BEST project was divided in three parts: BEST-1 - 4 new receivers were installed on a single reflector of the North-South arm. BEST-2 - 32 receivers were installed on 8 reflectors of the North-South arm. BEST-3lo focused on lower frequencies - between 120-240 MHz. Log periodic antennas optimized for 120-240 MHz, along with 18 receivers were installed on part of the East-West arm. There is an ongoing effort to use the 32 meter dish as a receiver for radar-based tracking system artificial satellites and space debris in Earth orbit; the system functions as a bistatic radar, where an emitter located in a different location sends a signal, which bounces off objects in orbit and the echo is picked up by a receiver. The 32 meter dish acts as receiver, while the Yevpatoria 70 meter located in Crimea, functions as a transmitter.
The systems can either track debris to determine their orbit more or utilize a technique called beam park, where the transmitting and receiving antennas are kept fixed at a given position and the debris pass in and out of the observed area. The measurements obtain through such a system can be used to determine object radar cross-section, time of peak occurrence, polarization ratio, bistatic doppler shift and target rotation. In one of the carried-out tests, Yevpatoria-Medicina system was able to detect an object with an estimated radar cross section of 0.0002 square meter, created by the Iridium 33 and Kosmos-2251 satellite collision. The system can function as a multistatic radar using the 32 meter receivers at Medicina, the Noto Radio Observatory in Italy and the Ventspils Starptautiskais Radioastronomijas Centrs in Latvia; the Northern Cross radio telescope has been part of space debris tracking studies, utilized as a multiple-beam receiver for a bistatic radar system. The first tested configuration is a quasi-monostatic radar system, with a 3 m dish as transmitter, located in Bagnara - 20 km from the receiver.
The second configuration was a simulation of a true bistatic radar system with 7 m dish as transmitter located at the s
The National Institute for Astrophysics is the most important Italian institution conducting scientific research in astronomy and astrophysics. Research performed by the scientific staff of the Institute ranges from the study of the planets and minor bodies of the Solar system up to the large-scale structure of the Universe and groups and clusters of galaxies on cosmological scales. INAF coordinates the activities of twenty research units, nineteen in Italy and one in Spain: Bologna Observatory Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Bologna Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna Cagliari Observatory Catania Observatory Arcetri Observatory Brera Observatory Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Milano Capodimonte Observatory Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Palermo Observatory Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo Rome Observatory Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Roma Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario di Roma Collurania-Teramo Observatory Turin Observatory Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario di Torino Trieste Observatory Telescopio Nazionale Galileo Sardinia Radio Telescope Noto Radio Observatory INAF is involved in scientific collaborations with several international institutions, including: the European Southern Observatory the astronomical observatories located in Canary Islands the Large Binocular Telescope, in partnership with the United States and Germany the Very Long Baseline Interferometry consortium the European Space Agency the American National Aeronautic and Space Administration Stefano Cristiani, board member examples Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies, instrument for the ExoMars Rosalind Franklin rover Rapid Eye Mount telescope Official website of INAF Public and press website of INAF Website of the Italian Telescopio Nazione Galileo Website of the Large Binocular Telescope Italian Astronomical Archive Center VObs.it: Italian Virtual Observatory
The Vatican Observatory is an astronomical research and educational institution supported by the Holy See. Based in the Roman College of Rome, the Observatory is now headquartered in Castel Gandolfo and operates a telescope at the Mount Graham International Observatory in the United States; the Director of the Observatory is an American Jesuit. In 2008, the Templeton Prize was awarded to cosmologist Fr. Michał Heller, a Vatican Observatory Adjunct Scholar. In 2010, the George Van Biesbroeck Prize was awarded to former observatory director, the American Jesuit, Fr. George Coyne; the Church has had a long-standing interest in astronomy, due to the astronomical basis of the calendar by which holy days and Easter are determined. For instance, the Gregorian Calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII, was developed by Aloysius Lilius and modified by Christoph Clavius at the Collegio Romano from astronomical data; the Gregorian Tower was completed in 1580 for his purpose, designed by Bolognese architect Ottaviano Matte.
In the 18th century, the Papacy supported astronomy, establishing the Observatory of the Roman College in 1774. In 1789–1787, the Specola Vaticana in the Tower of the Winds within the Vatican was established under the direction of Msgr. Filippo Luigi Gilii; when Msgr. Gilii died, the Specola was closed down because it was inconvenient for students in the city because the dome of St. Peter's obstructed its view, its instruments were transferred to the College Observatory. A third facility, the Observatory of the Capitol, was operated from 1827 to 1870. Father Angelo Secchi SJ relocated the College Observatory to the top of Sant'Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio. In 1870, with the capture of Rome, the College Observatory fell into the hands of the Italian Government. Out of respect for his work, Father Secchi was permitted to continue using the Observatory. After Secchi's death in 1878 the Observatory was nationalized by the Italian government and renamed the Regio Osservatorio al Collegio Romano, ending astronomical research in the Vatican.
In 1891, Pope Leo XIII issued a Motu Proprio re-founding the Specola Vaticana and a new observatory was built on the walls at the edge of the Vatican. The new Vatican Observatory remained there for the next forty years. By the 1930s, the smoke and sky-glow of the city had made it impossible to conduct useful observations in Rome. Pope Pius XI relocated the Observatory to Castel Gandolfo, 25 kilometres southeast of Rome. By 1961, the same problems with light pollution made observing difficult at Castel Gandolfo; the Observatory established the Vatican Observatory Research Group, with offices at the Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. D. K. J. O'Connell produced the first color photographs of a green flash at sunset in 1960. In 1993, VORG completed construction of the 1.8 metres Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, at Mount Graham near Safford, Arizona. The Observatory's headquarters remain in Italy at Castel Gandolfo. In early 2008, the Vatican announced that the Observatory would be relocated to a former convent a mile away from the castle as part of a general reconstruction of the Papal residence.
Its former space would be used to provide more room for the reception of diplomatic visitors. There was some commentary that the Observatory was being shut down or cut back, but in fact the Observatory staff welcomed the move; the old quarters in the castle were cramped and poorly laid out for the Observatory's use. VORG research activities in Arizona continued unaffected. Archaeoastronomy Catholic Church and science#Vatican Observatory Guy Consolmagno Index of Vatican City-related articles Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope Sabino Maffeo: The Vatican Observatory. In the Service of Nine Popes, Vatican Observatory Publications, 2001. Official website