In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission and is done with the intention of not returning. In contrast, unauthorized absence or absence without leave refers to a temporary absence. In the United States Army, United States Air Force, British Armed Forces, Australian Defence Force, New Zealand Defence Force, Canadian Armed Forces, military personnel will become "AWOL" or "AWL" if absent from their post without a valid pass, liberty or leave; the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard refer to this as "unauthorized absence" or "UA". Personnel are dropped from their unit rolls after thirty days and listed as deserters. S. military law, desertion is not measured by time away from the unit, but rather: by leaving or remaining absent from their unit, organization, or place of duty, where there has been a determined intent to not return. People who are away for more than thirty days but return voluntarily or indicate a credible intent to return may still be considered AWOL.
Those who are away for fewer than thirty days but can credibly be shown to have no intent to return may be tried for desertion. On rare occasions, they may be tried for treason. Missing movement is another term used to describe when members of the armed forces fail to arrive at the appointed time to deploy with their assigned unit, ship, or aircraft. In the United States Armed Forces, this is a violation of the Article 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice; the offense may draw more severe punishment. Failure to repair consists of missing a formation or failing to appear at an assigned place and time when so ordered, it is a lesser offense within article 86 of the UCMJ. During World War I, the Australian Government refused to allow members of the First Australian Imperial Force to be executed for desertion, despite pressure from the British Government and military to do so; the AIF had the highest rate of soldiers going absent without leave of any of the national contingents in the British Expeditionary Force, the proportion of soldiers who deserted was higher than that of other forces on the Western Front in France.
In 2011, Vienna decided to honour Austrian Wehrmacht deserters. In 2014, on October, 24th a Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice was inaugurated on Vienna's Ballhausplatz by Austria's President Heinz Fischer; the monument was created by German artist Olaf Nicolai and is located opposite the President's office and the Austrian Chancellery. The inscription on top of the three step sculpture features a poem by Scottish poet Ian Hamilton Finlay with just two words: all alone. During WWI 600 French soldiers were executed for desertion. During the First World War, only 18 Germans who deserted were executed. In contrast of the Germans who deserted the Wehrmacht, 15,000 men were executed. In June 1988 the Initiative for the Creation of a Memorial to Deserters came to life in Ulm. A central idea was, "Desertion is not reprehensible, war is". During WWI a total of 28 New Zealand soldiers were sentenced to death for desertion; these soldiers were posthumously pardoned in 2000 through the Pardon for Soldiers of the Great War Act.
Those who deserted before reaching the front were imprisoned in what were claimed to be harsh conditions. Order No. 270, dated August 16, 1941, was issued by Joseph Stalin. The order required superiors to shoot deserters on the spot, their family members were subjected to arrest. Order No. 227, dated July 28, 1942, directed that each Army must create "blocking detachments" which would shoot "cowards" and fleeing panicked troops at the rear. Many Soviet soldier deserters of the Soviet War in Afghanistan explain their reasons for desertion as political and in response to internal disorganization and disillusionment regarding their position in the war. Analyses of desertion rates argue that motivations were far less ideological than individual accounts claim. Desertion rates increased prior to announcements of upcoming operations, were highest during the summer and winter. Seasonal desertions were a response to the harsh weather conditions of the winter and immense field work required in the summer.
A significant jump in desertion in 1989 when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan may suggest a higher concern regarding returning home, rather than an overall opposition towards the war itself. In the beginning of the Soviet invasion, the majority of Soviet forces were soldiers of Central Asian republics; the Soviets believed that shared ideologies between Muslim Central Asians and Afghan soldiers would build trust and morale within the army. However, Central Asians' longstanding historical frustrations with Moscow degraded soldiers' willingness to fight for the Red Army; as Afghan desertion grew and Soviet opposition was strengthened within Afghanistan, the Soviet plan overtly backfired. The personal histories of Central Asian ethnic groups – between Pashtuns and Tajiks, caused tension within the Soviet military. Non-Russian ethnic groups related the situation in Afghanistan to Communist takeover of their own states' forced induction into the USSR
Joseph Heller was an American author of novels, short stories and screenplays. His best-known work is the novel Catch-22, a satire on war and bureaucracy, whose title has become a synonym for an absurd or contradictory choice. Heller was born on May 1, 1923 in Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, the son of poor Jewish parents and Isaac Donald Heller, from Russia; as a child, he loved to write. After graduating from Abraham Lincoln High School in 1941, Heller spent the next year working as a blacksmith's apprentice, a messenger boy, a filing clerk. In 1942, at age 19, he joined the U. S. Army Air Corps. Two years he was sent to the Italian Front, where he flew 60 combat missions as a B-25 bombardier, his unit was 340th Bomb Group, 12th Air Force. Heller remembered the war as "fun in the beginning... You got the feeling that there was something glorious about it." On his return home he "felt like a hero... People think it quite remarkable that I was in combat in an airplane and I flew sixty missions though I tell them that the missions were milk runs."After the war, Heller studied English at the University of Southern California and New York University on the G.
I. Bill, graduating from the latter institution in 1948. In 1949, he received his M. A. in English from Columbia University. Following his graduation from Columbia, he spent a year as a Fulbright scholar in St Catherine's College, Oxford before teaching composition at Pennsylvania State University for two years, he briefly worked for Time Inc. before taking a job as a copywriter at a small advertising agency, where he worked alongside future novelist Mary Higgins Clark. At home, Heller wrote, he was first published in 1948. The story nearly won the "Atlantic First", he was married to Shirley Held from 1945 to 1981 and they had two children and Theodore. While sitting at home one morning in 1953, Heller thought of the lines, "It was love at first sight; the first time he saw the chaplain, fell madly in love with him." Within the next day, he began to envision the story that could result from this beginning, invented the characters, the plot, the tone that the story would take. Within a week, he sent it to his agent.
He did not do any more writing for the next year. The initial chapter was published in 1955 in Issue 7 of New World Writing. Although he intended the story to be no longer than a novelette, Heller was able to add enough substance to the plot that he felt it could become his first novel; when he was one-third done with the work, his agent, Candida Donadio, sent it to publishers. Heller was not attached to the work, decided that he would not finish it if publishers were not interested; the work was soon purchased by Simon & Schuster, who gave him US $750 and promised him an additional $750 when the full manuscript was delivered. Heller missed his deadline by four to five years, after eight years of thought, delivered the novel to his publisher; the finished novel describes the wartime experiences of Army Air Corps Captain John Yossarian. Yossarian devises multiple strategies to avoid combat missions, but the military bureaucracy is always able to find a way to make him stay; as Heller observed, "Everyone in my book accuses everyone else of being crazy.
Frankly, I think the whole society is nuts – and the question is: What does a sane man do in an insane society?"Just before publication, the novel's title was changed to Catch-22 to avoid confusion with Leon Uris' new novel, Mila 18. The novel was published in hardback in 1961 to mixed reviews, with the Chicago Sun-Times calling it "the best American novel in years", while other critics derided it as "disorganized and crass", it sold only 30,000 hardback copies in the United States in its first year of publication. Reaction was different in the UK, within one week of its publication, the novel was number one on the bestseller lists. In the years after its release in paperback in October 1962, Catch-22 caught the imaginations of many baby boomers, who identified with the novel's anti-war sentiments; the book went on to sell 10 million copies in the United States. The novel's title became a standard term in English and other languages for a dilemma with no easy way out. Now considered a classic, the book was listed at number 7 on Modern Library's list of the top 100 novels of the century.
The United States Air Force Academy uses the novel to "help prospective officers recognize the dehumanizing aspects of bureaucracy."The movie rights to the novel were purchased in 1962, combined with his royalties, made Heller a millionaire. The film, directed by Mike Nichols and starred Alan Arkin, Jon Voight and Orson Welles, was not released until 1970. Other works by Heller are examples of modern satire which center on the lives of members of the middle class. Shortly after Catch-22 was published, Heller thought of an idea for his next novel, which would become Something Happened, but did not act on it for two years. In the meantime he focused on scripts, completing the final screenplay for the movie adaptation of Helen Gurley Brown's Sex and the Single Girl, as well as a television comedy script that aired as part of "McHale's Navy". In 1967, Heller wrote, he completed the play in only six weeks, but spent a great deal of time working with the producers as it was brought to the stage. It delivered an anti-war
A bombardier or bomb aimer is the crew member of a bomber aircraft responsible for the targeting of aerial bombs. "Bomb aimer" was the preferred term in the military forces of the Commonwealth, while "bombardier" was the equivalent position in the United States Armed Forces. In many planes, the bombardier took control of the airplane during the bombing run, using a bombsight such as the Norden bombsight, connected to the autopilot of the plane. Stationed in the extreme front of the aircraft, on the way to the target and after releasing the bombs, he could serve as the front gunner in aircraft that had a front turret. In the latter part of the 20th century, the title of bombardier fell into disuse, due to changes in technology, emanating from the replacement of this manual function with the development of computerized technology and smart bombs, that has given rise to terms like weapons systems officer or combat systems officer to describe the modern role; the equivalent in the US Navy and US Marine Corps is the Naval Flight Officer.
In the United States, the position of bombardier was held by a sergeant, but they were commissioned as officers in 1941. In the Commonwealth, a bomb aimer could be an officer or a senior non-commissioned officer or warrant officer. During World War II, US Army Air Forces bombardiers were recognized with the award of the Bombardier Badge. With the establishment of an independent US Air Force in 1947, USAF bombardiers were awarded the wings known as the Navigator badge, now known as the Combat Systems Officer badge. Commonwealth bomb aimers wore a single-wing aircrew brevet with the letter "B"; the aircraft of the United Kingdom's V bomber force carried two navigators, one of whom acted as bomb aimer, although having the official title of "Navigator Radar". Lieutenant Lothar Zogg is the bombardier on the B-52 in Dr. Strangelove The principal character, Yossarian, in the novel Catch-22 and in the film of the same name serves as a B-25 bombardier during World War II; the character of Flying Officer Ives in the film The Great Escape is a bomb aimer.
A movie about bombardiers was made by RKO Pictures in 1943. It included the song "Song of the U. S. Bombardiers" by Jack Scholl and M. K. Jerome; the character of Captain Fred Derry in the film The Best Years of Our Lives was a bombardier during World War II
Marcia Angell is an American physician and the first woman to serve as editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine. She is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. After completing undergraduate studies in chemistry and mathematics at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Angell spent a year as a Fulbright Scholar studying microbiology in Frankfurt, Germany. After receiving her M. D. from Boston University School of Medicine in 1967, Angell trained in both internal medicine and anatomic pathology and is a board-certified pathologist. Angell is a frequent contributor to both medical journals and the popular media on a wide range of topics medical ethics, health policy, the nature of medical evidence, the interface of medicine and the law, end-of-life healthcare, her book, Science on Trial: The Clash of Medical Evidence and the Law in the Breast Implant Case received critical acclaim. With Stanley Robbins and Vinay Kumar, she coauthored the first three editions of the textbook Basic Pathology.
She has written chapters in several books dealing with ethical issues in healthcare. Angell is a member of the Association of American Physicians, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, the Alpha Omega Alpha National Honor Medical Society, is a Master of the American College of Physicians, she is a fellow of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal and is an outspoken critic of medical quackery and the promotion of alternative medicine. Angell joined the editorial staff of The New England Journal of Medicine in 1979, she became Executive Editor in 1988, served as interim Editor-in-Chief from 1999 until June 2000. The NEJM is the oldest continuously published medical journal, one of the most prestigious. In 1999, Jerome P. Kassirer, M. D. resigned as NEJM's Editor-in-Chief following a dispute with the journal's publisher, the Massachusetts Medical Society, over the Society's plan to use the journal's name to brand and market other sources of healthcare information.
Angell agreed to serve as interim Editor-in-Chief. She reached an agreement with the society that the Editor-in-Chief would have authority over usage of the journal's name and logo, that the journal's name would not be used on other products. Angell was a finalist for the permanent post of Editor-in-Chief, but withdrew as a candidate explaining she was retiring to write a book on alternative medicine. Angell retired from the journal in June 2000 and was replaced by Jeffrey Drazen, M. D. In her 2009 article "Drug Companies & Doctors: A Story of Corruption", published in The New York Review of Books magazine, Angell wrote:... Similar conflicts of interest and biases exist in every field of medicine those that rely on drugs or devices, it is no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research, published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines. I take no pleasure in this conclusion, which I reached and reluctantly over my two decades as an editor of The New England Journal of Medicine.
Commenting on the 1992 Prescription Drug User Fee Act which allowed the Food and Drug Administration to collect fees from drug manufacturers to fund the new drug approval process, Angell has stated: It's time to take the Food and Drug Administration back from the drug companies... In effect, the user fee act put the FDA on the payroll of the industry. Last year, the fees came to about $300 million, which the companies recoup many times over by getting their drugs to market faster. Angell has long been a critic of the U. S. healthcare system. The American healthcare system is in serious crisis, she stated in a 2000 PBS special: "If we had set out to design the worst system that we could imagine, we couldn't have imagined one as bad as we have." In the PBS interview, she urges the nation to scrap its failing healthcare system and start over: Our health care system is based on the premise that health care is a commodity like VCRs or computers and that it should be distributed according to the ability to pay in the same way that consumer goods are.
That's not. Health care is a need. If you're sick, you should have a lot of it. If you're not sick, you shouldn't have a lot of it, but this should be seen as a personal, individual need, not as a commodity to be distributed like other marketplace commodities. That is a fundamental mistake in the way this country, only this country, looks at health care, and that market ideology is what has made the health care system so dreadful, so bad at what it does. Angell is a critic of the pharmaceutical industry. With Arnold S. Relman, she argues, "The few drugs that are innovative have been based on taxpayer-supported research done in nonprofit academic medical centers or at the National Institutes of Health. In fact, many drugs now sold by drug companies were licensed to them by academic medical centers or small biotechnology companies." The pharmaceutical industry estimates that each new drug costs them $800 million to develop and bring to market, but Angell and Relman estimate the cost to them is closer to $100 million.
Angell is the author of The Truth About the Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What to Do About It. In her 2004 article "The Truth About the Drug Companies", published in The New York Review of Books, Angell wrote: The combined profits f
Private first class
Private First Class is a military rank held by junior enlisted personnel. France has the rank of Soldat de première classe indicated with a single red chevron; the rank of private first class is similar to its original U. S. counterpart. The insignia consist of a single chevron with a triangle below; the rank is in use with the Philippine Marine Corps. The rank of private first class in the Singapore Armed Forces lies between the ranks of private and lance-corporal. Introduced in 1983, it is awarded to hardworking conscript citizen-soldiers who performed well in their National Service term. Privates first class wear a rank insignia of a single chevron pointing down; the PFC rank is awarded nowadays by SAF. All private enlistees can be promoted directly to lance corporal should they meet the minimum qualifying requirements, conduct appraisal and work performance. In the United States Army, recruits enter service as a private in pay grade E-1. Private, designated by a single chevron, is an automatic promotion after six months of service.
Private first class, equivalent to NATO grade OR-3, is designated by a single chevron and a rocker stripe and is more common among soldiers who have served in the U. S. Army for one year or more. Soldiers who have achieved an associate degree or its equivalent are entitled to enter the Army at this pay grade. Advancement from private first class is to specialist, although it may be to corporal; the rank of private first class has existed since 1846 and, prior to 1919, its insignia consisted of the branch of service insignia without any arcs or chevrons. The Secretary of War approved "an arc of one bar" under the branch of service or trade insignia for privates first class on 22 July 1919. From August 5, 1920 to May 28, 1968, the rank insignia for private first class was a single chevron, per War Department Circular No. 303. On May 28, 1968, the insignia was changed to its current form, consisting of a single chevron with one arc. In the United States Marine Corps, the rate of private first class is the second lowest, just under lance corporal and just above Private, equivalent to NATO grade OR-2, being pay grade E-2.
It was established on June 3, 1916 to match the existing Army rank because US Marine units were "often called upon to serve" with US Army organizations, such as in the American Expeditionary Force that served in Europe during World War I. At the time the two ranks were directly equivalent. However, the USMC rank of PFC is one grade lower than the titled US Army rank. In the Vietnam People's Army, private first class is the highest junior enlisted rank. Private first class is below above private second class. Comparative military ranks Gefreiter U. S. Army enlisted rank insignia U. S. Marine Corps enlisted rank insignia U. S. uniformed services pay grades United States military pay
The Secret of My Success (1987 film)
The Secret of My Success is a 1987 American comedy film produced and directed by Herbert Ross, starring Michael J. Fox and Helen Slater; the screenplay was written by A. J. Carothers, Jim Cash and Jack Epps, Jr. from a story written by Carothers. Brantley Foster is a recent graduate of Kansas State University who moves to New York City where he has landed an entry level job as a financier. Upon arriving, he discovers that the company for which he is supposed to work has been taken over by a rival corporation; as a result, Brantley is laid off before he starts working. After several unsuccessful attempts to get another job because he is either overqualified or underqualified and has little experience, Brantley ends up working in the mailroom of the Pemrose Corporation, directed by his uncle, Howard Prescott, the CEO. Pemrose was founded by Howard's father-in-law. Upon inspecting company reports, Brantley realizes that Howard and most of his fellow "suits" are making ineffective or detrimental decisions.
After Brantley notices an empty office in the building due to one of Howard's frequent firings, he uses his access to the mailroom and his understanding of company processes to create the identity of Carlton Whitfield, a new executive. Brantley assumes this role. While handling two jobs, Brantley falls head-over-heels for Christy Wills, a fellow financial wizard who graduated from Harvard. Brantley meets Vera after driving her home in a company limo. Vera persuades Brantley to stay for a swim and seduces him by stripping off his swimsuit and having an underwater kiss before she rips off her swimsuit and swims naked with him. Upon seeing Howard arriving and Vera realize they are related. Vera only seduced Brantley to get back at her husband for having an affair with a woman in his office. Brantley gets changed as fast as he can and leaves the mansion without being seen by Howard. Howard, without Brantley's knowledge, is having an affair with Christy; when Howard asks her to spy on Carlton Whitfield, Christy falls head-over-heels for "Whitfield", not knowing he is Brantley.
The Pemrose Corporation is preparing for an impending takeover by the Davenport Corporation. If Davenport Corporation absorbs Pemrose, everyone gets fired. Howard, unaware that Whitfield and Brantley are one and the same person, suspects "Whitfield" is a spy for corporate raider Donald Davenport. Brantley’s double identity is discovered when he, Christy and Howard end up in the same bedroom after a party at Howard’s home that all 4 are attending. Brantley and Christy end their budding relationship and Brantley gets sacked from his job he did as Whitfield, as does Christy for refusing to continue the affair with Howard. While both Christy and Brantley are moving out of their offices, they end up in the same elevator and make up, conceiving a revenge plan with Vera. In the end, they raise enough cash and stocks to wrest ownership of the Pemrose Corporation from Howard, to proceed with a hostile takeover bid of Davenport's Corporation. Vera contemptuous of Howard for his counter-productive business practices, which were driving her father's empire into the ground, tells the board about his affair as well.
She promptly replaces him with Brantley, with Jean and Melrose at his side. While security guards escort Howard and his aide, Art Thomas, from the Pemrose Building and Christy start planning their future together, personal as well as professional. All of them made it to the big time with a limo to take them to the opera. Brantley and Christy decided to visit his parents with a corporate jet; the soundtrack was released on LP and cassette tape on April 10, 1987. Seven of the 10 tracks were produced, either written or co-written, by David Foster, who scored the film and has three tracks of his own on the album. Not all of the songs featured in the film are included on the soundtrack, or, at least not in the same version; the film version of the song "The Secret of My Success" is different, features a mini-instrumental version. The film version of "I Burn for You" does not feature vocals; the "Restless Heart" track from the film has a different title, different lyrics than the soundtrack version. Popular songs "Walking on Sunshine" by Katrina & The Waves and "Oh Yeah" by Yello are heard in the film but do not appear on the soundtrack.
The soundtrack peaked at #131 on the Billboard 200. The theme from the picture "The Secret of My Success", performed by Night Ranger, was one of the songs that competed for the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song in 1988; the winner in question was " The Time of My Life", the central theme from Dirty Dancing, performed by Bill Medley and Jennifer Warnes. Track listing"The Secret of My Success" "Sometimes the Good Guys Finish First" "I Burn for You" "Riskin' a Romance" "Gazebo" "The Price of Love" "Water Fountain" "Don't Ask the Reason Why" "3 Themes" "Heaven and the Heartaches" The film received a mixed response from critics. Roger Ebert in the Chicago Sun-Times wrote, "The Secret of My Success seems trapped in
A Hobson's choice is a free choice in which only one thing is offered. Because a person may refuse to accept what is offered, the two options are taking it or taking nothing. In other words, one may "take it or leave it"; the phrase is said to have originated with Thomas Hobson, a livery stable owner in Cambridge, who offered customers the choice of either taking the horse in his stall nearest to the door or taking none at all. According to a plaque underneath a painting of Hobson donated to Cambridge Guildhall, Hobson had an extensive stable of some 40 horses; this gave the appearance to his customers that, upon entry, they would have their choice of mounts, when in fact there was only one: Hobson required his customers to choose the horse in the stall closest to the door. This was to prevent the best horses from always being chosen, which would have caused those horses to become overused. Hobson's stable was located on land, now owned by St Catharine's College, Cambridge. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known written usage of this phrase is in The rustick's alarm to the Rabbies, written by Samuel Fisher in 1660: If in this Case there be no other Hobson's choice...which is, chuse whether you will have this or none.
It appears in Joseph Addison's paper The Spectator. Ward wrote: The term "Hobson's choice" is used to mean an illusion of choice, but it is not a choice between two equivalent options, a Morton's fork, nor is it a choice between two undesirable options, a dilemma. Hobson's choice is one between nothing. John Stuart Mill, in his book Considerations on Representative Government, refers to Hobson's choice: When the individuals composing the majority would no longer be reduced to Hobson's choice, of either voting for the person brought forward by their local leaders, or not voting at all. In another of his books, The Subjection of Women, Mill discusses marriage: Those who attempt to force women into marriage by closing all other doors against them, lay themselves open to a similar retort. If they mean what they say, their opinion must evidently be, that men do not render the married condition so desirable to women, as to induce them to accept it for its own recommendations, it is not a sign of one's thinking the boon one offers attractive, when one allows only Hobson's choice,'that or none'....
And if men are determined that the law of marriage shall be a law of despotism, they are quite right in point of mere policy, in leaving to women only Hobson's choice. But, in that case, all, done in the modern world to relax the chain on the minds of women, has been a mistake, they should have never been allowed to receive a literary education. A Hobson's choice is different from: Dilemma: a choice between two or more options, none of, attractive. False dilemma: only two choices are considered, when in fact there are others. Catch-22: a logical paradox arising from a situation in which an individual needs something that can only be acquired by not being in that situation. Morton's fork, a double bind: choices yield equivalent, undesirable, results. Blackmail and extortion: the choice between paying money or risk suffering an unpleasant action. A common error is to use the phrase "Hobbesian choice" instead of "Hobson's choice", confusing the philosopher Thomas Hobbes with the obscure Thomas Hobson.
Notwithstanding that confused usage, the phrase "Hobbesian choice" is incorrect. In Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha, Justice Byron White dissented and classified the majority's decision to strike down the "one-house veto" as unconstitutional as leaving Congress with a Hobson's choice. Congress may choose between "refrain from delegating the necessary authority, leaving itself with a hopeless task of writing laws with the requisite specificity to cover endless special circumstances across the entire policy landscape, or in the alternative, to abdicate its lawmaking function to the executive branch and independent agency". In Monell v. Department of Social Services of the City of New York, 436 U. S. 658 the judgement of the court was that here was ample support for Blair's view that the Sherman Amendment, by putting municipalities to the Hobson's choice of keeping the peace or paying civil damages, attempted to impose obligations to municipalities by indirection that could not be imposed directly, thereby threatening to "destroy the government of the states".
In the South African Constitutional Case MEC for Education, Kwa-Zulu Natal and Others v Pillay, 2008 SA 474 Chief Justice Langa for the majority of the Court writes that: The traditional basis for invalidating laws that prohibit the exercise of an obligatory religious practice is that it confronts the adherents with a Hobson's choice between observance of their faith and adherence to the law. There is however more to the protection of religious and cultural practices than saving believers from hard choices; as stated above and cultural practices are protected because they are central to human identity and hence to human dignity, in turn central to equality. Are voluntary practices any less a part of a person's identity or do they affect human dignity any less because they are not mandatory? In Epic Systems Corp. v. Lewis, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg dissented and added in one of the footnotes that the petitioners "faced