A team is a group of individuals - humans, horses, or oxen, for example - working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Professor Leigh Thompson of the Kellogg School of Management, " team is a group of people who are interdependent with respect to information and skills and who seek to combine their efforts to achieve a common goal". A group does not constitute a team. Teams have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to maximize their strengths and minimize their weaknesses. Naresh Jain claims: Team members need to learn how to help one another, help other team members realize their true potential, create an environment that allows everyone to go beyond their limitations. A team becomes more than just a collection of people when a strong sense of mutual commitment creates synergy, thus generating performance greater than the sum of the performance of its individual members, thus teams of game players can form to practise their craft/sport.
Transport logistics executives can select teams of horses, dogs, or oxen for the purpose of conveying passengers or goods. While academic research on teams and teamwork has grown and has shown a sharp increase over the past recent 40 years, the societal diffusion of teams and teamwork followed a volatile trend in the 20th century; the concept was introduced into business in the late 20th century, followed by a popularization of the concept of constructing teams. Differing opinions exist on the efficacy of this new management fad; some see "team" as a four-letter word: overused and under-useful. Others see it as a panacea that realizes the human-relations movement's desire to integrate what that movement perceives as best for workers and as best for managers. Still others believe in the effectiveness of teams, but see them as dangerous because of the potential for exploiting workers — in that team effectiveness can rely on peer pressure and peer surveillance. However, Hackman sees team effectiveness not only in terms of performance: a effective team will contribute to the personal well-being and adaptive growth of its members.
English-speakers use the word "team" in today's society to characterise many types of groups. Peter Guy Northouse's book Leadership: theory and practice discusses teams from a leadership perspective. According to the team approach to leadership, a team is a type of organizational group of people that are members. A team is composed of members who are dependent on each other, work towards interchangeable achievements, share common attainments. A team works. A team is located in the same setting as it is connected to a kind of organization, company, or community. Teams can meet in-person or when practicing their values and activities or duties. A team's communication is important to their relationship. Ergo, communication is frequent and persistent, as well are the meetings; the definition of team as an organizational group is not set in stone, as organizations have confronted a myriad of new forms of contemporary collaboration. Teams have strong organizational structured platforms and respond and efficiently to challenges as they have skills and the capability to do so.
An effective organizational team leads to greater productivity, more effective implementation of resources, better decisions and problem-solving, better-quality products/service, greater innovation and originality. Alongside the concept of a team, compare the more structured/skilled concept of a crew, the advantages of formal and informal partnerships, or the well-defined - but time-limited - existence of task forces. Team size and team composition affect team processes and team outcomes; the optimal size of teams will vary depending on the task at hand. At least one study of problem-solving in groups showed an optimal size of groups at four members. Other works estimate the optimal size between 5-12 members or a number of members that can consume two pizzas; the following extract is taken from Chong: The interest in teams gained momentum in the 1980s with the publication of Belbin’s work on successful teams. The research into teams and teamwork followed two lines of inquiry. Writers such as Belbin, Margerison and McCann, Davis et al.
Parker, Spencer and Pruss focused on team roles and how these affected team performance. These studies suggested that team performance was a function of the number and type of roles team members played; the number of roles for optimal performance varied from 15 to four. This variation has been attributed to. Lindgren believed that, in a social psychological sense, ‘roles’ were behaviours one exhibited within the constraints assigned by the outside world to one’s occupational position e.g. leader, supervisor, worker etc. Personality traits, on the other hand, were internally driven and stable over time and across situations; these traits affected behavioural patterns in predictable ways and, in varying degrees, become part of the ‘role’ definition as well. The other line of inquiry focused on measuring the ‘effectiveness’ of teams. Writers such as Deihl and Stroebe, Gersik and Anderson, Furnham et al. Cohen and Ledford and Katzenbach were concerned with high performing teams and the objective measurement of their effectiveness.
McFadzean believed that the appearance of a number of models of team effectiveness was indicative of a variety
Visionaries: Knights of the Magical Light
Visionaries: Knights of the Magical Light is a science fantasy media franchise that consisted of a short-lived toyline of action figures and vehicles produced by Hasbro, an animated television series by Sunbow Productions that ran for one season of thirteen episodes in 1987, while Star Comics published a bimonthly comic book series that lasted six issues from November 1987 to September 1988. The animated series was the only Hasbro property to be produced by Sunbow without the aid of Marvel Productions, utilized Japanese studio TMS Entertainment for overseas animation work. IDW Publishing published a five-issue crossover comic miniseries featuring the series characters and the Transformers from January to May 2018; the story is set on the fictional planet of Prysmos, a futuristic society where all technology and complex machinery cease functioning, its citizens are forced to rely on ancient magic to survive. The titular Visionaries are knights who are split into two factions: the heroic Spectral Knights and the evil Darkling Lords.
Everyone who wishes to gain the usage of magic is invited to a competition by the wizard Merklynn. After surviving traps, dangerous creatures, each other, survivors are rewarded with unique animal totems affixed to their armor chestplates; some of the knights are given staffs enchanted with various magic powers that are activated by its holder reciting a special verse. They could be used only once before they needed to be replenished in the animated series, but had unlimited use in the comic series. Characters who could not use these weapons instead had the power to infuse vehicles with magical powers, the spells for which were printed on official toy packaging but never used in either the comics or the animated series. In the Star Comics series, the female characters were given shields which operated in the same manner as the male characters' power staffs. Headed by its leader Leoric, the Spectral Knights are magic users who use magic for the purposes of good. Headed by Darkstorm, the Darkling Lords use their powers for selfish aims and are the antagonists of the series.
Merklynn – The wizard who occupies the shrine at Iron Mountain. Merklynn invites knights from across the land to compete in an obstacled race to his shrine, rewarding those who reach its hall with magical abilities. In exchange for recharging their power staffs, Merklynn contracts both the Darkling Lords and Spectral Knights to venture on other quests on his behalf, he sometimes offers magical devices in exchange for their services as well but Merklynn's gifts prove to be more trouble than they're worth. The character was named after Hasbro sculptor Bill Merklein. Fletchen – A young woman from a village outside of New Valarak. Darkstorm used her superstitious people as unwitting pawns in his plan to trap Leoric in his lion form, she was the first to discover what had happened to Leoric, though she was able to convince his fellow Spectral Knights of the truth, her own people refused to listen and only stopped attacking the Spectral Knights once Leoric was freed from the spell which trapped him.
Fletchen appears twice in the series, but there is strong evidence of a romantic relationship between her and Leoric. Falkhama – One of the wizards who inhabit Prysmos and a member of the same circle of wizardry as Merklynn; the Visionaries encountered him not long. In the series, Darkstorm used him in his plot to depose Merklynn, before sending both wizards to the Wizards' Jail. Falkama escaped but was recaptured by the Spectral Knights. Bogavas – An enigmatic wizard, he was among those who escaped the Wizards' Jail, but Merklynn had never known him to commit evil and, when caught by the Spectral Knights, he denied knowing any real magic. Merklynn subjected him to a test which would cause him to be consumed by fire if he was dishonest – when Bogavus appeared to pass, he was allowed to go free. Wizasquizar – A wizard condemned never to tell the truth, he escaped from the Wizards' Jail at the same time as Falkhama and Bogavas, remaining at large until the Spectral Knights captured all three rogue wizards.
But, before they could take the wizards to Iron Mountain, the Spectral Knights were ambushed by the Darkling Lords, prompting them to release Wizasqueezar as a diversion. The wizard joined forces with the Darkling Lords and led them to the Lost Shrine, where he betrayed them; when the Spectral Knights caught up with their enemies, they too came under attack from the Shrine's magical guards leaving only Leoric to thwart Wizasquizar's plans. Gleering – Fletchen's father. Before the events of "Lion Hunt", he and the rest of his people feared all magic and would use lucky charms to ward off evil. Darkstorm exploited this to stir up hatred against the Spectral Knights by convincing them that they were "evil wizards" guarding a magical beast. Gleering and his people learned they had nothing to fear provided it was used for good. Heskedor – An ancient crone living in a cave. Darkstorm, seeking a means to defeat Leoric, sought her aid and she gave him the potion which trapped Leoric in his Lion form. If the spell was not broken by the time all the Three Suns set, Leoric would never be able to revert to human form again, but the Spectral Knights found out what had happened and Witterquick went to confront Heskedor in her c
Play-Doh is a modeling compound used by young children for arts and crafts projects at home. It is composed of flour, salt and mineral oil; the product was first manufactured in Cincinnati, United States, as a wallpaper cleaner in the 1930s. The product was marketed to Cincinnati schools in the mid-1950s. Play-Doh was demonstrated at an educational convention in 1956 and prominent department stores opened retail accounts. Advertisements promoting Play-Doh on influential children's television shows in 1957 furthered the product's sales. Since its launch on the toy market in the mid-1950s, Play-Doh has generated a considerable amount of ancillary merchandise such as The Fun Factory. In 2003, the Toy Industry Association named Play-Doh in its "Century of Toys List"; the non-toxic, non-staining, reusable modeling compound that came to be known as "Play-Doh" was a pliable, putty-like substance concocted by Noah McVicker of Cincinnati-based soap manufacturer Kutol Products. It was devised at the request of Kroger Grocery, which wanted a product that could clean coal residue from wallpaper.
Following World War II, with the transition from coal-based home heating to natural gas and the resulting decrease in internal soot, the introduction of washable vinyl-based wallpaper, the market for wallpaper cleaning putty decreased substantially. McVicker's nephew, Joe McVicker, joined Kutol with the remit to save the company from bankruptcy. Joe McVicker was the brother-in-law of nursery school teacher Kay Zufall, who had seen a newspaper article about making art projects with the wallpaper cleaning putty, her students enjoyed it, she persuaded Noah McVicker and Joe McVicker to manufacture it as a child’s toy. Zufall and her husband came up with the name Play-Doh. Joe McVicker took Play-Doh to an educational convention for manufacturers of school supplies, Woodward & Lothrop, a department store in Washington, DC began selling the compound. In 1956, the McVickers formed the Rainbow Crafts Company to sell Play-Doh. In 1956, a three-pack of 7-ounce cans was added to the product line, after in-store demonstrations, Macy's of New York and Marshall Field's of Chicago opened retail accounts.
In 1957, chemist Dr. Tien Liu reduced Play-Doh's salt content, Play-Doh ads were telecast on Captain Kangaroo, Ding Dong School, Romper Room. In 1958, Play-Doh's sales reached nearly $3 million. In 1964, Play-Doh was exported to Britain and Italy. In the 1980s, its cardboard can was replaced with a more cost effective plastic container. By 1965, Rainbow Crafts was issued a patent for Play-Doh. In 1965, General Mills purchased Rainbow Crafts and all rights to Play-Doh for $3 million, placing the compound with its Kenner Products subsidiary. In 1971, Rainbow Crafts and Kenner Products merged, and, in 1987, the Tonka Corporation bought the two. In 1991, Hasbro became Play-Doh's owner, continues to manufacture the product today through its preschool division. In 1996, gold and silver were added to Play-Doh's palette to celebrate its 40th anniversary. Play-Doh packaging was illustrated with children in the mid-1950s, but replaced by the Play-Doh pixie, an elf mascot which, in 1960, was superseded by Play-Doh Pete, a smock and beret-wearing cartoonish boy.
In 2002, Play-Doh Pete's beret was replaced with a baseball cap. Since 2011, living Play-Doh cans named. Play-Doh's current manufacturer, reveals the compound is a mixture of water and flour, while its 2004 United States patent indicates it is composed of water, a starch-based binder, a retrogradation inhibitor, lubricant, preservative, humectant and color. A petroleum additive gives the compound a smooth feel, borax prevents mold from developing. Play-Doh contains some wheat and may cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to wheat gluten, it is not intended to be eaten. In 1960, the Play-Doh Fun Factory was invented by Bill Dale; the Play-Doh Fuzzy Pumper Barber & Beauty Shop of 1977 and Mop Top Hair Shop of 1986 featured a figurine whose extruded "hair" could be styled. In 1995 an educational software CD-ROM game, Play-Doh Creations was released. In 2003, the Play-Doh Creativity Table was sold. Play-Doh related merchandise introduced during the 2007 anniversary year included the Play-Doh Birthday Bucket, the Play-Doh Fifty Colors Pack, the Fuzzy Pumper Crazy Cuts, the Play-Doh Creativity Center.
In 2012, "Play-Doh Plus" was introduced. It is lighter, more pliable, softer than regular Play-Doh. More than two billion cans of Play-Doh were sold between 1955 and 2005, and, in 2005, Play-Doh was being sold in 75 countries at 95 million cans a year. In the United States, more than 6,000 stores carry Play-Doh. To mark Play-Doh's fiftieth anniversary, Demeter Fragrance Library created a limited-edition fragrance inspired by Play-Doh's distinctive odor for "highly-creative people, who seek a whimsical scent reminiscent of their childhood."Play-Doh was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 1998. In 2003, the Toy Industry Association placed Play-Doh into its "Century of Toys List", a roll call of the 100 most memorable and most creative toys of the twentieth century. In late 2014, the company offered to replace the "Play-Doh Cake Mountain" playset's extruder tool, for free, after receiving complaints about the tool's "phallic shape". In April 2, 2015, 20
Taboo is a word and party game published by Parker Brothers in 1989. The objective of the game is for a player to have their partners guess the word on the player's card without using the word itself or five additional words listed on the card; the game is similar to Catch Phrase from Hasbro, in which a player tries to get his or her teammates to guess words using verbal clues. A few hundred cards with 5 taboo words and the word that has to be explained on one side of the card Tray for holding cards Timer Buzzer or squeaker Pencil and paper for scorekeepingSome early editions included a board to track progress; the second edition of the game, produced in 1994, has a round, pink squeaker, or hooter, instead of a buzzer, as do the 1993 and 1990 editions. Taboo Junior, the game for younger players, includes a purple squeaker, as do a few of the other editions from 1996 and 2002 as well as 2012. In 1990, Hasbro sold packs of additional words. An number of players from four to ten sit alternating around in a circle.
Players take turns as the "giver," who attempts to prompt his or her teammates to guess as many keywords as possible in the allotted time. However, each card has "taboo" words listed which may not be spoken. Should the giver say one, a "censor" on the opposing team hits the buzzer and the giver must move on to the next word. For example, the giver might have to get his or her team to deduce the word "baseball" without offering the words "sport," "game," "pastime," "hitter," "pitcher," or "baseball" itself as clues; the giver may not say a part of a "taboo" word. Nor may they use a form of a word; the giver may only use speech to prompt her teammates. Singing is permitted, provided the singer is singing words rather than whistling a tune; the giver's hints may be an abbreviation of a taboo word. While the giver is prompting the teammates they may make as many guesses as they want with no penalties for wrong guesses. Once the team guesses the word as written on the card, the giver moves on to the next word, trying to get as many words as possible in the allotted time.
When time runs out, play passes to the next adjacent player of the other team. The playing team receives one point for correct guesses and one penalty point if "taboo" words are spoken. There was a game show based on Taboo in 2002, hosted by Chris Wylde. In the 2008 film Four Christmases and Brad played Taboo with Brad's mother and her boyfriend. On January 29, 2010, Cassandra Dominguez of Madrid, Spain scored what is believed to be a record 38 in a 4-round game of Taboo at the 2010 World Board Gamers Convention; the game was played in the show Will & Grace, in the season 3 episode, "Cheaters". The buzzer was featured in The Office episode "Special Project"; the game was played on BBC Radio 1 by Greg James during the second night of his Glasgow sofa surfing week in July 2012. The game was played on The Ellen DeGeneres Show by Katy Perry; the game was portrayed by East India Comedy on their YouTube Series EIC Gamers by Sahil Shah, Sapan Verma and Angad Singh Ranyal. The game was mentioned in the King of the Hill episode "My Own Private Rodeo".
1989 edition 1990 edition with pink hooter 1993 edition with pink hooter 1994 edition with pink hooter 1996 edition with pink hooter 1999 10th anniversary edition Bible Taboo Celebrity Taboo Platinum edition electronic Taboo Taboo Jewish Edition Taboo Junior Taboo for Kids The Big Taboo Taboo Body Language Taboo Quick Draw Taboo Singaporean Version 2002 edition with purple squeaker 2003 edition with red squeaker 2009 20th anniversary edition 2011 All New version with new clues and a "game changing" die 2013 edition with "game changing" die Taboo Buzz'd Taboo from FunkyGames, a variation for Android Big Taboo, a variation Tabooo, a variation for iPhone Word Charades, an iOS variation Unspeakable - Taboo Like With Friends, a variation for iPhone Battle of words - Taboo like Party Game, iPhone/iPad variation Taboo at Hasbro Taboo on Android Devices Category Kings - a Free game for iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad
Power Rangers is an American entertainment and merchandising franchise built around a live-action superhero television series, based on the Japanese tokusatsu franchise Super Sentai. Produced first by Saban Entertainment, second by BVS Entertainment by Saban Brands, today by SCG Power Rangers and Hasbro, the Power Rangers television series takes much of its footage from the Super Sentai television series, produced by Toei Company; the first Power Rangers entry, Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, debuted on August 28, 1993, helped launch the Fox Kids programming block of the 1990s, during which it catapulted into popular culture along with a line of action figures and other toys by Bandai. By 2001, the media franchise had generated over $6 billion in toy sales. Despite initial criticism that its action violence targeted child audiences, the franchise has continued, as of 2017 the show consists of 24 television seasons of 20 different themed series and three theatrical films released in 1995, 1997 and 2017.
In 2010, Haim Saban, creator of the series, regained ownership of the franchise after seven years under The Walt Disney Company. In 2018, Hasbro was named the new master toy licensee. Shortly afterwards, Saban Brands and Hasbro announced that the latter would acquire the franchise and the rest of the former's entertainment assets in a $522 million deal, with the first products from Hasbro becoming available in early 2019. Since Power Rangers derives most of its footage from the Super Sentai series, it features many hallmarks that distinguish it from other superhero series; each series revolves around a team of youths recruited and trained by a mentor to morph into the eponymous Power Rangers, able to use special powers and pilot immense assault machines, called Zords, to overcome the periodic antagonists. In the original series Mighty Morphin, the wizard Zordon recruits "teenagers with attitude" against Rita Repulsa; when "morphed," the rangers become powerful superheroes wearing color-coded skin-tight spandex suits and helmets with opaque visors.
Morphed Rangers possess enhanced strength, durability and combat prowess. Some possess superhuman or psychic abilities such as super-speed, element manipulation, extra-sensory perception or invisibility. In addition, each individual ranger has a unique weapon, as well as common weaponry used for ground fighting; when enemies grow to incredible size, Rangers use individual Zords that combine into a larger Megazord. Rangers teams operate with more Rangers joining the team later; each team of Rangers, with a few exceptions, obeys a general set of conventions, outlined at the beginning of Mighty Morphin and implied by mentors throughout many of the other series: Power Rangers may not use their Ranger powers for personal gain or for escalating a fight, nor may the Power Rangers disclose their identities to the general public. The penalty for disobeying these rules is the loss of their power; as in Super Sentai, the color palette of each Power Rangers team changes every series. Only Red and Blue appear in every Ranger team, while a Yellow Ranger has been present in every season except Power Rangers Dino Charge.
Other colors and designations appear throughout the series. A Rangers' color designation influences their wardrobe throughout the series: civilian clothing matches Ranger color. Before creating Power Rangers, the idea of adapting Sentai series to the American public emerged in the late 1970s after the agreement between Toei Company and Marvel Comics to exchange concepts to adapt them to their respective audiences. Toei, together with Marvel, created the Spider Man series, based on the comics of the same name, produced three Super Sentai series, which had great success in Japan. While Stan Lee and Marvel tried to sell the Sun Vulcan series to various television stations, including HBO, but unlike what happened in Japan, this did not succeed and after three years, the agreement ended. Several years another idea to adapt Super Sentai began in the 80s when Haim Saban made a business trip to Japan, in which, during his stay at the hotel, the only thing, being transmitted on his television was the Japanese series "Super Sentai".
At that time, Saban was fascinated by the concept of 5 people masked in spandex suits fighting monsters, so in 1985, he produced the pilot episode of Bio-Man, an American adaptation of Choudenshi Bioman, rejected by several of the largest American television stations. Production of Power Rangers episodes involves extensive localization of and revision of original Super Sentai source material in order to incorporate American culture and conform to American television standards. Rather than making an English dub or translation of the Japanese footage, Power Rangers programs consist of scenes featuring English-speaking actors spliced with scenes featuring either Japanese actors dubbed into English or the action scenes from the Super Sentai Series featuring the Rangers fighting monsters or the giant robot battles with English dubbing. In some series, original fight scenes are filmed to incorporate characters or items unique to the Power Rangers production. Like many of Saban Entertainment previous ventures in localizing Japanese television for a Western audience, the plot, character names, other names differ from the source footage, though a few seasons have stayed close to the story of the original Super Sentai season.
Along with adapting the villains from the Super Sentai counterparts, most Power Rangers series feature villains with no Sentai counterpart. The primary antagonist of a Power Rangers series are not adapted fr
Stretch Armstrong is a large, gel-filled action figure first introduced in 1976 by Kenner. In 2016, at the New York Toy Fair, Hasbro announced the return of the Stretch Armstrong toy in its original 1976 design. Stretch Armstrong is an action figure shaped as a short, man with blond hair wearing black trunks; the doll's most notable feature was that it could be stretched from its original size of about 15 in to 4 to 5 ft. If a tear did develop, it could be fixed with an adhesive bandage. Information on how to repair Stretch was provided in the toy's instruction booklet, inside his box; the Stretch Armstrong toy concept was created by Jesse D. Horowitz, the industrial designer for Kenner’s R&D group; the idea was approved for development by the head of vice president of Kenner. The "stretch man" idea as it was called was pursued with two different bodies in mind. One was a sumo wrestler and the other was an All-American blond hunk. Horowitz sculpted the models himself instead of hiring a freelancer.
The sumo man was too bulky and large, so the All-American body was cast by Kenner's model maker Richard Dobek, the resultant resin model was taken to a latex doll manufacturer in New Jersey, where the first bodies were dipped. Springs were thought of as the way to stretch the man. However, they were thought to be too awkward and stiff, too difficult to insert and would pierce the skin. Kuhn, a chemical engineer, pursued a liquid sugar idea which proved successful. Tremendous quantities of Karo corn syrup were purchased from an A&P supermarket; the syrup was boiled down to get the proper viscosity. Kuhn and Horowitz flew to Kenner’s headquarters in Cincinnati and presented the concept to Bernie Loomis, Kenner's president, he loved it and so a toy icon was born. The original Stretch Armstrong figure was conceived and developed by Bill Armasmith, was in production from 1976 until 1980; the original 1970s toy commands high prices on the secondary collectors' market, selling for hundreds thousands, of US dollars.
Through storage and play, the figure could become damaged and rendered useless. There are still original Stretch Armstrongs that have survived the passing of time and are remarkably preserved through sheer luck or being stored at the correct temperature; the figure keeps best at room temperature. Stretch Armstrong is made of latex rubber filled with gelled corn syrup, which allows it to retain shape for a short time before shrinking to its original shape. An estimated 67 different versions from Japan, Italy, France and other countries released Stretch Armstrong variations between 1976 and the 1990s. Stretch X-Ray, had an oversized exposed brain and an alien-looking face with a transparent form that showed its internal organs which were lungs, a intestinal system and what appears to be a heart; this version was re-released. Harbert Sport Mister Muscolo, 1977 Italian version of Stretch Armstrong Lili Ledy El Hombre Elastico, Mexican version of Stretch Armstrong Tsukuda Mr. X, Japanese version of Stretch Armstrong Stretch Monster, a reptilian green nemesis released by Kenner in 1978 Harbert Sport Mister Mostro, Italian version of Stretch Monster Tsukuda Stretch Monster, Japanese version Stretch Ollie and Stretch Olivia and female octopuses which had the same face shape but the only difference was their color.
Kenner issued both weeks apart but Ollie was more popular. The Denys Fisher UK toy company issued Ollie and Olivia in smaller boxes than their American counterparts, saving on shelf space; the figures are rare to come by now. Deny's Fisher Stretch Incredible Hulk Mego Elastic Donald Duck Mego Elastic Mickey Mouse Mego Elastic Batman Mego Elastic Incredible Hulk Mego Elastic Plastic Man Kenner Stretch Serpent Cap Toys Fetch Armstrong, Stretch Armstrong's pliable canine counterpart, released in the early 1990s Kenner/Hasbro Super Stretch Mask Cap Toys Stretch Vac-Man ToyQuest Super Morphman Super Impulse Gumby and Pokey StretchThe last two were filled with a granular solid in place of the viscous liquid found in the other figures. A vacuum pump, which attached to the heads of these figures, removed the air from within, which "froze" the toy in its stretched position. Stretch Armstrong was reissued in the 1990s by Cap Toys, with a canine sidekick, "Fetch Armstrong"; the reissue stretch Armstrong had a more comical exaggerated face and had on a vanity T-shirt and shorts.
This new reissue figure was introduced in 1993 and 1994 version exist with different art work. He has an evil brother named Evil X-ray Wretch Armstrong who has a skull face, sports a mohawk, stretches. Wretch Armstrong seems to be a redesigned, smaller remake of Stretch X-Ray but in reality looks nothing like the 1970s version. Evil X-ray Wretch Armstrong is only 7 inches tall. In 1994, Walt Disney Studios obtained the film rights to the character. Several scripts were written, including an early version family comedy written by Greg Erb, a co-writer at Disney; the script which cast Tim Allen in the role of Stretch Armstrong as a "kind of single dad, a research scientist" and is "stretched too thin" trying to balance his work and family life before he inadvertently accidentally takes one of his experimental serums giving himself "stretchy powers". A version from Screenwriter Michael Kalesniko was created and it was set in San Francisco, it was about a somewhat awkward nobody beset with troubles trying to venture out his failing personal life and is genetically modified with stretching abilities after a failed nuclear fusion experiment and must use his newfound abilities to solve the tragedy tha
The Tinkertoy Construction Set is a toy construction set for children. It was created in 1914—six years after the Frank Hornby's Meccano sets—by Charles H. Pajeau, who formed the Toy Tinker Company in Evanston, Illinois to manufacture them. Pajeau, a stonemason, designed the toy after seeing children play with sticks and empty spools of thread. Pajeu partnered with Robert Pettit and Gordon Tinker to market a toy that would allow and inspire children to use their imaginations. After an slow start, over a million were sold; the cornerstone of the set is a wooden spool two inches in diameter with holes drilled every 45 degrees around the perimeter and one through the center. Unlike the center, the perimeter holes do not go all the way through. With the differing-length sticks, the set was intended to be based on the Pythagorean progressive right triangle; the sets were introduced to the public through displays in and around Chicago which included model Ferris wheels. Tinkertoys have been used to create complex machines, including Danny Hillis's tic-tac-toe-playing computer and a robot at Cornell University in 1998.
One of Tinker Toy’s most distinctive features is the toy’s packaging. The mailing tube design was chosen to reduce shipping costs. Early versions of the packaging included an address label on the tube with space for postage. To assist consumers in differentiating between the various offerings, sets were placed in mail tube packages of different sizes and delineated with a number and a name. A colorful “how-to” instruction guide accompanied each set. In the 1950s, color was added and the wooden sticks appeared in red, green and yellow; the main manufacturing location was a 65,000 square foot four story plant at 2012 Ridge Avenue, Illinois. Tinkertoys were inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 1998. Hasbro owns the Tinkertoy brand and produces both Tinkertoy Plastic and Tinkertoy Classic sets and parts. In addition to the spools, a standard Tinkertoy set includes: Wheels, which are thinner than spools, but larger in diameter. Like spools, their center holes have a snug fit.
Caps wooden, but plastic, cylindrical pieces with a single blind axial hole snugly fitted to the rods. Couplings, small cylindrical pieces 2 inches long and half an inch in diameter, with snug-fitting blind-drilled holes in either end, a loose-fitting through-drilled hole crosswise through the center of the part. Pulleys, identical to spools, except. "Part W" the same size and shape as a spool, but with perimeter holes 90 degrees apart, loose-fitting center holes, four tight-fitting through-drilled holes parallel to the center hole. This allowed for free-spinning parts, for construction of "cage" or "lantern" gears. Short pointed sticks red, flags green plastic, various other small parts. Spools and pulleys all have a single groove around the outside. Sticks are slotted on each end, both to provide some "give" when inserted into snug-fitting holes, to allow thin cards and strings to be inserted into the slots, they are color-coded by size. Each successively longer rod is next smaller size times the square root of two.
Tinkertoy sticks. The earlier sets had natural wood changed to colored sticks in the late 1950s. From measurement, the orange sticks are 1.25 inches long. Spools are 1.35 inches in diameter with holes of 0.30 inch depth. Most of the larger sets include a driveshaft (an unfinished wooden rod without slotted ends, of an intermediate length between "green" and "violet," turned with a small plastic crank; the Ultra Construction Set includes connectors, small cylindrical plastic pieces 2 inches long with a slot in either end and a slotted hole crosswise through the center of the part. Sets with battery-powered electric motors were available. K'Nex, a similar construction toy Strange, Craig. Collector's Guide to Tinker Toys. ISBN 0-89145-703-8. Dewdney, A. K; the Tinkertoy Computer and Other Machinations. ISBN 0-7167-2491-X. Cornell University press release for Tinkertoy robot A Tinkertoy computer that plays tic-tac-toe at the Wayback Machine