A ring flash is a circular photographic electronic flash that fits around a camera lens. Unlike point light sources, a ring flash provides illumination with few shadows visible in the resulting photographs because the origin of the light is close to the optical axis of the lens, it was invented by Lester A. Dine in 1952 for use in dental photography, but now is used in applications such as macro and fashion photography; as the efficiency of light sources, the sensitivity of photographic imaging sensors, the use of a continuous ring light instead of a flash increased. A ring light has the same advantages as a ring flash, but produces continuous light at a lower intensity, so the image can be examined before taking the photograph. In the past a circular fluorescent tube was used. Brightness and colour temperature can be changed on some devices. In addition to lights that are fitted to the filter ring of a camera, inexpensive versions that clip onto a mobile phone or other device equipped with a camera are available.
A macro ring flash consists of a power and control unit mounted on a hot shoe, a circular flash unit mounted on the front of a lens. Power is supplied by batteries in the shoe-mount unit and a cable conveys power and control signals to the circular flash unit. In larger ring flashes, which are used for fashion photography, power may be supplied by an external battery or line power supply, or the power supply and light may be combined in one unit. Light is generated by one or more flash tubes or by multiple LEDs. In some flash units with multiple flash tubes, each flash tube can be independently enabled; some ring flashes have focusing lenses that result in ideal light distribution at a particular distance from the subject. Other devices are available. For example, flash diffusers have no light source of their own, but instead mount in front of a conventional flash unit and transmit the light to a ring-shaped diffuser at the front of the lens; some other passive light modifiers can shape the light from a conventional shoe-mounted flash into that of a ring flash.
These adapters use diffusers and reflectors to "bend" the light in an arc around the lens axis and emit the light from that arc. These devices maintain any through-the-lens lighting functions that are shared by the camera and flash because the timing of the light has not changed. Ring flashes are used in macro photography; when the subject is close to the camera, the distance of the flash from the optical axis becomes significant. For objects close to the camera, the size of the ring flash is significant and so the light encounters the subject from many angles in the same way that it does with a conventional flash with soft box; this has the effect of further softening any shadows. Ring flashes are popular in portrait and fashion photography because they soften the shadows created by other, off-axis lights, create interesting circular highlights in a model's eyes. Ring Lights are often used in the beauty and cosmetic industry by make-up artists; this is due to the lightweight and compact features of a ring light that make it suitable for freelance beauty and make-up artists.
Ring flashes are used in microscopy. The ring flash is mounted on the objective lens of an optical microscope; the main use of this tool is the photographing of microscopic organisms. A ring flash works on a microscope in much the same way. Close-up Macro photography Micrograph Strobist.com
Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were
The Lodger (1944 film)
The Lodger is a 1944 horror film about Jack the Ripper, based on the novel of the same name by Marie Belloc Lowndes. It stars Merle Oberon, George Sanders, Laird Cregar, features Sir Cedric Hardwicke, was directed by John Brahm from a screenplay by Barré Lyndon. Lowndes' story had been filmed in 1927 as a silent film, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog, directed by Alfred Hitchcock, with sound in 1932 as The Lodger, it was remade again in 1953 as Man in the Attic, starring Jack Palance, again in 2009 by David Ondaatje. Slade, a serial killer, is a lodger in a 19th-century family's London home. So is a singer, Kitty Langley, who has caught Slade's eye. Women are being brutally killed in the Whitechapel district. Scotland Yard is investigating, a detective, John Warwick, begins to cast his suspicions in Slade's direction. Kitty, has developed an attraction to Slade. Slade goes to see her perform at a cabaret, he goes backstage afterward, tries to make her his next victim, but Warwick's men get there just in time.
Unwilling to be taken into police custody, Slade flees to the riverbank, leaps to his death. Merle Oberon as Kitty Langley Laird Cregar as Mr. Slade, the lodger George Sanders as Inspector John Warwick Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Robert Bonting Sara Allgood as Ellen Bonting Aubrey Mather as Superintendent Sutherland Queenie Leonard as Daisy, the maid Doris Lloyd as Jennie David Clyde as Sergeant Bates Helena Pickard as Annie Rowley Ted Billings as News Vendor Cyril Delevanti as Stagehand Stuart Holmes as King Edward Olaf Hytten as Harris The film made a profit of $657,700; the New York Times gave the film a positive review: "If The Lodger was designed to chill the spine—as indeed it must have been, considering all the mayhem Mr. Cregar is called upon to commit as the mysterious, psychopathic pathologist of the title—then something is wrong with the picture. But, if it was intended as a sly travesty on the melodramatic technique of ponderously piling suspicion upon suspicion The Lodger is eminently successful."
Variety wrote: "With a pat cast, keen direction, tight scripting, 20th-Fox has an absorbing and, at times, spine-tingling drama". TV Guide rated it 4/5 stars, wrote: "Cregar is chilling in this Jack the Ripper tale the best film made about Bloody Jack." List of American films of 1944 The Lodger on IMDb The Lodger at AllMovie The Lodger at the TCM Movie Database The Lodger film trailer on YouTube
A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most engage the subject with the viewer. Most early representations that are intended to show an individual are of rulers, tend to follow idealizing artistic conventions, rather than the individual features of the subject's body, though when there is no other evidence as to the ruler's appearance the degree of idealization can be hard to assess. Nonetheless, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features; the 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c. 2144–2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality.
Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypt's Fayum district. These are the only paintings from the classical world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures and portraits on coins have fared better. Although the appearance of the figures differs they are idealized, all show young people, making it uncertain whether they were painted from life; the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits unflattering ones. During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of an idealized symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are generalized. True portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings.
Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations. These works represent anatomical features in great detail; the individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a written reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the ruling elite, priests and distinguished artisans, they were represented during several stages of their lives. The faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found. There is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. What has been claimed as the world's oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old; when the artist creates a portrait of him- or herself, it is called a self-portrait. Identifiable examples become numerous in the late Middle Ages.
But if the definition is extended, the first was by the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten's sculptor Bak, who carved a representation of himself and his wife Taheri c. 1365 BC. However, it seems that self-portraits go back to the cave paintings, the earliest representational art, literature records several classical examples that are now lost; the official portrait is a photographic production of record and dissemination of important personalities, notably kings and governors. It is decorated with official colors and symbols such as flag, presidential stripes and coat of arms of countries, states or municipalities. There is connotation as an image of events and meetings. Portrait photography is a popular commercial industry all over the world. Many people enjoy having professionally made family portraits to hang in their homes, or special portraits to commemorate certain events, such as graduations or weddings. Since the dawn of photography, people have made portraits; the popularity of the daguerreotype in the middle of the 19th century was due in large part to the demand for inexpensive portraiture.
Studios sprang up in cities around the world, some cranking out more than 500 plates a day. The style of these early works reflected the technical challenges associated with 30-second exposure times and the painterly aesthetic of the time. Subjects were seated against plain backgrounds and lit with the soft light of an overhead window and whatever else could be reflected with mirrors; as photographic techniques developed, an intrepid group of photographers took their talents out of the studio and onto battlefields, across oceans and into remote wilderness. William Shew's Daguerreotype Saloon, Roger Fenton's Photographic Van and Mathew Brady's What-is-it? Wagon set the standards for making other photographs in the field. In politics, portraits of the leader are used as a symbol of the state. In most countries it is common protocol for a portrait of the head of state to appear in important government buildings. Excessive use of a leader's portrait, such as that done of Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, or Mao Zedong, can be indicative of a personality cult.
In literature the term portrait refers to analysis of a person or thing. A written portrait gives deep insight, offers an analysis that goes far beyond the superficial. For example, American author Patricia Cornwell wrote a best-selling book entitled Portrait of a Killer about
Lucien Ballard, A. S. C. was an American cinematographer. Ballard began working on films at Paramount Studios in 1929, he joked in an interview that it was a three-day party at the home of actress Clara Bow that convinced him "this is the business for me". He began his career loading trucks at Paramount and became a camera assistant working for director Josef von Sternberg. Von Sternberg allowed him credit for his work on The Devil is a Woman, the two shared a Venice Film Festival award for Best Cinematography in 1935, he worked with him on The King Steps Out, based on the life of Empress Elisabeth of Austria. On the set of The Lodger, Ballard met and married actress Merle Oberon. After she was involved in a near fatal car crash in London, he invented a light, mounted by the side of the camera, to provide direct light onto a subject's face, with the aim of reducing the appearance of blemishes and wrinkles. Named the "Obie", the device benefited Oberon, who had sustained facial scarring in the car accident.
The Obie became used in the film industry. In 1941's Howard Hughes film The Outlaw, Hughes cast Jane Russell in the lead and had numerous shots of her cleavage, which got the attention of the Hollywood censors; the film took five years to be released to selected theaters. Ballard was the camera man for the screen tests, did some of the second unit work for director Howard Hawks, assisted cinematographer Gregg Toland on the first unit crew. In one of his first films, directed by von Sternberg, Ballard worked with assistant director Henry Hathaway; this relationship with Hathaway came back to benefit Ballard when Hathaway himself became a director. They worked together on several films, including Diplomatic Courier, O. Henry's Full House, Prince Valiant, The Sons of Katie Elder, Nevada Smith, True Grit; the last, because of the natural beauty of southwestern Colorado, garnered Ballard acclaim among his peers. After working with Budd Boetticher on The Magnificent Matador, they worked together several times, including The Killer Is Loose, the television show Maverick, Buchanan Rides Alone,The Rise and Fall of Legs Diamond, A Time for Dying, My Kingdom For....
Another relationship of importance was with Sam Peckinpah. They worked together on The Westerner, Ride the High Country, The Wild Bunch, The Ballad of Cable Hogue, The Getaway, Junior Bonner. Ballard was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Cinematography for The Caretakers and won the National Society of Film Critics award for Best Cinematography for The Wild Bunch, he worked on more than 130 films during his 50-year career. Ballard died in a car accident at the age of eighty in 1988. Ballard @ the Internet Encyclopedia of Cinematographers Lucien Ballard on IMDb Ballard @ Allmovie
A soft box is a type of photographic lighting device, one of a number of photographic soft light devices. All the various soft light types create and diffused light by transmitting light through some scattering material, or by reflecting light off a second surface to diffuse the light; the best known form of reflective source is the umbrella light, where the light from the bulb is "bounced" off the inside of a metalized umbrella to create an indirect "soft" light. A soft box is an enclosure around a bulb comprising reflective side and back walls and a diffusing material at the front of the light; the sides and back of the box are lined with a bright surface - an aluminized fabric surface or an aluminum foil, to act as an efficient reflector. In some commercially available models the diffuser is removable to allow the light to be used alone as a floodlight or with an umbrella reflector. A soft box can be used with either flash or continuous light sources such as fluorescent lamps or "hot lights" such as quartz halogen bulbs or tungsten bulbs.
If soft box lights are used with "hot" light sources, the photographer must be sure the soft box is heat rated for the wattage of the light to which it is attached in order to avoid fire hazard. Striplight Reflector Beauty dish Speed ring
A cinematographer or director of photography is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography; the cinematographer selects the camera, film stock, filters, etc. to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Reed Morano, ASC who lensed Frozen River and Beyonce's Lemonade before winning an Emmy for directing The Handmaid's Tale. Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Ellen Kuras, ASC photographed Eternal Sunshine of The Spotless Mind as well as a number of Spike Lee films such as Summer of Sam and He Got Game before directing episodes of Legion and Ozark.
In 2014, Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan's three Batman films, made his directorial debut with Transcendence. In the infancy of motion pictures, the cinematographer was also the director and the person physically handling the camera; as the art form and technology evolved, a separation between director and camera operator emerged. With the advent of artificial lighting and faster film stocks, in addition to technological advancements in optics, the technical aspects of cinematography necessitated a specialist in that area. Cinematography was key during the silent movie era. In 1919 Hollywood, the then-new motion picture capital of the world, one of the first trade societies was formed: the American Society of Cinematographers, which stood to recognize the cinematographer's contribution to the art and science of motion picture making. Similar trade associations have been established in other countries too; the ASC Vision Committee is known for working to encourage and support the advancement of underrepresented cinematographers, their crews and other filmmakers, to inspire us all to enact positive changes through hiring talent that reflects society at large.
However, the Soviet filmmaker, Dziga Vertov, writing in Kino-fot No.1 rejected the role of Cinematographer in the "We: Variant of a Manifesto": "We call ourselves kinoks – as opposed to "cinematographers", a herd of junkmen doing rather well peddling their rags. We see the cunning and calculation of the profiteers. We consider the psychological Russo-German film-drama – weighed down with apparitions and childhood memories – an absurdity." There are a number of national associations of cinematographers which represent members and which are dedicated to the advancement of cinematography. These include: the American Society of Cinematographers the International Collective of Women Cinematographers the Canadian Society of Cinematographers the British Society of Cinematographers the Australian Cinematographers Society the Cinematographers Guild of Korea the Filipino Society of Cinematographers the French Society of Cinematographers the Italian Society of Cinematographers the Indian Society of Cinematographers the German Society of Cinematographers the Netherlands Society of Cinematographers the Spanish Society of Cinematography Works the European Federation of Cinematographers / IMAGO the Uruguayan Society of Cinematographers the Lithuanian Association of Cinematographers Cinematographers XX IlluminatrixThe A.
S. C. defines cinematography as: A creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than the simple recording of a physical event. Cinematography is not a subcategory of photography. Rather, photography is but one craft that the cinematographer uses in addition to other physical, managerial and image-manipulating techniques to effect one coherent process. Camerimage Cinematography Cinematography Mailing List, a communication forum for cinematographers Filmmaking Glossary of motion picture terms Indian cinematographers List of film director and cinematographer collaborations List of film formats List of motion picture-related topics Cinematography.com Cinematography Mailing List International Cinematographers Guild The History of the Discovery of Cinematography American Society of Cinematographers The Guild of British Camera Technicians British Society of Cinematographers Indian Society of Cinematographers European Federation of Cinematographers / IMAGO Australian Cinematographers Society German Society of Cinematography, BVK Italian Society of Cinematography, AIC Lithuanian Association of Cinematographers, LAC