Simon & Schuster
Simon & Schuster, Inc. a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster. As of 2016, Simon & Schuster was publishing 2,000 titles annually under 35 different imprints. In 1924, Richard Simon's aunt, a crossword puzzle enthusiast, asked whether there was a book of New York World crossword puzzles, which were popular at the time. After discovering that none had been published and Max Schuster decided to launch a company to exploit the opportunity. At the time, Simon was a piano salesman and Schuster was editor of an automotive trade magazine, they pooled US$8,000, equivalent to $117 thousand today, to start a company that published crossword puzzles. The new publishing house used "fad" publishing to publish books that exploited current fads and trends. Simon called this "planned publishing". Instead of signing authors with a planned manuscript, they came up with their own ideas, hired writers to carry them out. In the 1930s, the publisher moved to what has been referred to as "Publisher's Row" on Park Avenue in Manhattan, New York.
In 1939, Simon & Schuster financially backed Robert Fair de Graff to found Pocket Books, America's first paperback publisher. In 1942, Simon & Schuster and Western Printing launched the Little Golden Books series in cooperation with the Artists and Writers Guild. In 1944, Marshall Field III, owner of the Chicago Sun, purchased Pocket Books; the company was sold back to Schuster following his death. In the 1950s and 1960s, many publishers including Simon & Schuster turned toward educational publishing due to the baby boom market. Pocket Books focused on paperbacks for the educational market instead of textbooks and started the Washington Square Press imprint in 1959. By 1964 it had published over 200 titles and was expected to put out another 400 by the end of that year. Books published under the imprint included classic reprints such as Lorna Doone, Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, Robinson Crusoe. In 1966, Max Schuster sold his half of Simon & Schuster to Leon Shimkin. Shimkin merged Simon & Schuster with Pocket Books under the name of Simon & Schuster.
In 1968, editor-in-chief Robert Gottlieb, who worked at Simon & Schuster since 1955 and edited several bestsellers including Joseph Heller's Catch-22, left abruptly to work at competitor Knopf, taking other influential S&S employees, Nina Bourne, Tony Schulte. In 1979, Richard Snyder was named CEO of the company. Over the next several years he would help grow the company substantially. After the 1983 death of Charles Bluhdorn, head of Gulf+Western who acquired Simon in Schuster in 1976, the company made the decision to diversify. Bluhdorn's successor Martin Davis told The New York Times, "Society was undergoing dramatic changes, so that there was a greater need for textbooks and educational information. We saw the opportunity to diversify into those areas, which are more stable and more profitable than trade publishing."In 1984, Simon & Schuster with CEO Richard E. Snyder acquired Esquire Corporation, buying everything but the magazine for $180 million. Prentice Hall was brought into the company fold in 1985 for over $700 million and was viewed by some executives to be a catalyst for change for the company as a whole.
This acquisition was followed by Silver Burdett in 1986, mapmaker Gousha in 1987 and Charles E. Simon in 1988. Part of the acquisition included educational publisher Allyn & Bacon which, according to editor and chief Michael Korda, became the "nucleus of S&S's educational and informational business." Three California educational companies were purchased between 1988 and 1990—Quercus, Fearon Education and Janus Book Publishers. In all, Simon & Schuster spent more than $1 billion in acquisitions between 1983 and 1991. In the 1980s, Snyder made an unsuccessful bid toward video publishing, believed to have led to the company's success in the audio book business. Snyder was dismayed to realize that Simon & Schuster did not own the video rights to Jane Fonda's Workout Book, a huge bestseller at the time, that the video company producing the VHS was making more money on the video; this prompted Snyder to ask editors to obtain video rights for every new book. Agents were reluctant to give these up—which meant the S&S Video division never took off.
According to Korda, the audio rights expanded into the audio division which by the 1990s would be a major business for Simon & Schuster. In 1989, Gulf and Western Inc. owner of Simon & Schuster, changed its name to Paramount Communications Inc. In 1990, The New York Times described Simon & Schuster as the largest book publisher in the United States with sales of $1.3 billion the previous year. That same year, Schuster acquired the children's publisher Green Tiger Press. In 1994, was fired from S&S and was replaced by the company's president and chief operating officer Jonathan Newcomb; that year, Paramount was sold to Viacom. In 1998, Viacom sold Simon & Schuster's educational operations, including Prentice Hall and Macmillan, to Pearson PLC, the global publisher and owner of Penguin and the Financial Times; the professional and reference operations were sold to Hicks Muse Furst. In 2002, Simon & Schuster acquired its Canadian distributor Distican. Simon & Schuster began publishing in Canada in 2013.
At the end of 2005, Viacom split into two companies: CBS Corporation, the other retaining the Viacom name. In 2005, Simon & Schuster acquired Strebor Books International, founded in 1999 by author Kristina Laferne Roberts, who has written under the pseudonym "Zane." A year in 2006, Simon & Schuster launched the conservative imprint Threshold Editions. In 2009, Simon & Schuster
Vince Clarke is an English synthpop musician and songwriter. Clarke has been the main composer and musician of the band Erasure since its inception in 1985, was the main songwriter of several groups, including Depeche Mode and The Assembly. Vincent John Martin was born in South Woodford, Essex and he moved to Basildon, Essex, he studied the violin and the piano, but he was inspired to make electronic music upon hearing Wirral synth band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark. Along with OMD, other early influences included The Human League, Daniel Miller, Fad Gadget. In the late-1970s, Clarke and schoolmate Andy Fletcher formed a short-lived band called No Romance in China. In 1980, he teamed up with Martin Gore to form French Look. Another band, named Composition of Sound, followed in 1980 with another addition of Martin Gore and Andy Fletcher. Clarke provided vocals until singer Dave Gahan joined the band, renamed Depeche Mode. At that time, he adopted the stage name Vince Clarke, by which he is known.
The band adopted a slick synthesized electropop sound, which produced the album Speak & Spell and the Clarke-penned singles "Dreaming of Me", "New Life", "Just Can't Get Enough" in 1981. Clarke left Depeche Mode shortly thereafter. There were many rumoured reasons pertaining to his departure, he commented on Depeche Mode's material as being a little dark for his taste, but good nonetheless. Clarke stated that he did not enjoy the public aspects of success, such as touring and interviews, found himself at odds with his bandmates on the tour bus, he stated: "I think everybody in the band myself, imagined that the reason we were doing so well was because of themselves... We were pretty young and lucky, things had happened quickly for us, I don't think we were mature to handle the situation." Clarke was replaced by musician Alan Wilder, Depeche Mode went on to achieve international stardom. Clarke teamed up with singer Alison Moyet to form the popular synthpop band Yazoo, which produced two albums and a string of hits including "Only You", "Don't Go", "Situation", "The Other Side of Love", "Nobody's Diary", "Walk Away from Love".
Yazoo disbanded in 1983, Moyet went on to have a successful solo career. Yazoo reformed in 2008 for a series of live dates to celebrate 25 years since the duo's split. In 1983, Clarke teamed up with Eric Radcliffe, it was their idea to collaborate as one-off associations with different artists on each new single, under the name The Assembly. Meanwhile, he founded the label Reset Records with Eric Radcliffe. During 1983 and further on in 1984, he produced four singles "The Face of Dorian Gray", "I Just Want to Dance", "Claudette", "Calling All Destroyers" for his friend Robert Marlow, which were released on this label, they produced an album, shelved but was released much in 1999 under the name The Peter Pan Effect. In 1985, another collaboration took place with Paul Quinn of Bourgie Bourgie, the result was the single "One Day" by Vince Clarke & Paul Quinn. However, the project never took off, Clarke moved on to other projects. In early 1985, Clarke put an ad in Melody Maker for a singer, one applicant was Andy Bell, a fan of his earlier projects.
He teamed with Bell to form the group Erasure, the duo became one of the major selling acts in British music with international hits like "Oh L'amour", "Sometimes", "Chains of Love", "A Little Respect", "Drama!", "Blue Savannah", "Chorus", "Love to Hate You", "Take a Chance on Me", "Always". The band has released 16 albums to date and has enjoyed a long string of hit singles spanning their three decades together, most topped-off by the 2005 top five hit "Breathe" taken from their Nightbird album. In 2006, Erasure produced a country-western style acoustic album consisting of non-single cuts from their previous albums; this album, Union Street was preceded by the single "Boy" included on their 1997 Cowboy album. On 26 January 2007, in a video message on the official Erasure website, the band announced the release of their sixteenth album, entitled Light at the End of the World. Released in the UK on 21 May 2007, with a US release the following day, it was preceded by the single "I Could Fall in Love with You", released on 2 April 2007.
The second single, "Sunday Girl" was subsequently released. The album was produced by Gareth Jones and was a more "dance oriented" effort than some of their more recent work with Clarke making reference to the new material sounding a bit more like Andy Bell's 2005 solo effort Electric Blue. Erasure went on to tour with Cyndi Lauper, Deborah Harry, Margaret Cho, other artists, for the 2007 True Colors Tour of the United States, a tour which benefited gay, lesbian and transgender freedoms and rights. Erasure went out on their own, headlining the "Light at the End of the World" tour in Europe and North America; the band released a new EP, Storm Chaser, in September 2007. The EP contains nine tracks, one of them the winner of an online fan remix contest, for the track "When a Lover Leaves You", from the Light at the End of the World album; the Erasure album, Tomorrow's World, was released on 3 October 2011, featuring production by Frankmusik. The album was done in two locations, Vince in his Cabin Studio in Maine composing the music and vocal arrangement, production done by Andy in Los Angeles.
The album featured three singles.
A Broken Frame
A Broken Frame is the second studio album by English electronic music band Depeche Mode, released on 27 September 1982 by Mute Records. The album was written by Martin Gore and recorded after the departure of Vince Clarke, who had left to form Yazoo with singer Alison Moyet. Alan Wilder was part of a second band tour in the United Kingdom prior to the release of A Broken Frame, but he had not joined yet and does not appear on the album. Writing in Smash Hits, Peter Silverton observed that A Broken Frame, in contrast to the group's early post-Vince singles which he thought showed "a lack of purpose", "makes a virtue of their tinkly-bonk whimsy". In contrast, Melody Maker wrote that, although "ambitious and bold", "A Broken Frame – as its name suggests – marks the end of a beautiful dream", a comment on the departure of main songwriter and electronics genius Vince Clarke. Reviewer Steve Sutherland considered the songs "daft aspirations to art", the album's musical and thematic "larcenies" sounding like "puerile infatuations papering over anonymity".
At the same time, Sutherland acknowledges that the group's increasing complexity "sounds less the result of exterior persuasion than an understandable, natural development", although he concludes that Depeche Mode remain "essentially vacuous". The comments of Noise! magazine's'DH' showed greater prescience.'DH' said that the album "falls together well and shows we can expect a lot more from the clean cut quartet", adding "t times it reaches high points far exceeding their first album."In a retrospective review for AllMusic, Ned Raggett described A Broken Frame as "a notably more ambitious effort than the pure pop/disco of the band's debut" with much of the album "forsaking earlier sprightliness... for more melancholy reflections about love gone wrong". He adds: "More complex arrangements and juxtaposed sounds, such as the sparkle of breaking glass in "Leave in Silence", help give this underrated album more of an intriguing, unexpected edge."In 1990, while promoting their album Violator, songwriter Martin Gore lamented parts of the album, saying, "I regret all that sickly boy-next-door stuff of the early days... musically A Broken Frame was a mish-mash".
Despite being a photograph, the cover artwork is intended to resemble a painting. It depicts a woman cutting grain in an East Anglian field, near Duxford in Cambridgeshire, it was taken by Brian Griffin using a mixture of artificial lighting. Griffin cited as inspirations the socialist realism of Soviet Russia the work of Kazimir Malevich, German Romanticism. Griffin has displayed on his website a gallery of alternative images from the same shoot. Releases of the album on vinyl and compact disc feature different takes of the shot, it was featured on the cover of Life's 1990 edition of "World's Best Photographs 1980–1990". All tracks written by Martin Gore; some original US CD copies of the album tacked the intro of "The Sun & the Rainfall" onto the end of "Shouldn't Have Done That", making the duration of "The Sun & the Rainfall" 4:54. Dave Gahan sings lead vocals on all songs except "Shouldn't Have Done That", a duet with Gore. "Nothing to Fear" and "Further Excerpts From: My Secret Garden" are instrumental.
Disc one is a hybrid SACD/CD with a multi-channel SACD layer. The track listing is identical to the 1982 UK release, except "Satellite", 4:43 long and contains a slight edit, or error, at the beginning of the track. Disc two is a DVD which includes A Broken Frame in DTS 5.1, Dolby Digital 5.1 and PCM Stereo plus bonus material. Additional material "Depeche Mode 1982" Credits for adapted from the liner notes of A Broken Frame. In 2015, Greek synth-pop duo Marsheaux released a complete cover version of A Broken Frame on Undo Records. While the reviewer for Release Magazine wrote that this version was not "anything essential" but well done, other reviews were more detailed; the Electricity Club found influences of And One in the cover of "The Sun & the Rainfall" and concluded that Marsheaux had "used unconventional sounds and vocals to make this record their own". Reviews from Germany noted that Marsheaux had elaborated on the assets and downsides of the original release. According to Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, the kitschy sides of the early Depeche Mode album were deliberately uncovered in tracks like "The Meaning of Love", while the Sonic Seducer lauded Marsheaux's darker and slower interpretation of this song.
Album information from the official Depeche Mode website Official remaster info
The Rolling Stone Album Guide
The Rolling Stone Album Guide known as The Rolling Stone Record Guide, is a book that contains professional music reviews written and edited by staff members from Rolling Stone magazine. Its first edition was published in 1979 and its last in 2004; the guide can be seen at Rate Your Music, while a list of albums given a five star rating by the guide can be seen at Rocklist.net. The Rolling Stone Record Guide was the first edition of what would become The Rolling Stone Album Guide, it was edited by Dave Marsh and John Swenson, included contributions from 34 other music critics. It is divided into sections by musical genre and lists artists alphabetically within their respective genres. Albums are listed alphabetically by artist although some of the artists have their careers divided into chronological periods. Dave Marsh, in his Introduction, cites as precedents Leonard Maltin's book TV Movies and Robert Christgau's review column in the Village Voice, he gives Tape Guide as raw sources of information.
The first edition included black and white photographs of many of the covers of albums which received five star reviews. These titles are listed together in the Five-Star Records section, coincidentally five pages in length; the edition included reviews for many comedy artists including Lenny Bruce, Lord Buckley, Bill Cosby, The Firesign Theatre, Spike Jones, Richard Pryor. Comedy artists were listed in the catch-all section "Rock, Soul and Pop", which included the genres of folk, bluegrass and reggae, as well as comedy. Traditional pop performers were not included, with the notable exceptions of Frank Sinatra and Nat King Cole. Included too were some difficult-to-classify artists. Big band jazz was handled selectively, with certain band leaders omitted, while others were included. Many other styles of jazz did appear in the Jazz section; the book was notable for the time in the provocative, "in your face" style of many of its reviews. For example, writing about Neil Young's song, "Down by the River", John Swenson described it both as an "FM radio classic", as a "wimp anthem".
His colleague, Dave Marsh, in reviewing the three albums of the jazz fusion group Chase, gave a one-word review: "Flee.". Introduction Rock, Soul and Pop Blues Jazz Gospel Anthologies and Original Casts Five-Star Records Glossary Selected Bibliography The guide employs a five star rating scale with the following descriptions of those ratings: Indispensable: a record that must be included in any comprehensive collection Excellent: a record of substantial merit, though flawed in some essential way. Good: a record of average worth, but one that might possess considerable appeal for fans of a particular style. Mediocre: a record, artistically insubstantial, though not wretched. Poor: a record where technical competence is at question or it was remarkably ill-conceived. Worthless: a record that need never have been created. Reserved for the most bathetic bathwater; the New Rolling Stone Record Guide was an update of 1979's The Rolling Stone Record Guide. Like the first edition, it was edited by Swenson.
It included contributions from 52 music critics and featured chronological album listings under the name of each artist. In many cases, updates from the first edition consist of short, one-sentence verdicts upon an artist's work. Instead of having separate sections such as Blues and Gospel, this edition compressed all of the genres it reviewed into one section except for Jazz titles which were removed for this edition and were expanded and published in 1985 Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide. Besides adding reviews for many emerging punk and New Wave bands, this edition added or expanded a significant number of reviews of long-established reggae and ska artists. Since the goal of this guide was to review records that were in print at the time of publication, this edition featured a list of artists who were included in the first edition but were not included in the second edition because all of their material was out of print; this edition dispensed with the album cover photos found in the first edition.
Introduction to the Second Edition Introduction to the First Edition Ratings Reviewers Record Label Abbreviations Rock, Blues, Country and Pop Anthologies and Original Cast Index to Artists in the First Edition The second edition uses the same rating system as the first edition. The only difference is that in addition to a rating, the second edition employs the pilcrow mark to indicate a title, out of print at the time the guide was published; some artists had the ratings for their albums lowered as the book now offered a revisionist slant to rock's history. The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide was published in 1985 and incorporated the jazz listings omitted from The New Rolling S
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.
At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.
They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Alan Charles Wilder is an English musician, arranger, record producer, a former member of the electronic band Depeche Mode from 1982 to 1995. Since his departure from the band, the musical project called Recoil became his primary musical enterprise, which started as a side project to Depeche Mode in 1986. Wilder has provided production and remixing services to the bands Nitzer Ebb and Curve, he is a classically trained musician. Alan Charles Wilder was raised in Acton, West London, he began piano through the encouragement of his parents. On, he learned the flute at St Clement Danes grammar school and became a leading musician in his school bands. After school, Alan worked as a studio assistant at DJM Studios; this led to him ending up working for bands such as The Dragons and the Tenderspots, Real to Real, The Hitmen, The Korgis, appearing on the UK No. 13 single "If I Had You". Following the departure of Vince Clarke, Depeche Mode placed an advertisement in the music magazine Melody Maker: "Keyboard player needed for established band – no timewasters."
Though the ad was looking for someone under 21 he lied about his age to get the job, got away with it. He joined Depeche Mode in January 1982 as a tour keyboardist, soon thereafter as a full member of the recording band. Wilder wrote a handful of songs for Depeche Mode, including "Two Minute Warning" and "The Landscape Is Changing" from the album Construction Time Again, "If You Want" from the album Some Great Reward and co-wrote "Black Day" from the album Black Celebration. However, Wilder's more notable contributions to Depeche Mode were as a musician and producer. In addition to playing synthesizer throughout his time with Depeche Mode, Wilder played piano on the band's signature ballad "Somebody," and oboe on the band's hit anthem, "Everything Counts." In the documentary film 101, Wilder demonstrates how different synthesizer parts of a song are split and arranged across a sampling keyboard for playing them live during the concert, just one small example of Wilder's ongoing contributions to Depeche Mode during his time as a member of the group.
For the recording of the album Songs of Faith and Devotion and its corresponding Devotional Tour Wilder played live drums. For "Enjoy the Silence" from the album Violator, Wilder took Martin Gore's melancholy ballad-esque demo and re-envisioning the song as a percolating, melodic dance track; the resulting single went on to become one of the most commercially successful songs in Depeche Mode's history. On 26 June 1995, Wilder announced his departure from Depeche Mode: "Due to increasing dissatisfaction with the internal relations and working practices of the group, it is with some sadness that I have decided to part company from Depeche Mode. My decision to leave the group was not an easy one as our last few albums were an indication of the full potential that Depeche Mode was realizing. Since joining in 1982, I have continually striven to give total energy and commitment to the furthering of the group's success and in spite of a consistent imbalance in the distribution of the workload, willingly offered this.
Within the group, this level of input never received the respect and acknowledgement that it warrants. Whilst I believe that the calibre of our musical output has improved, the quality of our association has deteriorated to the point where I no longer feel that the end justifies the means. I have no wish to cast aspersions on any individual. Given these circumstances, I have no option, it seems preferable therefore, to leave on a relative high, as I still retain a great enthusiasm and passion for music, I am excited by the prospect of pursuing new projects. The remaining band members have my support and best wishes for anything they may pursue in the future, be it collectively or individually."After his split from Depeche Mode, Wilder was approached by Robert Smith with an offer to join The Cure. Wilder respectfully declined. According to Wilder himself, the possibility was offered on behalf of The Cure by Daryl Bamonte, he declined as joining another band was the last thing on his mind, he reunited with Depeche Mode during the Teenage Cancer Trust concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London on 17 February 2010, enjoyed a rapturous reception.
During the encore, Wilder accompanied Martin Gore on piano for "Somebody". Gore played a DJ set on one of Recoil's Selected Events. In 2011, Wilder provided two mixes for the Depeche Mode track "In Chains". Recoil began in 1986 as a two-track experimental EP. Entitled 1 + 2, this collection of primitive demos caught the attention of Mute Records label boss Daniel Miller and was inconspicuously released as a mini-album on 12" vinyl. An album, soon followed in 1988 and both were re-issued by Mute on CD as Hydrology plus 1 + 2. Wilder described the project at the time as "an antidote to Depeche Mode. Wilder found himself back in the studio to record what would become the most successful Depeche Mode album to date, Violator, it wasn't until the band allowed themselves