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Pages in category "1103 births"
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1103 births.|
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. William Adelin – William Ætheling, designated or titled Adelin, was the son of Henry I of England by his wife Matilda of Scotland, and was thus heir apparent to the throne. His early death without issue caused a crisis, known in history as The Anarchy. His father, Henry I of England, was the youngest son of William the Conqueror, King of England and Duke of Normandy, and Matilda of Flanders. Robert Curthose, the eldest son of the Conqueror, had inherited Normandy, while William Rufus, in 1100, William Rufus was killed in a hunting incident, and Henry took the throne. By 1105, he had also dispossessed Robert of Normandy, williams mother was Matilda, the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland by Saint Margaret of Scotland. Henrys hopes for his succession rested upon William, who was, according to Henry of Huntingdon, during Henry Is lifetime, William was invested as Duke of Normandy, a title he held more in name than practice. Henry made the investiture when he was pressed by the king of France, Louis VI, as a king in his own right, Henry was loath to comply, and in 1115 he offered to have William do this in his stead. This offer was accepted in 1120, after an intervening period of war. For this reason William is sometimes counted as Duke of Normandy, William received, as the heir to the throne, the homage and fealty of the barons of Normandy in 1115 and of the barons of England in March 1116. Williams mother Queen Matilda served as Henrys regent in England while he was away in Normandy, after her death in 1118 William was old enough to serve in her stead. He was closely advised in this role by the Kings administrators, during the last year or so of his life he was sometimes referred to as rex designatus. During his 35-year reign Henry I of England would face several eruptions of hostilities due to the alliances of rival regions with some of his neighbours. To secure the loyalty of Anjou, a rival of Normandy, Henry betrothed William to Matilda of Anjou. The marriage finally took place in June 1119 in Lisieux, William died in the White Ship tragedy of 25 November 1120. The Duke and his companions had been crossing the English Channel from Barfleur in the Blanche-Nef, William and his party had remained drinking on the shore until after dark, confident that in a fast ship and on the still sea the delay would have no real effect. Consequently, it was the middle of the night when the drunken helmsman rammed the ship into a rock in the bay. The crew and passengers could not lever the ship off the rock, or prevent the ship from filling with water, however, William, williams wife, Matilda, was on another ship at the time of the wreck. After remaining at Henry Is court for a time, she did not remarry, Matilda returned to Anjou and later became a nun
2. Adeliza of Louvain – Adeliza of Louvain, sometimes known in England as Adelicia of Louvain, also called Adela and Aleidis, was Queen of England from 1121 to 1135, as the second wife of King Henry I. She was the daughter of Godfrey I, Count of Louvain, Henry was some 35 years older than his bride, who was about 18 when they married. He already had children, though no surviving son, from his first marriage to Matilda of Scotland, as his second marriage produced no children he was to leave his throne to his daughter the Empress Matilda. After his death Adeliza spent three years based in a convent, then married again and had seven children by William dAubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel. But a year before her death at the age of 48 she left her husband to move to a monastery in Flanders, Adelizas marriage seems to have been successful, apart from the failure to produce a new heir. She seems to have been influential in the promotion of French poetry and other arts in the court, Adeliza of Louvain was born in 1105 in Leuven, present-day Belgium. She was renowned for her beauty, reflected in the epithet ‘the fair maiden of Brabant, the chronicler Henry of Huntingdon also mentions Adeliza’s beauty in an interlude in his Historia Anglorum, stating, “A jewel grows pale on you, a crown does not shine. Put adornment aside, for nature provides your adornment. ”Her father was Godfrey I, Count of Louvain, Landgrave of Brabant, and Duke of Lower Lotharingia, an ally of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. After the death of Adeliza’s mother, Ida of Chiny, Godfrey married Clementia of Burgundy, Adelizas brother, Joscelin of Louvain, married the heiress to the Percy fortune. He is often referred to as an “opportunist”, however, Henry’s need for a new male heir expedited the marriage plans and the couple wed on 24 January 1121. Apparently in addition to her beauty, Henry was also attracted to Adeliza as a wife because she was a descendant of Charlemagne, Henry of Huntingdon mentions the royal couple in his Historia Anglorum, stating that the new queen accompanied Henry to London at Pentecost. Adeliza appears to have travelled extensively with Henry, probably to increase the chances of her conception, despite their close contact, however, Adeliza and Henry never produced a child. Unlike Henry’s first wife Matilda, Adeliza appears to have played a passive role in the administration of the kingdom. At the time, secular books in the French or Anglo-Norman vernacular were extremely popular, many other works that Adeliza commissioned were similar in structure to the Bestiary, including the now lost Life of King Henry by David. When Henry died on 1 December 1135, Adeliza retired temporarily to the Benedictine convent of Wilton Abbey and she was present at the dedication of Henrys tomb at Reading Abbey on the first anniversary of his death. At about that time, she founded a hospital dedicated to Saint Giles at Fugglestone St Peter. In 1138, three years after Henry Is death, Adeliza married William dAubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, one of Henry Is advisors, together, they lived at her castle of Arundel on the Sussex coast and had seven children. Their names were, Alice, William, Olivia, Reynor, Geoffrey, Henry and she later betrayed them and handed them over when King Stephen besieged the castle
3. Alfonso Jordan – Alfonso Jordan was the Count of Tripoli, Count of Rouergue and Count of Toulouse, Margrave of Provence and Duke of Narbonne. He was the son of Raymond IV of Toulouse by his third wife and he was born in the castle of Mont Pèlerin in Tripoli while his father was on the First Crusade. He was given the name Jourdain after being baptised in the Jordan River, alfonsos father died when he was two years old and he remained under the guardianship of his cousin, William Jordan, Count of Cerdagne, until he was five. He was then taken to Europe, where his half-brother Bertrand had given him the county of Rouergue, upon Bertrands death in 1112, Alfonso succeeded to the county of Toulouse and marquisate of Provence. In 1114, Duke William IX of Aquitaine, who claimed Toulouse by right of his wife Philippa, daughter of Count William IV, invaded the county, Alfonso recovered a part in 1119, but he was not in full control until 1123. When at last successful, he was excommunicated by Pope Callixtus II for having expelled the monks of Saint-Gilles, Alfonso next had to fight for his rights in Provence against Count Raymond Berengar III of Barcelona. Not until September 1125 did their war end in peace and concord, at this stage, Alfonso was master of the regions lying between the Pyrenees and the Alps, the Auvergne and the sea. His ascendancy was, according to one commentator, a good to the country, for during a period of fourteen years art. In March 1126, Alfonso was at the court of Alfonso VII of León when he acceded to the throne, according to the Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris, Alfonso and Suero Vermúdez took the city of León from opposition magnates and handed it over to Alfonso VII. Among those who may have accompanied Alfonso on one of his extended stays in Spain was the troubadour Marcabru. About 1134 Alfonso seized the viscounty of Narbonne and ruled it during the minority of the Viscountess Ermengarde, in 1141 King Louis VII pressed the claim of Philippa on behalf of his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, even besieging Toulouse, but without result. In 1144, Alfonso again incurred the displeasure of the church by siding with the citizens of Montpellier against their lord, in 1145, Bernard of Clairvaux addressed a letter to him full of concern about a heretic named Henry in the diocese of Toulouse. Bernard even went there to preach against the heresy, an expression of Catharism. A second time he was excommunicated, but in 1146 he took the cross at a meeting in Vézelay called by Louis VII, in August 1147, he embarked for the near east on the Second Crusade. He lingered on the way in Italy and probably in Constantinople, Alfonso finally arrived at Acre in 1148. Among his companions he had enemies and he was destined to take no share in the crusade he had joined. He died at Caesarea, and there were accusations of poisoning, usually levelled against either by Eleanor of Aquitaine, the wife of Louis, or Melisende, the mother of King Baldwin III of Jerusalem. By his wife since 1125, Faydiva dUzès, he left two sons, Raymond, who succeeded him, and Alfonso
4. Heilika of Pettendorf-Lengenfeld – Heilika of Pettendorf-Lengenfeld was by marriage Countess Palatine of Bavaria. She was one of the two daughters of the edelfrei Lord Frederick III of Pettendorf-Lengenfeld-Hopfenohe, who died between 1112 and 1119 without a male heir and her mother was a Heilika of Swabia the daughter of Duke Frederick I of Swabia and his wife, Agnes of Germany. So, she was a granddaughter of Emperor Henry IV and she married Count Otto IV of Wittelsbach, the Count Palatine of Bavaria. In 1124, he moved his residence from Scheyern Castle to Wittelsbach Castle in Aichach and he donated Scheyern Castle to the Benedictine Order, who turned it into a monastery. Otto and Heilike had eight children, Herman Otto, nicknamed the Redhead, succeeded his father as Count Otto VIII of Scheyern, Count Otto V of Wittelsbach and Count Palatine Otto VI of Bavaria. In 1180, after the fall of Henry the Lion, Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa enfeoffed Otto the Redhead with the Duchy of Bavaria, from then on, he called himself Otto I of Bavaria. The Wittelsbach dynasty would retain the duchy from 1180 until 1918, in 1157, he also became Count of Dießen-Wolfratshausen. Adelaide, married Otto II of Stefling Heilikas sister Heilwig was married to Count Gebhard I of Leuchtenberg, Heilika died on 14 September 1170 and was buried in Ensdorf Abbey
5. Judith of Bavaria, Duchess of Swabia – Judith of Bavaria, Duchess of Swabia was a Duchess of Swabia by marriage to Frederick II, Duke of Swabia. She was the mother of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor and she had three brothers Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, Conrad, and Welf, and three sisters, Sophia, Matilda, and Wulfhild. The Historia Welforum names in order Iuditham, Mahtildem, Sophium and this is evidence that Judith was the eldest daughter. She had in addition to her seven siblings, one half-brother, Adalbert. The Historia Welforum specified that Judith married Friderico Suevorum duci, in 1125, her father initially supported the candidacy of her husband to succeed Emperor Henry V as King of Germany, however he eventually switched his support to Lothar III, Holy Roman Emperor. The defection of Judiths father created an enmity between the Welfs and the Swabians that would have far-reaching consequences in Germany which would last throughout the 12th century and it is not known how this affected relations between Judith and her husband. It is curious to note that no children were born to the couple after the birth of their daughter Bertha in 1123. She died on 27 Aug 1130 and was buried at Waldburg in Heiligen Forst, shortly after Judiths death Frederick married as his second wife, Agnes of Saarbrücken. She had two children, Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, married on 9 June 1156 Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy, Bertha of Swabia, married in 1138 Matthias I, Duke of Lorraine, by whom she had seven children. Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Bavaria, Dukes
6. Emperor Toba – Emperor Toba was the 74th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Tobas reign spanned the years from 1107 through 1123, before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Munehito-shinnō. He was the son of Emperor Horikawa and his mother was Empress Dowager Fujiwara no Ishi Toba had three Empresses, some consort ladies and 14 imperial sons and daughters. Named Empress Dowager Zyōsai 1127–1192 Imperial Prince Masahito – later Emperor Go-Shirakawa 1129–1169 Imperial Prince Motohito, 1132–1168 Prince Dōkei – Buddhist Priest 1134–1181 Prince Kakukai – Buddhist Priest 11. –1195 Aya Gozen Lady of Sanjō, daughter of Fujiwara no Iemasa 11. –1161 Imperial Princess Kenshi. – Yoshida saigū Lady of Kasuga, daughter of Tokudaiji Saneyosi 1145–1208 Imperial Princess Shōshi/Nobuko Lady of Fujitsubo, – Buddhist Priestess Lady of Tosa, daughter of Minamoto no Mitsuyasu Daughter of Fujiwara no Sanehira Takamatsunomiya Unknown Prince Saichū. – Buddhist Priest Imperial Prince Dōka, when his mother died, his grandfather, former-Emperor Shirakawa, took him under his care and raised him. August 9,1107, In the 21st year of Emperor Horikawas reign, the emperor died at the age of 29, shortly thereafter, Emperor Toba is said to have acceded to the throne. During the initial years of Tobas reign, the power was held by his grandfather. This was the time the temple was destroyed by fire. February 25,1123, In the 17th year of Emperor Tobas reign, Toba was forced to abdicate by his grandfather, Toba gave up the throne in favor of his son Akihito, who would become Emperor Sutoku. At this time, Toba took the title Daijō-tennō, the succession was received by his son. 1123, Emperor Sutoku is said to have acceded to the throne,1129, retired Emperor Shirakawa died, and Toba himself began to rule as cloistered emperor. Toba continued to power through the reigns of three emperors, Emperor Sutoku, Emperor Konoe, and Emperor Go-Shirakawa. 1134, The former-Emperor Toba made a pilgrimage to the Kumano Shrines and he was accompanied by sadaijin Hanazono no Arahito and udaijin Naka-no-in Munetada. The excursion was enjoyed by all, and great quantities of sake were consumed, kugyō is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal. In general, this group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have them to the pinnacle of a lifes career
7. Vsevolod of Pskov – Vsevolod Mstislavich, the patron saint of the city of Pskov, ruled as Prince of Novgorod in 1117–32, Prince of Pereslavl and Prince of Pskov in 1137–38. The eldest son of Mstislav the Great and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden, Vsevolod was born in Novgorod during his fathers reign as prince there and given the baptismal name Gabriel and his maternal grandfather was King Inge the Elder of Sweden. The date of his birth is unknown, although the idea has been advanced that the event was commemorated by the Annunciation Church in the Marketplace and he was married to a Chernigovian princess in Novgorod in 1123 and his son, Ivan, was born there. In 1123, Vsevolod led the Novgorodians against the Chud and these campaigns continued in 1130 and over the next several years. Aside from Vladimir Yaroslavich, Vsevolod was the first Novgorodian prince known to have been in conflict with Finns, following his fathers death in 1132, support for him began to erode in Novgorod. That same year, he was sent by his uncle, Grand Prince Yaropolk, to Pereslavl, when he tried to return to Novgorod later that year, the Novgorodians refused to accept him back because they considered his move to Pereslavl as a betrayal. That being said, the chronicles indicate that he was leading a Novgorodian army in 1133. It was during that campaign that Vsevolod captured the city of Yuryev, on 28 May 1136, he was confined in the Archbishops courtyard in the Detinets along with his wife and family, guarded by thirty men so as not to escape. In mid-July he was allowed to leave, going to his uncle in Kiev, the following year, he tried to come back to Novgorod at the head of an army but withdrew instead to Pskov, where he died in February 1138. According to his own wishes, he was buried in the Church of St. Demetrius in Pskov, Vsevolods dismissal from Novgorod has traditionally been seen as the end of Kievan power in the north and the beginning of the Republic of Novgorod. After him a number of princes were invited in or dismissed over the two centuries, although only a few, like Aleksandr Nevsky, could assert themselves in the city for a prolonged period. It was Vsevolod who granted the charter to Ivans Hundred, the first Russian merchant guild, in addition, the Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Yaroslavs Court, while often attributed to his father Mstislav, was mostly built during Vsevolods tenure in Novgorod. Vsevolods comparatively early death prevented him from claiming the Kievan throne and he was survived by a daughter, Wierzchosława, the wife of Bolesław IV the Curly. The prince was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church as Vsevolod-Gavriil, in the Stepennaya Kniga, he is listed as a Pskov Wonderworker. His relics were moved from the Church of St. Demetrius to the Trinity Cathedral in the Pskov Kremlin in 1193
8. Yue Fei – Yue Fei, courtesy name Pengju, was a Han Chinese military general who lived during the Southern Song dynasty. His ancestral home was in Xiaoti, Yonghe Village, Tangyin, Xiangzhou and he was granted the posthumous name Wumu by Emperor Xiaozong in 1169, and later granted the posthumous title King of È by Emperor Ningzong in 1211. Widely seen as a patriot and national hero in China. A biography of Yue Fei, the Eguo Jintuo Zubian, was written 60 years after his death by his grandson, Yue Feis biography is found in the 365th chapter of the book and is numbered biography 124. Some later historians including Deng Guangming now doubt the veracity of many of Yue Kes claims about his grandfather. According to the History of Song, Yue Fei was named Fei, meaning to fly, because at the time he was born, a large bird like a swan landed on the roof of his house. Yue Feis second biography, is a novel titled Shuo Yue Quan Zhuan, was written by Qian Cai. A dating symbol in its preface points either to the year 1684 or to 1744 and it was banned during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. There are two versions of this novel in existence. The original one had 80 chapters, there was an illustrated edition of this version published in 1912. The other version also had 80 chapters and was published during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor and it is currently sold under the title General Yue Fei. Some people mistakenly take this novel to be historical fact when it is purely fiction, indeed some of the events described there are nothing more than Qian Cais own imagination. The Song Yue E Wang Nianpu was written by Qian Ruwen in 1924, several sources state that Yue was born into a poor tenant farmers family in Tangyin County, Anyang prefecture, Henan province. A few days later, a young child squeezed Yue Feis hand too hard, soon, it began to rain and the Yellow River flooded, wiping out the village. Yue Feis father held onto the clay jar as it was swept down the river, although the much older Biography of Yue Fei also mentions the flood, it states Yue Huo survived. It reads, After, would offer sacrifices at his tomb, Yue Feis father used his familys plot of land for humanitarian efforts, but after it was destroyed in the flood, the young Yue Fei was forced to help his father toil in the fields to survive. Yue received most of his education from his father. In 1122 Yue joined the army, but had to return later that year after the death of his father