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Pages in category "1205 deaths"
The following 35 pages are in this category, out of 35 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1205 deaths.|
The following 35 pages are in this category, out of 35 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Hubert Walter – Hubert Walter was an influential royal adviser in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries in the positions of Chief Justiciar of England, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Chancellor. As chancellor, Walter began the keeping of the Charter Roll, Walter was not noted for his holiness in life or learning, but historians have judged him one of the most outstanding government ministers in English history. Walter owed his advancement to his uncle Ranulf de Glanvill. Walter served King Henry II of England in many ways, not just in financial administration, after an unsuccessful candidacy to the see of York, Walter was elected Bishop of Salisbury shortly after the accession of Henrys son Richard I to the throne of England. Walter accompanied Richard on the Third Crusade, and was one of the involved in raising Richards ransom after the king was captured in Germany on his return from the Holy Land. As a reward for his service, Walter was selected to become Archbishop of Canterbury in 1193. He also served as Richards justiciar until 1198, in which role he was responsible for raising the money Richard needed to prosecute his wars in France. Walter set up a system that was the precursor for the justices of the peace. He also revived his predecessors dispute over setting up a church to rival Christ Church Priory in Canterbury, following Richards death in 1199, Walter helped assure the elevation of Richards brother John to the throne. Walter also served John as a diplomat, undertaking missions to France. Hubert Walter was the son of Hervey Walter and his wife Maud de Valoignes, one of the daughters of Theobald de Valoignes, Walter was one of six brothers. The eldest brother, Theobald Walter, and Walter himself, were helped in their careers by their uncle, Glanvill was the chief justiciar for Henry II, and was married to Maud de Valoignes sister, Bertha. Walters father and paternal grandfather held lands in Suffolk and Norfolk, a younger brother, Osbert, became a royal justice and died in 1206. Roger, Hamo and Bartholomew only appear as witnesses to charters, Walters family was from West Dereham in Norfolk, which is probably where Walter was born. Walter first appears in Glanvills household in a charter that has dated to 1178. His brother Theobald also served in their uncles household, earlier historians asserted that Walter studied law at Bologna, based on his name appearing in a list of those to be commemorated at a monastery in Bologna in which English students lodged. However, this did not mean that he was illiterate, merely that he was not book-learned and his contemporary, the medieval writer Gerald of Wales said of Walter that the Exchequer was his school. By 1184–1185 Walter had a position as a baron of the exchequer, the king employed him on several tasks, including as a negotiator, a justice, and as a royal secretary
2. Aimery of Cyprus – Aimery of Lusignan, erroneously referred to as Amalric or Amaury in earlier scholarship, was the first King of Cyprus from 1196 to 1205. He was also King of Jerusalem by virtue of being the husband of the queen, Isabella I of Jerusalem and he was the younger son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan, a nobleman in Poitou. After participating in a rebellion against Henry II of England in 1168, he went to the Holy Land and his marriage to Eschiva of Ibelin strengthened his position in the kingdom. His younger brother, Guy of Lusignan, married Sibylla, the sister of, Baldwin made Aimery Constable of Jerusalem around 1180. Aimery supported his brother, Guy, even after Guy had lost his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem according to most barons of the realm, because of the death of Sibylla, the new king of Jerusalem, Henry of Champagne, arrested him for a short period. After his release, he retired to Jaffa which was the fief of his brother, Geoffrey of Lusignan. After Guy died in May 1194, his vassals in Cyprus elected Aimery as their lord and he accepted the suzerainty of the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI. With the emperors authorization, Aimery was crowned King of Cyprus in September 1197 and he soon married Henry of Champagnes widow, Isabella I of Jerusalem. He and his wife were crowned king and queen of Jerusalem in January 1198 and he signed a truce with Al-Adil I, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, which secured the Christian possession of the coastline from Acre to Antioch. His rule was a period of peace and stability in both of his realms, Aimery was the fifth son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan and his wife, Burgundia of Rancon. His family had been noted for generations of crusaders in their native Poitou and his great-grandfather, Hugh VI of Lusignan, died in the Battle of Ramla in 1102, Aimerys grandfather, Hugh VII of Lusignan, took part in the Second Crusade. Aimerys father also came to the Holy Land and died in a Muslim prison in the 1160s, earlier scholarship erroneously referred to him as Amalric, but documentary evidence shows he was actually called Aimericus, which is a distinct name. Aimery joined a rebellion against Henry II of England in 1168, according to Robert of Torignis chronicle, Aimery left for the Holy Land and settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He was captured in a battle and held in captivity in Damascus, a popular tradition held, the king of Jerusalem, Amalric, ransomed him personally. Ernoul claimed, Aimery was a lover of Amalric of Jerusalems former wife, Aimery married Eschiva of Ibelin, a daughter of Baldwin of Ibelin, who was one of the most powerful noblemen in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Amalric of Jerusalem, who died on 11 July 1174, was succeeded by his son by Agnes of Courtenay. Aimery became the member of the court with his father-in-laws support. Aimerys youngest brother, Guy, married Baldwin IVs widowed sister, Sibylla, Ernoul wrote, it was Aimery who had spoken of his brother to her and her mother, Agnes of Courtenay, describing him as a handsome and charming young man
3. Baldwin I, Latin Emperor – He lost his final battle to Kaloyan, the emperor of Bulgaria, and spent his last days as his prisoner. Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut and Margaret I, when the childless Philip of Alsace left on the last of his personal crusades in 1177, he designated his brother-in-law Baldwin V his heir. One year later, Philip of Alsace had his protégé married to his niece, Isabelle of Hainaut, offering the County of Artois and other Flemish territories as dowry, much to the dismay of Baldwin V. Count Philips wife Elisabeth died in 1183, and Philip Augustus seized the province of Vermandois on behalf of Elisabeths sister, Philip then remarried, to Matilda of Portugal. Philip gave Matilda a dower of a number of major Flemish towns, when Countess Margaret I died in 1194, Flanders descended to her eldest son Baldwin, who ruled as Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders. In 1186, the younger Baldwin had married Marie of Champagne, daughter of Count Henry I of Champagne, the chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed. Immediately after this arrangement, the count of Hainauts son Baldwin, thirteen years old, received as wife Marie and this Marie began sufficiently young to devote herself to divine obedience in prayers, vigils, fasts and alms. The solemn rejoicing of the wedding was celebrated at Valenciennes with an abundance of knights and ladies, through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land, her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s. Maries uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade, Baldwins own family had also been involved in the defence of Jerusalem, his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwins maternal grandmother was great-aunt of Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem, Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition. Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders and his father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut. Isabelle had died in 1190, but King Philip still retained her dowry, on behalf of Isabelles son, the eight years of Baldwins rule in Flanders were dominated by his attempts to recover some of this land. After Philip II of France took Baldwins brother, Philippe of Namur, prisoner, the Treaty of Péronne was signed in January 1200 on the condition that Baldwin receive the territories he had won during the war. Baldwin was made the vassal of Philip II, and the king returned portions of Artois to Baldwin. In this fight against the French king, Baldwin allied with others who had quarrels with Philip, including kings Richard I and John of England, and the German King Otto IV. A month after the treaty, on Ash Wednesday 1200 in the town of Bruges, Baldwin took the cross and he spent the next two years preparing, finally leaving on 14 April 1202. As part of his effort to leave his domains in good order, one detailed an extensive criminal code, and appears to be based on a now-lost charter of his father. The other laid down rules for inheritance
4. Enrico Dandolo – Enrico Dandolo was the 41st Doge of Venice from 1192 until his death. Born in Venice, he was the son of the powerful jurist and member of the ducal court, Dandolo had served the Republic in diplomatic roles for many years. Dandolo was from a socially and politically prominent Venetian family and his father Vitale was a close adviser of Doge Vitale II Michiel, while an uncle, also named Enrico Dandolo, was patriarch of Grado, the highest-ranking churchman in Venice. Both these men lived to be old, and the younger Enrico was overshadowed until he was in his sixties. Dandolos first important political roles were during the years of 1171 and 1172. In March 1171 the Byzantine government had seized the goods of thousands of Venetians living in the Empire, popular demand forced the doge to gather a retaliatory expedition, which however fell apart when struck by the plague early in 1172. Dandolo had accompanied the expedition against Constantinople led by Doge Vitale Michiel during 1171-1172. Renewed negotiations begun twelve years later led to a treaty in 1186. On 1 June 1192, Dandolo became the forty-first Doge of Venice, already aged and blind, but deeply ambitious, he displayed tremendous mental and physical strength. Two years after taking office, in 1194, Enrico enacted reforms to the Venetian currency system and he introduced the large silver grosso worth 26 denari, and the quartarolo worth 1/4 of a denaro. Also he reinstated the Bianco worth 1/2 denaro, which had not been minted for twenty years and he debased the denaro and its fractions, whereas the grosso was kept at 98. 5% pure silver to ensure its usefulness for foreign trade. Enricos revolutionary changes made the grosso the dominant currency for trade in the Mediterranean and contributed to the wealth, in later years, the value of the grosso would climb relative to the increasingly debased denaro, until it was itself debased in 1332. Soon after the introduction of the grosso, the denaro began to be referred to as the piccolo, literally grosso means large one and piccolo means small one. In 1202 the knights of the fourth Crusade were stranded in Venice, Dandolo developed a plan that allowed the Crusaders debt to be suspended if they assisted the Venetians in capturing Zadar, which was under Hungarian rule, on the eastern Adriatic coast. At an emotional and rousing ceremony in San Marco di Venezia, Dandolo became an important leader of the Fourth Crusade. Venice was the financial backer of the Fourth Crusade, supplied the Crusaders ships. Because of the continued delays, provisions were also a problem for the enterprise. The Crusade fleet left Venice during the first week of October 1202, while the crusaders marched on the town the townsfolk hung up banners and crosses to signal they were Christian, but Zadar was captured on November 24,1202
5. Hatakeyama Shigetada – Hatakeyama Shigetada, also known in art as Shirafuji Hikoshichirō, was a samurai who fought in the Genpei War, in Japan. Originally fighting for the Taira clan, he switched sides for the battle of Dan-no-ura, following the war, when his son Shigeyasu was killed by Hōjō Tokimasa, Shigetada spoke up. The reward for this temerity was death, along with the rest of his family and his brave attempt to defend his honor, along with various other acts of strength and skill are recorded in the Heike Monogatari and other chronicles of the period. In an anecdote from the Heike monogatari, he is described as competing, along with a number of other warriors, when his horse is shot in the head with an arrow, he abandons the creature and uses his bow as a staff to help himself across. After the Battle of Awazu in 1184, Shigetada is known for failing to capture Tomoe Gozen, joly, Henri L. Legend in Japanese Art, a Description of Historical Episodes, Legendary Characters, Folk-lore Myths, Religious Symbolism, Illustrated in the Arts of Old Japan. ISBN9780804803588, OCLC219871829 Kitagawa, Hiroshi and Burce T. Tsuchida, ISBN 0-86008-128-1 OCLC164803926 Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5, OCLC48943301 Varley, Paul, warriors of Japan as Portrayed in the War Tales
6. Isabella I of Jerusalem – Isabella I was Queen regnant of Jerusalem from 1190 to her death. She was the daughter of Amalric I of Jerusalem and his second wife Maria Comnena and her half-brother, Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, engaged her to Humphrey IV of Toron. Her mothers second husband, Balian of Ibelin, and his stepfather, the marriage of Isabella and Humphrey was celebrated in Kerak Castle in autumn 1183. Saladin, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria, laid siege to the fortress during the wedding, but Baldwin IV forced him to lift the siege. Baldwin IV, who suffered from leprosy, had made his nephew, Baldwin V, his heir and co-ruler, to prevent Sybillas second husband, Guy of Lusignan. Guys opponents tried to play Isabella and her husband off against him, Isabella was the daughter of Amalric, King of Jerusalem, by his second wife, Maria Comnena. Maria Comnena married Amalric on 29 August 1171, Isabella was born before September 1172. Amalric died unexpectedly on 11 July 1174 and his son by his first marriage, Baldwin IV, was crowned king two weeks later. Before long, it became obvious that Baldwin suffered from lepromatous leprosy, to secure the succession of the ailing king, his sister, Sybilla, was given in marriage to William of Montferrat in November 1176, but he died seven months later. The High Court of Jerusalem refused both proposals, Isabellas mother married Balian of Ibelin in autumn 1177. His brother, Baldwin of Ibelin, wanted to marry Sybilla, after the marriage of Sybilla and Guy on Easter 1180, a division emerged between Guy of Lusignans supporters and opponents. The first group included the mother of Baldwin IV and Sybilla, Agnes of Courtenay, her brother, Joscelin and their opponents included Isabellas mother and stepfather, and Raymond III of Tripoli. To secure Guys position, the king arranged the betrothal of Isabella to Raynald of Châtillons stepson, Isabella was sent to Kerak Castle to be educated by Humphreys mother, Stephanie of Milly. Stephanie forbade her to pay visits to her mother and stepfather at Nablus, the relationship between Baldwin IV and Guy of Lusignan deteriorated. Baldwin IV removed Guy from the regency and denied his right of succession, making Guys stepson, Baldwin V, his heir and co-ruler on 20 November 1183. A version of Ernouls chronicle suggests that the child Baldwin V was made heir, Guys principal supporters, Joscelin of Courtenay and Raynald of Châtillon, were not present at Baldwin Vs coronation, because they attended the wedding of Isabella and Humphrey of Toron. The wedding took place in Kerak Castle, Saladin, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria laid siege to the fortress. Baldwin IV assembled an army and departed from Jerusalem to Kerak
7. Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg – Otto II, called The Generous, was the third Margrave of Brandenburg from 1184 until his death. Otto II was born into the House of Ascania as the eldest son of Otto I and Judith, after succeeding his father, he improved the defense and settlement of Brandenburg and waged campaigns against the Slavs and Canute VI of Denmark. In the winter of 1198–99 he devastated Danish-occupied Pomerania and consolidated his gains in the subsequent year with a campaign that pressed to Rügen. In 1200 and 1203, he supported the Hohenstaufen king Philip of Swabia against the Welfen Holy Roman Emperor, after his death, his brother Albert II inherited the margraviate. Brandenburg, Anhalt und Thüringen im Mittelalter, Askanier und Ludowinger beim Aufbau fürstlicher Territorialherrschaften. Die frühen Askanier und ihre Frauen, albrecht der Bär — Gründer der Mark Brandenburg und des Fürstentums Anhalt
8. Fujiwara no Takanobu – Fujiwara Takanobu was one of the leading Japanese portrait artists of his day. Takanobu was born in Kyoto, and was the half-brother of Fujiwara Sadaie, Takanobu specialized in nise-e portraits, except instead of painting on small-size paper Takanobu painted on scrolls over a meter in height and width. Only three of his works have survived, the most notable is of Minamoto Yoritomo, the founder of the Kamakura government, takanobus son Nobuzane carried on the family tradition of painting. Nise-e yamato-e Kamakura period Britannica article Portraits of Minamoto Yoritomo, by Fujiwara Takanobu, Kyoto National Museum
9. Nicholas of Verdun – Nicholas of Verdun was a French artist, one of the most famous goldsmiths and enamelists of the Middle Ages. He was a figure in Romanesque art, and the leading figure of Mosan art in his day. He created shrines, figurines and candlesticks decorated with precious stones and he traveled around Europe to fulfill major commissions. During the last quarter of the 12th century, steps were being taken towards Classical Antiquity by a Mosan metalworker, Nicholas was a remarkable French enamelist and goldsmith of the Middle Ages. His work transitions from late Romanesque to early Gothic styles, during his career he spent most of his time traveling to different locations where he was commissioned to develop most of his work.1180. The work reveals his master metalworking and the technique of champlevé enameling and his even more notable Shrine of the Three Kings in the Cologne Cathedral, about 1200, would be an even more appropriate example drawing the observer towards classical representations of Antiquity. Nicholas of Verdun was an innovator and a master metalworker and it was no accident that his work development occurred in the medium of metal making. The records indicate that most of his work ranges from figurines, for metalworkers the process of beating metal was initially performed in the development of works of art, but after c.1150 casting became a more prevalent technique for sculptors. Through these formative stages a process of modeling rather than carving was being performed and this allowed artists to gain more movement and gesture, and to work in miniature scales which allowed the metalworkers to show and explore their talents in a more productive fashion. Color during the Romanesque period was dearest to the Romanesque patrons of the arts and this made the use of enameling ideal during this time period. Translucent glaze was a new addition in art which epitomized what was perhaps the most deeply felt urge in aesthetics of the high Middle Ages and this was particularly popular in Western Europe. Artists were using it to develop a sense of mystic appeal particularly through jewelry, through various arts in Western Europe during the Romanesque period metalwork occupied central significance. Metalwork at this time was considered as an art form and its purpose was what granted its significance in the art world, the objects made were intriguing and innovative and its presence served a great significance in altars and reliquaries of great churches. Prestigious figures would show off their wealth and power through a vehicle of grand vessels made out of precious materials, Romanesque patrons and people were highly religious and superstitious and as a sign to show off their hierarchy and pomp they used precious materials. Today, there are very few reliquary caskets that have survived from the 12th century, but the system of arches during the Romanesque period, particularly on reliquaries and churches, grew grander in order to remind the people of Biblical events and their meaning. These ideals and ways continued through the Gothic period, and in many ways Romanesque art was considered to be a version that transitioned into the Gothic period. Certain tendencies already present in the Romanesque period were fulfilled in the Gothic and this applies to both art and architecture, where Christian themes were done through thoughtful reflections conveyed through medieval imagery. Gothic art is characterized as the point between the classical world of Rome and Greece