Florent de Varennes
He is lord of Varennes, in Picardy. He was married to Yolande de Nesle, daughter of John II de Nesle, Count of Soissons, I sacrifice to God wealth, pleasure. I wanted to give you this last example and I hope you will follow it if circumstances dictate, the first part of the journey is hectic. The King sent Florent de Varennes as a scout towards the Sards, since their boats were genoan, antagonism made them unwelcome. Food was delivered against high costs On July 17, the arrived on the Tunisian coast. According to the secretary, Jean de Condé, reporting the episode. He finds an empty harbour with only a few Muslim and genoan merchant ships and he sends a mesenger to the king. The royal council is divided on the strategy to adopt, for some, it is a trap, for others, one should take advantage of the situation, Florent de Varennes, without referring to the King, desembarks his troops on the platform closing Tunis harbour. Although he is furious, the King joins with the rest of the crew, the operation is a capharnaum but hopefully, no ennemy showed up.
On July 21, one seized the tower of La Goulette, the Castle of Carthage is conquered by genoan sailors. Waiting for the reinforcement of Charles of Anjou, King of Sicily to attack Tunis, Florent de Varennes and John Tristan, Count of Valois, son of Louis IX are among the victims. Saint Louis expires too on August 25, by the time of the arrival of Charles of Anjou, the latter defeated the Saracens and signed a treaty with the Sultan on 30 October 1270. From Florent de Varennes to François Thomas Tréhouart, there has been 73 admirals of France
David VII of Georgia
There was a Caucasian Albanian Catholicos Davit VII, who ruled in 965–971. During his reign, Georgia went into decline under the Mongol overlordship. David was a son of King Giorgi IV Lasha by a non-noble woman. Following Kaykhusraw’s defeat by the Mongols, son of Giorgi, was set free in 1242, in 1246, he was selected as king by the Georgian nobles who believed that his cousin David VI, son of Rusudan, had died in 1244. Following the coronation at Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, Mtskheta, he was sent to the Great Khan Güyük Khan to receive an official recognition, held at Karakorum for five years, he met his cousin David there. Finally, Güyük Khan recognized David as senior joint sovereign and appointed another David junior co-ruler, thereafter known as David VII Ulu and David VI Narin, the cousins ruled jointly for years. In 1256, David Ulu with the Georgian auxiliaries took part in Mongol conquest of Alamut, in 1259, David Narin rose, against the Mongol yoke and, fled to Kutaisi, from whence he reigned over western Georgia as an independent ruler.
In 1260, Hulagu Khan requested that David Ulu supported him in the war against Egypt, remembering the Georgian losses at Baghdad refused to comply and revolted. Nevertheless, the forces were unequal and David Ulu had to take refuge at his cousin and his family was captured and David’s wife Gvantsa killed by the Mongols. In 1262, he had to make peace with the Mongols and returned to Tbilisi, by the Ilkhan request, David Ulu’s army was dispatched to defend the fortifications of Siba against the Golden Horde in 1263. In 1265, the Georgian forces serving as a vanguard of the Ilkhanid army, defeated Berke, Khan of the Golden Horde, a heavy burden of Mongol dominance led to a political and economic crisis in the kingdom. As a result of a dispute with the court, the province of Samtskhe seceded and submitted directly to the Ilkhan rule in 1266. Thus, Georgia further disintegrated to form three separate political entities, David VII Ulu died of a bowel infection at the age of 55 in the spring of 1270.
He was succeeded by his son Demetre II and his first wife, Jigda-Khatun, either a Mongol woman or a daughter of the Sultan of Rum, died in 1252. In the meantime, he contracted a union with an Alan woman, Altun. His third wife Gvantsa, widow of the Georgian noble Avag Mkhargrdzeli and daughter of Kakhaber, eristavi of Racha, in 1263, David married Esukan, daughter of the Mongol noyan Chormaqan. He had two sons and two daughters, Giorgi, heir apparent, died before his father’s death in 1268, Tamar was married twice,1273, and the Georgian noble Sadun of Mankaberdi, regent of the kingdom in 1269-1278. History of Georgia – XIII-XV centuries Kings of Georgia
Brother Leo was the favorite disciple and confessor of St Francis of Assisi. The dates of his birth and of his becoming a Franciscan are not known and he was a native of Assisi and was one of Franciss first companions, becoming his secretary and confessor. After Franciss death Leo took a part in the opposition to Elias of Cortona. It was Leo who broke in pieces the marble box which Elias had set up for offertories for the completion of the basilica at Assisi, for this Elias had him scourged, and this outrage on St Franciss dearest disciple consolidated the opposition to Elias. A book sometimes attributed to Leo, Speculum perfectionis was likely compiled after his death based on stories that he told, a little volume of his writings has been published by Lemmeus. Much that is known concerning him is collected by Paul Sabatier in the Introduction to the Speculum perfectionis, brother Leo figures prominently in Nikos Kazantzakis book Saint Francis, or Gods Little Pauper. In this book, Leo is portrayed as Francis constant companion, Leo is utterly faithful and steadfast, and yet struggles with his own shortcomings while following Francis
Theobald II of Navarre
Theobald II, called the Young, was Count of Champagne and Brie and King of Navarre from 1253 until his death. Theobald was the eldest son of Theobald I of Navarre and his third wife and he succeeded to his fathers titles on his death at only fourteen years of age. His mother acted as regent with James I of Aragon until 1256, on 27 November, he affirmed the Fueros of Navarre, which limited his power by putting him under the counsel of a tutor from among the aristocracy. He could not make judgements without a council of twelve of noblemen, Theobald was not content, however, to be so restricted in royal prerogative before his twenty-first birthday. In order to counter the tendency to decentralisation, diminish the power of the nobility and he exacted extraordinary taxes and imposts from them, but they supported him nevertheless because he granted them rights and political clout. He extended the fueros of Pamplona to Lantz and Estella to Tiebas—nowadays in ruins, Theobald continued the power struggle with the bishop of Pamplona started during his fathers reign.
The former stood by his native Basque parishioners of the Navarreria borough, while Theobald championed the Saint Nicolas borough of Pamplona, in other affairs, Theobald continued the policies of his father. He improved the administration, of incomes and expenditures. The count of 1266 indicated a population of 150,000 inhabitants in Navarre, approximately 6. 75% of royal revenues were spent on a bureaucracy,33. 84% on the military, and 59. 6% to the maintenance of the monarch and his household and duties. Theobald found support in Louis IX of France, who supported his fellow kings against their vassals with consistency, Theobald married Isabella, Louiss daughter, on 6 April 1255. Theobald acted as an advisor of Louis and Louis as an arbiter in Navarres internal problems. When Alfonso X of Castiles daughter Berengaria was betrothed to Louis IX of Frances son Louis, Castile ceded the use of the ports of Fuenterrabía, in July 1270, Theobald embarked with his father-in-law on the Eighth Crusade to Tunis.
Louis died of dysentery at the siege, Theobald died childless at Trapani in Sicily while returning that same year. He was succeeded by his brother, Henry I. His widow Isabella returned home to France, where she died a few months later, ciampolo, a soul found by Dante in the Inferno who defrauded Theobald
Isabelle of France (saint)
Isabelle of France was the daughter of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile. She was a sister of King Louis IX of France and of Alfonso, Count of Poitiers. In 1256, she founded the Poor Clare Monastery of Longchamp in the part of the Forest of Rouvray and she is honored as a saint by the Franciscan Order. Isabelles father died and it was Isabelles mother, who oversaw her education and she could read both Latin, and the vernacular, and enjoyed tales of chivalry as well as devotional texts. While pursuing the traditional feminine interests such as embroidery, she took pleasure in working on priestly vestments. When still a child at court, Isabelle was already devoted to religion, by the papal bull of 26 May 1254, Pope Innocent IV allowed her to retain some Franciscan friars as her special confessors. She was even more devoted to the Franciscan Order than her royal brother, she refused the hand of Conrad IV of Germany, son of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, although was pressed to accept him by everyone, even by Innocent IV.
As Isabelle wished to found a monastery of Poor Clares, her brother King Louis began in 1255 to acquire the land in the Forest of Rouvray, not far from the Seine. On 10 June 1256, the first slide of the church was laid. Not as strict as that rule, the community was allowed to hold property, the monastery was named the Monastery of the Humility of the Blessed Virgin. In the Rule the nuns were called the Sisters of the order of servants of the most Blessed Virgin Mary. The nuns were subject to the Friars Minor, some of the first nuns came from the Poor Clare monastery in Reims. Isabelle never joined the community herself, but did live in the monastery in a separate from the nun’s cells. She suffered from illnesses during her life, which prevented her from following the rule of life for the nuns, Isabelle refused to become abbess, which allowed her to retain her wealth and resources, so she could support them and continue to give to the poor. She kept a discipline of silence for most of her day, Isabelle died at Longchamp on 23 February 1270, and was buried in the monastery church.
After nine days her body was exhumed, when it showed no signs of decay, in 1521 Pope Leo X allowed the Monastery of Longchamp to celebrate her feast day with a special Office. On 4 June 1637, a second took place. The Monastery of Longchamp had many vicissitudes, the French Revolution closed it, and in 1794 the empty building was offered for sale, but, as no one wished to purchase it, it was destroyed
Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk
Roger Bigod was 4th Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England. He was the eldest son and heir of Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk by his wife Maud and his younger brother was Hugh Bigod, Justiciar. After the death of his father in 1225, the young Roger became the ward of William Longespée and he did not, receive his fathers title until 1233. After the death without heirs of the last of his mothers brothers. Roger had no children, and was succeeded by his nephew Roger Bigod, M. Morris, The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century
Boniface of Savoy (bishop)
Boniface of Savoy was a medieval Bishop of Belley in France and Archbishop of Canterbury in England. He was the son of Thomas, Count of Savoy, other members of his family were clergymen, and a brother succeeded his father as count. One niece was married to King Henry III of England and another was married to King Louis IX of France and it was Henry who secured Bonifaces election as Archbishop, and throughout his tenure of that office he spent much time on the continent. He clashed with his bishops, with his nephew-by-marriage, and with the papacy, during Simon de Montforts struggle with King Henry, Boniface initially helped Montforts cause, but supported the king. After his death in Savoy, his became the object of a cult. Boniface and his elder brother Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy, were sons of Thomas I, Count of Savoy, and Margaret of Geneva. He is thus not to be confused with his nephew, and fellow member of the House of Savoy, Count Boniface of Savoy, the elder Boniface was born about 1207 in Savoy.
He was the child of his parents. Some sources state that at an age he joined the Carthusian Order. However, there is no evidence of this, and it would have very unusual for a nobleman to enter that order with its very strict discipline. He had a brother Peter of Savoy who was named Earl of Richmond in 1240 and yet another brother William of Savoy, who was Bishop of Valence, Boniface was the Prior of Nantua in 1232 along with the bishopric of Belley in Burgundy. When his father died, he received the castle of Ugine as his inheritance, on 1 February 1241 he was nominated to the see of Canterbury. Pope Innocent IV confirmed the appointment on 16 September 1243, as an attempt to placate Henry, Boniface did not, come to England until 1244 and was present, in the following year 1245, at the First Council of Lyon. There, he was consecrated by Innocent IV on 15 January at Lyons, but it was only in 1249 that he returned to England and was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 1 November 1249. Before he returned in 1249, he helped arrange the marriage another of his nieces, Beatrice of Provence, the sister of Queen Eleanor, to Charles of Anjou, the medieval chronicler Matthew Paris said that Boniface was noted more for his birth than for his brains.
He showed little concern for the duties of his office. His exactions and his behaviour, combined with the fact that he was a foreigner. He was heavily involved in advancing the fortunes of his family on the continent and he made strenuous efforts to free his office from debt, as he had inherited a see that was in debt over 22,000 marks, but managed to clear the debt before his death
Walter of Bibbesworth
Walter of Bibbesworth was an English knight and Anglo-Norman poet. Documents confirm that he land in the parish of Kimpton. About 1250 he served in Gascony under the seneschal Nicholas de Molis in the army of the English king Henry III. In 1270/1271 he is believed to have part in the Ninth Crusade on the evidence of a tençon or poetic argument between himself and Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln. In the poem Walter, about to depart for Palestine, teases Henry for staying at home for the love of a certain woman, in fact the young Henry de Lacy, recently married and with heavy responsibilities at home, did not take part in the Ninth Crusade. He was buried early in Edward Is reign at Little Dunmow in Essex, apart from the tençon Walter wrote two other short poems in medieval French, one in praise of beauty, a second on the Virgin Mary. He is best known for a poem which in early manuscripts is called Le Tretiz, written in medieval French verse. It is known in two recensions, one of which has a preface stating that the Treatise was written for madame Dyonise de Mountechensi to help her teach her children French.
The Treatise gained popularity and was incorporated in a late medieval textbook of French. Le Tretiz De bone femme la bounté Amours mount si enchaunté La Pleinte Parishes, Kimpton in A History of the County of Hertfordshire, Victoria County History, pp. 29–33 Andrew Dalby, the Treatise of Walter of Bibbesworth. Childhood in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance pp. 159–184 Preview at Google Books Annie Owen, Le Traité de Walter de Bibbesworth sur la langue française
Philip of Montfort, Lord of Castres
Philip of Montfort was a French nobleman, Count of Squillace in Italy from 1266/68, Lord of Castres in 1270. He was the son of Philip of Montfort, Lord of Tyre and Eleonore of Courtenay and his coat-of-arms was Gules, a lion rampant double queued argent, a label of four points azure. He joined the expedition of Charles of Anjou to conquer the Kingdom of Sicily and he led the Angevin troops into the island of Sicily after Benevento, and helped to put down the revolt that broke out there upon the advance of Conradin into Italy. On his father’s death in March 1270, he succeeded to his French seigneury of Castres and he joined the Eighth Crusade and died in Tunis. Charles I of Sicily Eighth Crusade Philip of Montfort, Lord of Tyre Runciman, coat of Arms in the Wijnbergen Roll
Alphonso of Brienne
Alphonso of Brienne or Alphonse I de Brienne, called Alphonse dAcre was the son of John of Brienne and Berengaria of León, born in Acre. He was the Grand Butler of France in 1258, by his marriage to Marie, Countess of Eu he became Count of Eu. He was Grand Chamberlain of France, and died in Tunis on the Seventh Crusade and he had at least two children by Marie, John I of Brienne, Count of Eu Blanche, Abbess of Maubuisson