Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy
Agnes of France, Daughter of France by birth, was the youngest daughter of Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence. She served as regent of Burgundy during the minority of her son and she was the youngest of eleven children, eight of whom lived to adulthood. She married Robert II, Duke of Burgundy in 1279, and became the mother of eight children, Hugh V, married Edward, Count of Savoy. Margaret, married king Louis X of France, married count of Maine and Valois, king Philip VI of France. Louis, King of Thessalonica, married Matilda of Hainaut, mary married Edward I, Count of Bar Robert, Count of Tonnerre, married Joanna, heiress of Tonnerre. On the death of her husband, Agnes served as regent of Burgundy for her minor son Hugh from 1306 until 1311 and she died at Côte d’Or on 19 or 20 December 1327, and is buried at Abbaye de Cîteaux
Beatrice, Countess of Montfort
Beatrice de Montfort, Countess of Montfort-lAmaury was sovereign countess of Montfort, as well as the countess of Drux by marriage to Robert IV of Dreux, Count of Dreux. She was the ancestor of the Dukes of Brittany from the House of Montfort-Dreux which derived its name from her title, Beatrice was born sometime between December 1248 and 1249, the only child of Jean I de Montfort, Count of Dreux and Jeanne, Dame de Chateaudun. Her paternal grandparents were Amaury VI, Count of Montfort and Beatrice of Burgundy and her great- grandfather Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester was a prominent leader of the Albigensian Crusade. In 1249, Beatrices father died in Cyprus, while participating in the Seventh Crusade, in 1251, Jeanne married her second husband, Jean de Brienne, Grand Butler of France. Jeanne and Jean had a daughter Blanche de Brienne, Baroness Tingry, Blanche married William II de Fiennes, Jeanne died sometime after 1252, leaving her Beatrice and her half-sister Blanche as her co-heiresses.
Beatrice was married to Robert IV of Dreux, Count of Dreux and Montfort-lAmaury in 1260 and he was the son of John I of Dreux, Count of Dreux and Braine, and Marie de Bourbon. Robert inherited the titles of Dreux and Braine following the death of his father in 1249, Marie of Dreux, in 1275 married Mathieu de Montmorency. Yolande de Dreux, Countess of Montfort John II of Dreux Joan of Dreux, Countess of Braine, married firstly Jean IV de Roucy, Beatrice of Dreux, Abbess of Pont-Royal Robert of Dreux, seigneur of Chateau-du-Loire. Beatrice died on 9 March 1312 at the age of sixty-three and she was buried in the Abbaye de Haute- Bruyère. Duke John V of Brittany and French Queen consort Anne of Brittany, French Queen Claude, douglas Richardson, Kimball G. Everingham, and David Faris, Plantagenet Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Royal Ancestry series, p.155, Genealogical Publishing Co. Baltimore, Maryland,2004 Charles Cawley Medieval Lands
Beatrice of Ornacieux
Blessed Beatrix dOrnacieux was a Carthusian nun. Her feast day is 13 February, beatrice was a Carthusian nun who founded a settlement of the order at Eymieux in the department of Drôme. She was especially devoted to the Passion of Christ and is said to have driven a nail through her hand to help herself to realize the sufferings of the Crucifixion. Her cultus was confirmed by Pius IX in 1869, there are modern lives by Bellanger and Chapuis and a full account in Lecoulteux, Ann. Her feast is on 13 February
Beatrice of England
Beatrice of England, known as Beatrice de Dreux, was a Princess of England as the daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence. She and her family were members of the Royal house of Plantagenet, Beatrice was the second eldest daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence. According to Matthew Paris, she was born in Bordeaux, France on the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, Beatrices childhood was plagued by tragedy, and the stresses of her fathers reign coupled with her mothers unpopularity with the English people. Her oldest brother Edward became dangerously ill when she was very young, though he recovered, Beatrices youngest sister Katharine died at a very young age leaving Beatrices parents grief-stricken. Katharine, who possibly had a disease that had caused her to become deaf. The English were unhappy with King Henry III owing to the influence that Eleanor and her Savoyard kinsmen exercised on the monarchy, in 1263, Eleanor was sailing on a barge that was attacked by London citizens.
This harsh, bitter dislike created several problems for Henry III, on the other hand and Henry enjoyed a happy marriage, and Beatrice grew up in a loving environment, close to her siblings. At one point, Henry conducted negotiations for Beatrice to marry the king of France, when she was eighteen she married John de Dreux, heir to the duchy of Brittany. Her death was said to have occurred in childbirth, but the dates do not bear out this theory. John II honoured his wife with a chantry, a chapel on private land or within a greater church. Beatrice was buried at Grey Friars Church in Greenwich and her husband succeeded as duke 11 years after her death, therefore Beatrice was never styled Duchess of Brittany. Though little information is available concerning Beatrices activities, she was an important part of English history and her marriage to John II helped forge an alliance with France, thus placing the Earldom of Richmond under the so-called shield of England. During Henrys reign, there was opposition to him in England.
At a time when Simon de Montfort wanted to strip the king of some of his power to give more say to the barons, it was necessary for Henry to strengthen his rule via family marriages to useful people. His first daughter had married the King of Scotland, and Beatrices marriage to John II, moreover, a substantial number of French nobles came to England and could be appointed to political positions. When Henry was crowned, very few areas within the Angevin empire, the marriage of Beatrice and John II would prove to be useful for Henry III, if only to help Henry recover Poitou. Now Henry had English security and influence on the border. Though Henry was planning on regaining Poitou, he was defeated after his campaign, because he could not regain Poitou, his domains were small compared to the Angevin empire
Alice of Vergy
Alice de Vergy was duchess consort of Burgundy as the second spouse of Odo III, Duke of Burgundy. She was the regent of Burgundy during the minority of her son 1218–28, Alice was the daughter of Hugh, Lord of Vergy, by Gillette de Trainel. In 1199, she married Odo III, Duke of Burgundy and their children were, married Raoul II of Lusignan, Seigneur dIssoudun and Count of Eu. As a dowry, she was granted several of her fathers land, at the death of Odo III in 1218, he was succeeded by his son with Alice, Hugh IV. As Hugh V was five years old, Alice became the regent of Burgundy during his minority with the title Ducissa mater ducis Bourgogne, as regent, Alice worked to secure the inheritance of her son, and received the vassals oath of loyalty in the place of her son. In 1225, she managed to prevent a conflict with Dauphine and she acquired Beaune and Chalon through purchase. In 1227, she signed an alliance with Champagne against Nevers, in 1228, her son was declared of legal majority, and Alice resigned her regency and left court and retired to her dower lands.
In 1231, however, it is noted that she acted as the representative of her son in successfully solving the conflict between the Vicomte de Dijon and the abbey of Citeaux and she spent her long retirement as an appreciated benefactor of religious communities
Amanieu de Sescars
Amanieu de Sescars or Amanieu des Escàs was a Catalan, possibly Gascon, troubadour of the late 13th century. Famous for his songs in his own day, his contemporaries gave him the nickname dieu damor. He wrote two ensenhamens and two saluts damor that survive, the uncertainty about his origins stems from the fact that his poems refer extensively to Catalan people and places, but a singer of the same name is found signing a Gascon document of 1253. His earliest datable work is his shortest, the salut A vos, que ieu am deszamatz, which was written 24 August 1278. His first ensenhamen was the Ensenhamen del scudier about a squire who observes his noble master in love, in leisure and it was addressed al comte gent apres En B. dAstarac and must therefore have been written before the counts death in 1291. Amanieus second didactic work, the Ensenhamen de la donsela can be dated between 1291 and 1295 by a reference to James as King of Aragon and to the ongoing War of the Sicilian Vespers. It is addressed to an unnamed donsela and is designed to teach her how to behave in courtly society, amanieus poetry is definitely influenced by Peire Vidal and possibly by Arnaut de Maruelh.
Los trovadores, historia literaria y textos
Beatrice of Burgundy, Lady of Bourbon
Beatrice of Burgundy was Lady of Bourbon and, through her mother, heiress of all Bourbon estates. She was the daughter of John of Burgundy and Agnes of Dampierre, in 1272 Beatrice married Robert, Count of Clermont and their eldest son Louis I, le Boiteux became the first Duke of Bourbon. It is through her that her distant male descendants of the French House of Bourbon get their name
Pope Benedict XII
Pope Benedict XII, born Jacques Fournier, was Pope from 20 December 1334 to his death in April 1342. He was the third Avignon Pope, Benedict was a careful pope who reformed monastic orders and opposed nepotism. Unable to remove his capital to Rome or Bologna, he started the great palace at Avignon and he decided against a notion of Pope John XXII by saying that souls may attain the fulness of the beatific vision before the last judgment. He tried unsuccessfully to reunite the Greek and Roman churches and he failed to come to an understanding with Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Little is known of the origins of Jacques Fournier and he is believed to have been born in Canté in the Comté de Foix around the 1280s to a family of modest means. He became a Cistercian monk and left the countryside to study at the University of Paris, in 1311 he was made Abbot of Fontfroide Abbey and quickly became known for his intelligence and organizational ability. In 1317 he was made Bishop of Pamiers, there he undertook a rigorous hunt for Cathar heretics, such as Guillaume Bélibaste, which won him praise from religious authorities, but alienated the local people.
His efforts against the Cathars of Montaillou in the Ariège were carefully recorded in the Fournier Register and his transcription was edited by Jean Duvernoy and has been documented by Emmanuel Le Roy Laduries pioneering microhistory, village occitan. In 1326, upon the successful rooting out of the last – it was believed – heretics of the south, he was made Bishop of Mirepoix in the Ariège, Fournier succeeded Pope John XXII as Pope, after being elected in the Conclave of 1334. The Conclave opened on 13 December, and it appeared that there might be a quick election, a two-thirds majority were prepared to elect Cardinal Jean-Raymond de Comminges, the Bishop of Porto, if he would only swear in advance to agree not to return the Papacy to Rome. Comminges refused to make any promises in order to get elected, the Conclave therefore ground on through lengthy discussions. As Fournier himself said. in the discussion held over the election of a future pope, in other words, there were a number of possible candidates.
The Cistercian cardinal, Jacques Fournier, was elected on the evening of 20 December 1334, after Vespers, Benedict XII was a reforming pope who did not carry out the policies of his predecessor. He chose to make peace with Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV, and as far as possible came to terms with the Franciscans and he tried to curb the luxuries of the monastic orders, though without much success. He ordered the construction of the Palais des Papes in Avignon, Benedict spent most of his time working on questions of theology. He rejected many of the ideas developed by John XXII, in this regard, he promulgated an apostolic constitution, Benedictus Deus, in 1336. Though some claim that he campaigned against the Immaculate Conception, this is far from clear and he engaged in long theological debates with other noted figures of the age, such as William of Ockham and Meister Eckhart. Though born a Frenchman, Benedict felt no patriotism towards France nor her king, from the start of his papacy, relations between him and Philip were frigid
Beatrice of Savoy
Beatrice of Savoy was the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva. She was Countess consort of Provence by her marriage to Ramon Berenguer IV and her paternal grandparents were Humbert III, Count of Savoy, and Beatrice of Viennois. Her maternal grandparents were William I, Count of Geneva and Beatrice de Faucigny, Beatrice of Savoys mother, Margaret was betrothed to Philip II of France. While Margaret was travelling to France for her wedding, she was captured by Beatrices father and he took her back to Savoy and married her himself. Thomas excuse was that Philip II was already married, which was true, Beatrice was the tenth of fourteen children born to her parents. Beatrice betrothed on 5 June 1219 to Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and she was a shrewd and politically astute woman, whose beauty was likened to that of a second Niobe by Matthew Paris. Ramon and Beatrice of Savoy had four daughters, who all lived to adulthood and their only son, Raymond died in early infancy.
Another brother, escorted Beatrice and Sanchia to the English court in Gascony, there they joined Henry and their baby, Beatrice of England. Henry was very happy at this occasion and gave gifts to the various relatives. In November 1243, Beatrice and Sanchia travelled to England for the wedding and this wedding did much to strengthen the bond between Richard and Henry III. In January 1244, Beatrice negotiated a loan for her husband from Henry of four thousand marks, when Ramon Berenguer died on 19 August 1245, he left Provence to his youngest daughter, and his widow was granted the usufruct of the county of Provence for her lifetime. Beatrices daughter and namesake became one of the most attractive heiresses in medieval Europe, the Pope was a target for Fredericks military incursions in France. In Cluny during December 1245, a discussion, between Pope Innocent IV, Louis IX of France, his mother Blanche of Castile, and his brother Charles of Anjou. It was decided that in return for Louis IX supporting the Pope militarily and daughter were satisfied with this selection.
But Provence was to never go to France outright through Charles and it was agreed that if Charles and Beatrice had children, the county would go to them, if there was no issue, the county would go to Sanchia of Provence. If Sanchia died without an heir, Provence would go to the King of Aragon, Henry protested the selection, arguing that he had not yet received the full dowry for Eleanor nor his brother for Sanchia. He still had the castles in Provence against the loan he had made to the former count, when Charles took over the administration of Provence in 1246, he did not respect Beatrices rights within the county. She sought the aid of Barral of Baux and the Pope in protecting her rights within the area, the citizens of Marseille and Arles joined this resistance to Capetian control
Agnes of Merania
Agnes Maria of Andechs-Merania was a Queen of France. She is called Marie by some of the French chroniclers, Agnes Maria was the daughter of Berthold, Duke of Merania, who was Count of Andechs, a castle and territory near Ammersee, Bavaria. Her mother was Agnes of Rochlitz, in June 1196 Agnes married Philip II of France, who had repudiated his second wife Ingeborg of Denmark in 1193. Pope Innocent III espoused the cause of Ingeborg, but Philip did not submit until 1200, Agnes died broken-hearted in July of the next year, at the castle of Poissy, and was buried in the Convent of St Corentin, near Nantes. Agnes and Philip had two children, Philip I, Count of Boulogne and Mary, were legitimized by the Pope in 1201 at the request of the King, little is known of the personality of Agnes, beyond the remarkable influence which she seems to have exercised over Philip. She has been made the heroine of a tragedy by François Ponsard, Agnès de Méranie and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Agnes of Meran. Endnotes, See The notes of Robert Davidsohn in Philipp II, a genealogical notice is furnished by the Chronicon of the monk Alberic of Fontaines, in Pertz, vol. xxiii. Pp.872 f. and by the Genealogia Wettinensis, ibid. p.229, media related to Agnes of Merania at Wikimedia Commons
Alix of Brittany, Dame de Pontarcy
Alix of Brittany, Dame de Pontarcy, Countess of Blois, was a Breton noblewoman and a member of the House of Dreux as the eldest daughter of John I, Duke of Brittany. She married John I, Count of Blois, Alix was known for founding religious houses including the Monastery of La Guiche, where she was buried. Alix, named after her grandmother, Alix of Thouars, was born on 6 June 1243 at the Château de Suscinio in Sarzeau, Morbihan. She was the eldest daughter of John I, Duke of Brittany and Blanche of Navarre, daughter of Theobald I of Navarre, Alix held the title Dame de Pontarcy in her own right. Sometime after a contract was signed on 11 December 1254, she married John I, thereafter she was styled Countess of Blois. She brought as her dowry her titles of Pontarcy and de Brie-Comte-Robert, the marriage produced one child, a daughter Jeanne, who was heiress to her fathers title and estates. In 1270, her husband was appointed Lieutenant General of France, through Alixs marriage to John, the Château de Brie-Comte-Robert passed to the Châtillon family.
Alix and John founded several houses including the Monastery of La Guiche near Blois in 1277. She became a widow on 28 June 1279, in 1287, the year before her own death, Alix travelled to Palestine. From there she journed on to Syria, where she commissioned the erection of two towers at Ptolemais. Alix died on 2 August 1288 and was buried in the Monastery of La Guiche which she had founded and her father, Duke John had died just two years earlier. Her daughter, who was the suo jure Countess of Blois had married Peter, Count of Perche and Alençon, however, as her two sons by that marriage both died in early infancy, Alixs line became extinct upon her death
Adelaide of Burgundy, Duchess of Brabant
Adelaide of Burgundy was a daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, by his first wife Yolande of Dreux. She was a member of the House of Burgundy, adelaides brother was Robert II, Duke of Burgundy, he succeeded their father upon his death in 1270. Adelaides eldest brother was Odo, Count of Nevers, but he died in 1266 and her paternal grandparents were Odo III, Duke of Burgundy, and Alice of Vergy. Her maternal grandparents were Robert III of Dreux and Aénor of Saint-Valéry, in 1251, Adelaide married Henry III, Duke of Brabant, he was the son of Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and Marie of Hohenstaufen. Adelaides husband died in 1261, and Adelaide died in 1273, the Château of Val-Duchesse was a priory for women founded in 1262 by Adelaide of Burgundy. The Duchess gave the name to the place Val Duchesse or Hertoginnedal, according to the legend she was inspired by Thomas Aquinas who is said to have been a guest at Val Duchesse. It was the first priory for women in the Low Countries that followed the rule of Saint Dominic and was donated by Adelaide.
Dukes of Brabant family tree Dukes of Burgundy family tree Alix of Burgundy