Category:13th-century history books
Pages in category "13th-century history books"
The following 42 pages are in this category, out of 42 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 42 pages are in this category, out of 42 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. History – History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory and it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians and their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In Asia, a chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries, the modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the word history comes ultimately from Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning inquiry, knowledge from inquiry, or judge. It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι, the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions. History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, and it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. In Middle English, the meaning of history was story in general, the restriction to the meaning the branch of knowledge that deals with past events, the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs arose in the mid-fifteenth century. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the sixteenth century. For him, historia was the knowledge of objects determined by space and time, in an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are synthetic and highly inflected. The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669, Historian in the sense of a researcher of history is attested from 1531. Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, in the words of Benedetto Croce, All history is contemporary history. History is facilitated by the formation of a discourse of past through the production of narrative. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record, the task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents
2. 13th century – As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 through 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, 1202—Introduction of Liber Abaci by Fibonacci. 1202—Battle of Basian occurred on July 27, between Kingdom of Georgia and Seljuks, 1204—Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204 captures Zara for Venice and sacks Byzantine Constantinople, creating the Latin Empire. 1204—Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, 1205—The Battle of Adrianople occurred on April 14,1205 between Bulgarians under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders under Baldwin I, the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. 1206—Genghis Khan is declared Great Khan of the Mongols, 1213—France defeats the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. 1214—France defeats English and Imperial German forces at the Battle of Bouvines, 1215—King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede. 1217–1221—Fifth Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta, ultimately the Crusaders withdraw, 1221—Venice signs a trade treaty with the Mongol Empire. 1222—Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility, 1233—Battle of Ganter, Ken Arok defeated Kertajaya, the last king of Kediri, thus established Singhasari kingdom Ken Arok ended the reign of Isyana Dynasty and started his own Rajasa dynasty. 1223-The Signoria, of the Republic of Venice is formed and consists of the Doge, the Minor Council, 1223—The Mongol Empire defeats various Russian principalities at the Battle of the Kalka River. 1223-Volga Bulgaria defeats the army of The Mongol Empire at the Battle of Samara Bend 1227 - Estonians are finally subjugated to German crusader rule during the Livonian Crusade, 1228-1229—Sixth Crusade under the excommunicated Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who returns Jerusalem to the Crusader States. 1228-1230- First clash between Gregory IX and Frederick II, 1226-1250- Dispute between the so-called second Lombard League and Frederick II. 1232—The Mongols besiege Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin dynasty, 1239–1250—Third conflict between Holy Roman Empire–Papacy. 1238—Sukhothai was the first capital of Sukhothai Kingdom, 1241—Mongol Empire defeats Hungary at the Battle of Mohi and defeats Poland at the Battle of Legnica. 1242—Russians defeat the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Lake Peipus, 1244—Ayyubids and Khwarezmians defeat the Crusaders and their Arab allies at the Battle of La Forbie. 1249—End of the Portuguese Reconquista against the Moors, when King Afonso III of Portugal reconquers the Algarve, 1248–1254—Seventh Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta, Crusaders ultimately withdraw. 1257—Baab Mashur Malamo established The Kingdom of Ternate in Maluku, 1258—Baghdad captured and destroyed by the Mongols, effective conclusion of the Caliphate 1259—Treaty of Paris. 1260—Toluid Civil War begins between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke for the title of Great Khan, 1261—Byzantines under Michael VIII retake Constantinople from the Crusaders and Venice. 1262—Iceland was brought under Norwegian rule, with the Old Covenant 1265—Dominican friar and theologian, 1268—Fall of the Crusader State of Antioch to the Mamelukes
3. The Secret History of the Mongols – The Secret History of the Mongols is the oldest surviving Mongolian-language literary work. Also known as Tobchiyan in the History of Yuan, the Secret History is regarded as the single most significant native Mongolian account of Genghis Khan. Linguistically, it provides the richest source of pre-classical Mongolian and Middle Mongolian, the Secret History is regarded as a piece of classic literature in both Mongolia and the rest of the world. The work begins with a genealogy of Temüjins family. The description of Temüjins life begins with the kidnapping of his mother, Hoelun, by his father Yesügei. It then covers Temüjins early life, the times after the murder of his father, and the many conflicts against him, wars. It relates how the Mongol Empire was created and it contains 12 chapters, Temüjins origin and childhood. Temujin destroys the Merkit and takes the title Genghis Khan, Genghis Khan struggles against Jamukha and Tayichiud. Genghis Khan destroys the Tatars and tangles with Ong Khan Destruction of the Khereid The fate of Ong Khan Escape of Kuchlug, establishment of the empire and imperial guard. Conquest of the Uyghur and forest peoples, conquest of China, the Tanghut, the Sartuul, Baghdad and Russia Temüjins death and Ögedeis reign. Several passages of the Secret History appear in different versions in the 17th century Mongolian chronicle Altan Tobchi. The only surviving copies of the work are transcriptions of the original Mongolian text with Chinese characters, accompanied by a in-line glossary, baavuday Tsend Gun was the first Mongolian scholar to transcribe The Secret History of the Mongols into modern Mongolian, in 1915–17. The first to discover the Secret History for the west and offer a translation from the Chinese glossary was the Russian sinologist Palladiy Kafarov, the first translations from the reconstructed Mongolian text were done by the German sinologist Erich Haenisch and Paul Pelliot. Pankratov published a translation into Russian in 1962, later, Tsendiin Damdinsüren transcribed the chronicle into Khalkha Mongolian in 1970. The Secret History of the Mongols has been published in translation in over 30 languages by researchers, in 2004 the Government of Mongolia decreed that the copy of The Secret History of the Mongols covered with golden plates was to be located to the rear part of the Government building. The Secret History of the Mongol Queens, How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire, Үсгийн галиг, The Transliteration of the Mongolian Secret History,965 pp.1990 B. Sumiyabaatar/Б. Сумьяабаатар, Монголын Нууц Товчооны хэлбэрсудлал, The Morphology оf the Mongolian Secret History,3144 pp.1997 B. Sumiyabaatar/Б. Сумяабаатар, Чингисийн алтан ургийн Угийн бичиг ба Гэрийн уеийн бичмэл, The Genealogy of the Genghiss Mongols,720 pp.2002, sumiyabaatar /Б. Сумьяабаатар, Choi Gi Ho, Монголын Нууц Товчоон
4. Book – A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side, with text and/or images printed in ink. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page, a set of text-filled or illustrated pages produced in electronic format for reading on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book, or e-book. The term books may refer the body of works of literature. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals, in novels and sometimes other types of books, a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books. An avid reader or collector of books or a lover is a bibliophile or colloquially. A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore, Books are also sold in some department stores, drugstores and newspaper vendors. Books can also be borrowed from libraries, google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, printed books are giving way to the usage of electronic or e-books, the word book comes from Old English bōc, which in turn comes from the Germanic root *bōk-, cognate to beech. Similarly, in Slavic languages буква is cognate with beech, in Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word букварь or буквар refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood, similarly, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense, originally meant block of wood. When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets, the study of such inscriptions forms a major part of history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy, the Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from other and there was no punctuation. Texts were written right to left, left to right. The technical term for that last type of writing is boustrophedon, a tablet might be defined as a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. See also stylus, the instrument used to write on a tablet, clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age. Tablets were used by traders to record sales of such as bushels of grain
5. Publishing – Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver, also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, acquisition, copy editing, production, printing, and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is also known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title. An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperback
6. Chronica Majora – The Chronica Majora is an important medieval illuminated manuscript chronicle written in Latin by Matthew Paris, a Benedictine monk living in the Abbey of St Albans. The work begins with the creation of the world and contains annals up to 1259, the year of Pariss death. The first two parts of the Chronica, covering the years up to 1188 and from 1189 to 1253, are contained in two manuscripts in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, Parker MS26 and MS16. They include 100 marginal drawings, some maps and an itinerary, and full page drawings of William I. MS16 has very recently had all prefatory matter re-bound separately, the remainder of the Chronica, from 1254 until Pariss death in 1259, is in the British Library, bound as Royal MS14 C VII folios 157-218, following Pariss Historia Anglorum. 6 Richard Vaughan, The Chronicles of Matthew Paris, Monastic Life in the Thirteenth Century, Richard Vaughan, The Illustrated Chronicles of Matthew Paris. ISBN 978-0-7509-0523-7 Suzanne Lewis, The Art of Matthew Paris in the Chronica Majora