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The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1401 births.|
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Agnese del Maino – Agnese del Maino was a Milanese noblewoman and the mistress of Filippo Maria Visconti, the last legitimate Duke of Milan of the Visconti dynasty. Agnese was the mother of Bianca Maria Visconti, who succeeded to the title of Duchess of Milan in 1450, Agnese was born around 1411 in Milan. She was the daughter of Ambrogio del Maino, a Count Palantine and her mothers name and identity is unknown. Agnese had two brothers, Lancillotto del Maino and Andreotto del Maino, who were both courtiers and members of the ducal council and he was the son of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan by his second wife, Caterina Visconti. Blonde-haired Agnese was the person the reclusive Duke ever truly loved. On 31 March 1425 at Settimo Pavese, Agnese gave birth to Filippos daughter, when the baby was six months old, Agnese and Bianca Maria were sent to the castle of Abbiategrasso, where lavish apartments were provided for mother and child. In 1426, Agnese bore the Duke a second daughter, Caterina Maria, but the child died shortly after her birth. Filippo, for reasons of state, married secondly, by proxy on 2 December 1427, and in person on 24 September 1428, Marie of Savoy, the dukes second marriage was also childless, making Bianca Maria his sole heir to the duchy of Milan. Agnese was present at her daughters wedding, Bianca Marias considerable dowry included the towns of Cremona and Pontremoli. The marriage produced eight children, among these were, Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, and Ippolita Maria Sforza, Duchess of Calabria. Marie de Medici, and Diana, Princess of Wales were also descendants of Agnese del Maino through the latters great-granddaughter Caterina Sforza, Filippo Maria Visconti died on 13 August 1447, he was not quite fifty-five years old. Bianca Maria was his direct heir, albeit illegitimate. His death, without offspring, resulted in the creation of the short-lived Ambrosian Republic. That same year, Agnese convinced Matteo Da Bologna, the condottiero who held the city of Pavia, to restore the city to her son-in-law, Francesco subsequently took the title of Count of Pavia. A revolt broke out in Milan on 24 February 1450, due to a famine in the city resulted in rampant starvation. The Ambrosian Republic had ended and was replaced by the Sforza dynasty which would rule Milan until 1535, Agnese resided with them at the ducal court, overseeing the education of her grandchildren. Extant diplomatic papers record that Agnese was a participant in court functions. Her daughter, Bianca Maria died three years later on 28 October 1468, Francesco had died in 1466, and his eldest son Galeazzo Maria succeeded him as Duke of Milan
2. Masaccio – Masaccio, born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. Masaccio died at twenty-six and little is known about the circumstances of his death. The name Masaccio is a version of Maso, meaning clumsy or messy Tom. The name may have created to distinguish him from his principal collaborator, also called Maso. Despite his brief career, he had a influence on other artists. He was one of the first to use linear perspective in his painting, employing techniques such as vanishing point in art for the first time, Masaccio was born to Giovanni di Simone Cassai and Jacopa di Martinozzo in Castel San Giovanni di Altura, now San Giovanni Valdarno. His father was a notary and his mother the daughter of an innkeeper of Barberino di Mugello and his family name, Cassai, comes from the trade of his paternal grandfather Simone and granduncle Lorenzo, who were carpenters/cabinet makers. Masaccios father died in 1406, when he was five, later that same year a brother was born. He also was to become a painter, with the nickname of lo Scheggia meaning the splinter, there is no evidence for Masaccios artistic education, however Renaissance painters traditionally began an apprenticeship with an established master around the age of 12. Johannis Simonis pictor populi S. Nicholae de Florentia, the first works attributed to Masaccio are the San Giovenale Triptych, now in the Museum of Cascia di Reggello near Florence, and the Virgin and Child with Saint Anne at the Uffizi. The San Giovenale altarpiece was discovered in 1961 in the church of San Giovenale at Cascia di Reggello and it depicts the Virgin and Child with angels in the central panel, Sts. Bartholomew and Blaise on the panel, and Sts. Juvenal and Anthony Abbot in the right panel, the painting has lost much of its original framing, and its surface is badly abraded. The second work was perhaps Masaccios first collaboration with the older and already-renowned artist, Masolino is believed to have painted the figure of St. Anne and the angels that hold the cloth of honor behind her, while Masaccio painted the more important Virgin and Child on their throne. Masolinos figures are delicate, graceful and somewhat flat, while Masaccios are solid, in Florence, Masaccio could study the works of Giotto and become friends with Brunelleschi and Donatello. It was destroyed when the cloister was rebuilt at the end of the 16th century. With the two artists probably working simultaneously, the painting began around 1425, but for reasons the chapel was left unfinished. As a whole the frescoes represent human sin and its redemption through the actions of Peter, the style of Masaccios scenes shows the influence of Giotto especially
3. Ludovico Trevisan – Ludovico Trevisan was an Italian catholic prelate, who was the Chamberlain of the Apostolic Camera, Patriarch of Aquileia and Captain General of the Church. He succeeded his rival Giovanni Vitelleschi, a fellowcardinal of military talent and inclination, as bishop of Traù, Trevisan was also known as the Cardinal of Aquileia and the Cardinal Camerlengo. Trevisan was born into a family in Padua, then in the territory of the Republic of Venice, the son of Biagio Trevisano. Like other war cardinals, such as Niccolò Fortiguerra and Giuliano della Rovere and his mothers maiden name was Mezzarota. His first name is also rendered Ludovico, Luigi, Luise. Trevisan studied grammar and poetry, followed by the arts, in Venice, he obtained a doctorate in arts. After a brief stint teaching medicine, Trevisan went to Rome circa 1430 to become the physician of Cardinal Gabrile Condulmer, upon Condulmers election as pope, Trevisan was made his cubicularius and scriptori of apostolic letters. He soon also became a canon of the chapter of Padua. On August 6,1437, Trevisan was promoted to bishop of Florence. There is record of Trevisan being in Ferrara with Eugene IV on January 23,1438, Trevisan became Patriarch of Aquileia on December 18,1439, and occupied that see until his death. On April 3,1440, Trevisan was commissioned as papal legate in Romagna with the army, as the popes special deputy he was the paymaster of the sizable papal army and controlled its large budget, and commanded it in the field. Trevisan commanded the right flank of the combined papal-Florentine forces that defeated Piccinino in the Battle of Anghiari on June 29, upon his elevation, Bishop Fortunato di Pellicanis of Sarsina began administering his patriarchate. Later that year, he became Camerlengo, an office he held until his death, when Eugene IV and Filippo Visconti turned against Sforza, Trevisan was the organizer of the campaign to recapture the March of Ancona for the papacy. Trevisan defeated the Turkish assault on Mytilene in August 1457, during which many Turkish vessels were captured, receiving praise from the pope. Trevisan died during the first year of the pontificate of Pope Paul II, with whom Trevisan was not on good terms, like Cardinal Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz, Trevisan has been described as an angel of peace. Popes, Cardinals & War, The Military Church in Renaissance and Early Modern Europe
4. Nicholas of Cusa – Nicholas of Cusa, also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicolaus Cusanus, was a German philosopher, theologian, jurist, and astronomer. One of the first German proponents of Renaissance humanism, he made spiritual and political contributions in European history. A notable example of this is his mystical or spiritual writings on learned ignorance, Papal legate to Germany from 1446, he was appointed cardinal for his merits by Pope Nicholas V in 1448 and Prince–Bishop of Brixen two years later. In 1459 he became general in the Papal States. Nicholas of Cusa has remained an influential figure, during the period 2000-2001, his sixth centennial of his birth was celebrated on four continents and commemorated by publications on his life and work. Nicholas was born in Kues in southwestern Germany and he was the second of four children of Johan Krebs and Katherina Roemer. His father was a boat owner and ferryman. He entered the Faculty of Arts of the Heidelberg University in 1416 as a cleric of the Diocese of Trier and he seemed to have left Heidelberg soon afterwards, as he received his doctorate in canon law from the University of Padua in 1423. In Padua, he met with the later cardinals Julian Cesarini and Domenico Capranica, afterwards, he entered the University of Cologne in 1425 as a doctor of canon law, which he appears to have both taught and practiced there. In Cologne, he made friends with the scholastic theologian Heymeric de Campo, following a brief period in Cologne, Nicholas returned to his hometown and became secretary to Otto of Ziegenhain, the Prince–Archbishop of Trier. Otto appointed him canon and dean at the stift of Saint Florinus in Koblenz affiliated with numerous prebends, in 1427 he was sent to Rome as an episcopal delegate. The next year he travelled to Paris to study the writings of Ramon Llull, at the same time he rejected a calling by the newly established University of Leuven. He acquired great knowledge in the research of ancient and mediæval manuscripts as well as in textual criticism, in 1433 he identified the Donation of Constantine as a fake, confirmed by Lorenzo Valla a few years later, and revealed the forgery of the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals. After the Archbishop Otto of Trier had died in 1430, Pope Martin V appointed the Speyer bishop Raban of Helmstatt his successor. Nicholas stressed the influence of the cathedral chapter and its given right to participate in the succession policy. His efforts were to no avail in regard to Ulrichs ambitions, however, Nicholas pleadings earned him a reputation as an intermediary. While present at the council, he wrote his first work, De concordantia catholica and this work remained useful to critics of the papacy long after Nicholas left Basel. Initially as conciliarist, Nicholas approached to his university friend Cardinal Julian Cesarini, Nicholas supported transfer of the council to Italy to meet with the Greeks, who needed aid against the Ottoman Turks
5. Maria of Castile, Queen of Aragon – Maria of Castile was Queen consort of Aragon and Naples as the spouse of Alfonso V of Aragon. Maria acted as the regent of Aragon during the reign of her spouse, as he was absent during most of his reign and she was also briefly Princess of Asturias in her own right as the heir presumptive to the throne of Castile. Maria was the eldest child of King Henry III of Castile and her godmother was her mothers aunt, Maria de Ayala, a nun and illegitimate daughter of King Peter of Castile. She grew up in an entirely Castilian household in which she lived until her marriage and her education was supervised by the Great Steward, Pedro González de Mendoza, while her governess was Inés de Ayala y Toledo, 3rd Lady de Casarrubios del Monte. As the Kings eldest child, Maria was granted the title of Princess of Asturias and her father had her formally recognised as heiress presumptive at the Cortes of Toledo on 6 January 1402. At the same time, she was bethrothed to her first cousin, Alfonso, however, the birth of her brother John displaced the Princess in the line of succession, from that moment on, she was merely an infanta. Her childhood was happy by all accounts, the frailty of her health was not evident until she was a married adolescent. Her father died when she was four, leaving the crown to her brother, John II. Her mother, Queen Catherine, governed the Crown of Castile as regent during King John IIs minority, the queen mothers political actions would later make Maria aware of her own responsibilities and prerrogatives as a queen and as a regent. Mother and daughter were very close and remained in frequent correspondence even after the latters marriage, the engagement of Maria and Alfonso was not formalised until she was seven, but it had been reconfirmed by King Henry IIIs last will and testament. By the same arrangement, Marias brother John was to marry Alfonsos sister Maria, the marriage of Maria and Alfonso was celebrated in the Cathedral of Valencia on 12 June 1415. The couple was wedded by Antipope Benedict XIII who had provided a dispensation for their marriage. Maria was given a dowry in form of land and revenues. Her brother would later complain that the dowry was too large, family squabbles were frequent due to the politics of her father-in-law and mother-in-law, Eleanor of Alburquerque. The Infantes of Aragon, her brothers-in-law, Henry, Peter and especially the meddlesome John would prove problematic, Maria had a delicate health, it is possible that she had epilepsy. A bout of smallpox left her permanently scarred and unattractive and she did not have her first menstrual period until she was sixteen and the consummation of the marriage had to be delayed, the couple would have no children. Her marriage was simply a political alliance, the few moments of marital happiness occurred during the early years of the marriage. The lack of children deeply affected their marriage and Alfonsos reign and their relationship began visibly detoriating in 1423, after Alfonsos return from Naples
6. Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut – Jacqueline, was a Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Holland and Zeeland and Countess of Hainaut from 1417 to 1433. She was also Dauphine of France for a time between 1415 and 1417 and Duchess of Gloucester in the 1420s, if her marriage to Humphrey. Born in The Hague, Jacqueline, from her birth, was referred to as of Holland, Jacqueline was the last Wittelsbach ruler of Hainaut and Holland. Following her death, her estates passed into the inheritance of Philip the Good and she was the only daughter of William II, Duke of Bavaria from his marriage with Margaret, a daughter of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and Margaret III, Countess of Flanders. At the age of only 22 months and again at the age of 4, Jacqueline was betrothed to John, Duke of Touraine, fourth son of King Charles VI of France, both children were brought up in the Castle of Le Quesnoy in Hainaut. The boy had been given into tutelage of his future father-in-law, since he was expected to succeed as ruler in Hainaut and not in any way in France itself. On 22 April 1411 the Pope gave his dispensation for the union and on 6 August 1415, when Jacqueline was fourteen, she and John married in The Hague. In March 1416, Count William raised the matter with Sigismund while the latter was the guest of the English king, Henry V in England, dauphin John died on 4 April 1417, leaving Jacqueline as a widow aged 16. Two months later on 31 May, she unexpectedly lost her father, Duke William II was bitten by a dog, which caused a blood infection that quickly killed him. The politically inexperienced Jacqueline now had to fight for her inheritance, in Hainaut, where female succession was long customary, Jacqueline was recognized as sovereign Countess on 13 June, but in Holland and Zeeland her rights were controversial from the beginning. Even before William IIs death, he had expected to become his successor, on the advice of her mother, Jacqueline initially gave her uncle the title of Guardian and Defender of the County of Hainaut in order to forestall his ambitions. Jacqueline also remarried, but her selection of husband was unfortunate, on 31 July 1417, two months after William IIs death, the betrothal between Jacqueline and John IV took place, and the wedding was celebrated in The Hague on 10 March 1418. However, the proved to be a failure. In addition to this, the financial problems of the young Duke John IV. John III, with the support of King Sigismund and the Cods, took the arms against Jacqueline, who was supported by the Hooks, this civil war was known as the Hook and Cod wars. The troops of uncle and niece met in the Battle of Gorkum in 1417, Jacqueline was victorious, but was forced to leave the major trading city of Dordrecht. Finally, John IV also pledged Hainaut to improve his situation, for Jacqueline. In the meanwhile, the situation had changed radically
7. Diotisalvi Neroni – Diotisalvi Neroni was an Italian politician. Born in Florence, he was appointed to important positions in that city. He was ambassador in Milan and a protagonist of the Peace of Lodi in 1454, the first advisor of Cosimo de Medici the Elder, he helped in him to return in Florence from his exile. Piero, however, was warned of the plot and crushed all its participants, Neroni and his sons were declared as rebel, all their assets confiscated. Neroni moved to Sicily and, later, to Ferrara, where he was hosted by Borso dEste and he died in Rome and was buried in the basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Of him, a bust by Mino da Fiesole in the Louvre and a portrait by Domenico Ghirlandaio in the Sistine Chapel remain
8. Catherine of Valois – Catherine of Valois was the queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. A daughter of Charles VI of France, she married Henry V of England and her liaison with Owen Tudor proved the springboard of that familys fortunes, eventually leading to their grandsons elevation as Henry VII of England. Catherines older sister Isabella was queen of England from 1396 until 1399, Catherine of Valois was the youngest daughter of King Charles VI of France and his wife Isabeau of Bavaria. She was born at the Hôtel Saint-Pol on 27 October 1401, early on, there had been a discussion of marrying her to the prince of Wales, son of Henry IV of England, but the king died before negotiations could begin. In 1414, the prince, now Henry V, re-opened discussion of the match, along with a large dowry, while some authors have maintained that Catherine was neglected as a child by her mother, a more contemporary examination of the evidence suggests otherwise. Henry V went to war with France, and even after the great English victory at Agincourt, Catherine was said to be very attractive and when Henry finally met her at Meulan, he became enamoured. In May 1420, a agreement was made between England and France, the Treaty of Troyes, and Charles acknowledged Henry of England as his heir. Catherine and Henry were married at the Parish Church of St John or at Troyes Cathedral on 2 June 1420, Catherine went to England with her new husband and was crowned queen in Westminster Abbey on 23 February 1421. In June 1421, Henry returned to France to continue his military campaigns, by this time, Catherine was several months pregnant and gave birth to a son named Henry on 6 December 1421 at Windsor. Her husband never saw their child, during the siege of Meaux, he became sick with dysentery and died on 31 August 1422, just before his 36th birthday. Catherine was not quite 21 and was left a queen dowager, Charles VI died a couple of months after Henry V, making the young Henry VI king of England and English-occupied northern France. Catherine doted on her son during his early childhood, Catherine was still young and marriageable, a source of concern to her brother-in-law Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and Lord Protector. Rumours abounded that Catherine planned to marry Edmund Beaufort, Count of Mortain, the kings consent was contingent upon his having attained his majority. At that time, the king was only six years old, Catherine lived in the kings household, presumably so she could care for her young son, but the arrangement also enabled the councillors to watch over the queen dowager herself. Nevertheless, Catherine entered into a relationship with Welshman Owen ap Maredudd ap Tudor. Tudor was probably appointed keeper of Catherines household or wardrobe, the relationship began when Catherine lived at Windsor Castle, and she became pregnant with their first child there. At some point, she stopped living in the Kings household and this was important because of Henry IVs laws limiting the rights of Welshmen. There is no evidence either way whether Catherine and Owen Tudor actually married
9. Thomas Tuddenham – Sir Thomas Tuddenham was an influential Norfolk landowner, official and courtier. He served as Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Keeper of the Great Wardrobe, during the Wars of the Roses he allied himself with the Lancastrian side, and after the Yorkist victory in 1461 was charged with treason and beheaded on Tower Hill on 23 February 1462. His elder brother, Robert, died in 1415, at which time Tuddenham inherited the family estates, however, as he was still underage his wardship and marriage fell to the Crown, and in July 1417 were granted to Sir John Rodenhale and John Wodehouse, esquire. Tuddenham married Wodehouses daughter in about 1418, and was granted livery of his lands in March 1423, on 30 June 1425 Wodehouse surrendered his office of steward of the Duchy of Lancaster in order that it could be granted to his son-in-law. Tuddenham was also knighted about this time, and perhaps through his father-in-laws influence entered the service of Thomas Beaufort and his landholdings in Norfolk were augmented in 1434 when he inherited the manor of Oxburgh from a cousin. After Exeters death in 1426, Tuddenham aligned himself with William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, as an ally of Suffolk, Tuddenham was the recipient of numerous appointments and grants in East Anglia and in the household of Henry VI. He was Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk in 1432, and Member of Parliament for Suffolk in 1431, on 29 September 1443 he and Suffolk were jointly appointed to the chief stewardship of the north parts of the Duchy of Lancaster. On 26 October 1446 Tuddenham was appointed Keeper of the Great Wardrobe in the royal household. In 1449–50 Tuddenham funded a visit to Rome in the Holy Year by the theologian and historian John Capgrave, by 1457-8 some sort of rapprochement had been reached between Tuddenham and Oxford, and the Earl had granted Tuddenham an annuity of £10 per annum. Edward IV came to the throne after the Yorkist victory at the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461, and shortly thereafter an order for Tuddenhams arrest was issued, in February 1462 Tuddenham was allegedly involved in a plot to murder the King. No records survive of the trials of the conspirators to shed light on the subject. And upon the 20th day of the month the said Lord Aubrey was drawn from Westminster to the Tower Hill. And the 23rd day of the month of February Sir Thomas Tuddenham, William Tyrrell. Tuddenham, too, was buried in the church of the Austin Friars in London and his lands, including his manor of Oxburgh, were inherited by his sister, Margaret Tuddenham, who had married Sir Edmund Bedingfield. Tuddenham married, about 1418, Alice Wodehouse, the daughter of his guardian, the couple lived together until about 1425, during which time Alice gave birth to a son who died young. Both Tuddenham and his wife denied that the marriage had been consummated. By 1429, Tuddenham and his wife were separated. The marriage was annulled on 22 November 1436, the first edition of this text, Dictionary of National Biography
10. Francesco I Sforza – Francesco I Sforza was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, Italy, and was the fourth Duke of Milan from 1450 until his death. He was the brother of Alessandro, whom he fought alongside. Francesco Sforza was born in San Miniato, Tuscany, one of the seven sons of the condottiero Muzio Sforza. He spent his childhood in Tricarico, the marquisate of which he was granted in 1412 by King Ladislaus of Naples, in 1418, he married Polissena Ruffo, a Calabrese noblewoman. From 1419, he alongside his father, soon gaining fame for being able to bend metal bars with his bare hands. He later proved himself to be a tactician and very skilled field commander. After some successes, he fell in disgrace and was sent to the castle of Mortara as a de facto. He regained his status after leading an expedition against Lucca, in 1431, after a period during which he fought again for the Papal States, he led the Milanese army against Venice, the following year the dukes daughter, Bianca Maria, was betrothed to him. Despite these moves, the wary Filippo Maria never ceased to be distrustful of Sforza, in 1436-39, he served variously both Florence and Venice. In 1440, his fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples were occupied by King Alfonso I, on 25 October 1441, in Cremona, he could finally marry Bianca Maria. The following year, he allied with René of Anjou, pretender to the throne of Naples, Sforza later found himself warring against Francesco Piccinino and, later, the alliance of Visconti, Eugene IV, and Malatesta, who had allegedly murdered Polissena. With the help of Venice, Sforza was again victorious and, in exchange for abandoning the Venetians, after the duke died without a male heir in 1447, fighting broke out to restore the so-called Ambrosian Republic. The name Ambrosian Republic takes its name from St. Ambrose, agnese del Maino, his wifes mother, convinced the condottiero who held Pavia to restore it to him. He also received the seigniory of other cities of the duchy, including Lodi, in 1450, after years of famine, riots raged in the streets of Milan and the citys senate decided to entrust to him the duchy. Sforza entered the city as Duke on 26 February and it was the first time that such a title was handed over by a lay institution. While the other Italian states gradually recognized Sforza as the legitimate Duke of Milan and that did not come to the Sforza Dukes until 1494, when Emperor Maximilian formally invested Francescos son, Ludovico, as Duke of Milan. Under his rule, Sforza modernised the city and duchy, in Milan, he founded the Ospedale Maggiore, restored the Palazzo dellArengo, and had the Naviglio dAdda, a channel connecting with the Adda River, built. During Sforzas reign, Florence was under the command of Cosimo de Medici, after the peace, Sforza renounced part of the conquests in eastern Lombardy obtained by his condottieri Bartolomeo Colleoni, Ludovico Gonzaga, and Roberto Sanseverino after 1451
11. Adolphus VIII, Count of Holstein – Adolphus XI of Schauenburg, as Adolph I Duke of Schleswig, and as Adolph VIII Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, was the mightiest vassal of the Danish realm. Adolph descended from a branch of the House of Schauenburg, who had for centuries been counts of Holstein and his great-grandfather Gerhard the Great, having also been a Regent of the Kingdom of Denmark, had received the Duchy of Sønderjylland from the Danish crown as a hereditary fief. It had been lost for the Schauenburgs between 1330 and 1375, with Queen Margaret I of Denmark restricting the regained ducal power in 1386, Count Adolphs parents were Gerhard VI, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg and Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Adolph was only three years old when his father was killed in action against the Ditmarsians in the Battle at Hamme near Heide, Adolph was educated at the court of Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg at Hohenzollern Castle. Adolphs elder brother Henry IV succeeded their father, as Duke of Schleswig, he was under the tutelage of the Danish crown due to his minority until 1414. However, then the crown denied Henrys claim to dukedom, Henry and his mother and brothers stood together and fought for his claim. During the Danish-Holstein-Hanseatic war Henry was killed in action beleaguering Flensburg on 28 May 1427, Adolph and his younger brother Gerhard VII then succeeded Henry as Counts of Holstein-Rendsburg, continuing their efforts to receive the Duchy of Schleswig. However, Gerhard died in 1433 in Emmerich upon Rhine, in July 1435 Adolph and the Danish King Eric of Pomerania concluded the second Treaty of Vordingborg at Vordingborg Castle, confirming Adolphs de facto holdings in Schleswig duchy. In 1439, the new Danish King Christopher III acquired the loyalty of Adolph by granting him the entire Duchy of Schleswig as a hereditary Danish fief, Adolphs lands were located in both sides of the border between Denmark and the Holy Roman Empire. The current branch of Danish royal house became extinct in 1448 with the death of Christopher III of Denmark, Adolph was also the cognatic descendant of King Abel of Denmark through his daughter Sophia, Christopher III was the last descendant of King Abels sons. The throne was offered by the Rigsråd to Adolph, who as Duke of Schleswig, was the vassal with the biggest holdings in the Danish realm. Adolph, by that time old and childless, declined and supported the candidacy of his own nephew the Count of Oldenburg who became Christian I of Denmark, Adolph was married on 5 March 1435, to Margaret of Höllenstein of the German noble family of Hohnstein. They had one son, who died young, in 1459 Adolph died and left no descendants to inherit. His brother Gerhard had mixed twins, with the son Henry drowned still young, Adolphs branch was not genealogically very senior. His seal shows the coats-of-arms of Schleswig and Holstein, the inscription says, SIGILLUM*ADOLPHI*DUCIS*SLEVICENSIS*HOLTSACIE*COMITIS Treaty of Ribe History of Schleswig-Holstein This article derives mainly from the Salmon Konversationsleksikon 2nd edition. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie,1, Leipzig, Duncker & Humblot, pp. 110–111 Heinz Maybaum, Adolf VIII
12. Albert III, Duke of Bavaria – Albert III the Pious of Bavaria-Munich, since 1438 Duke of Bavaria-Munich. He was born in Munich to Ernest, Duke of Bavaria and Elisabetta Visconti, daughter of Bernabò Visconti. He was first engaged in 1429, to Elisabeth, the daughter of Eberhard III, Count of Württemberg, but she eloped and married a Count of Werdenberg, who had been a page at her fathers court. In 1432, while he was administrator on behalf of his father, Duke Ernest, in the duchy of Bavaria-Straubing he secretly married Agnes Bernauer. His father was against this marriage, in 1435, when she lived in Straubing, Ernest ordered the murder of Agnes Bernauer. She was accused of witchcraft, thrown into the River Danube, after her death, Albert took himself to Duke Louis at Ingolstadt, but he reconciled with his father that November. After reconciliation with his father Albert married princess Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen-Einbeck and had ten children with her, in 1438 he succeeded his father as duke of Bavaria-Munich. In 1440 he refused the offered Bohemian crown, in 1444 and 1445 he initiated two campaigns against the Robber barons. After the extinction of the dukes of Bavaria-Ingolstadt he also released this duchy to his fathers cousin Henry XVI of Bavaria-Landshut in 1447, in 1455 Albert founded the Benedictine monastery in Andechs. He died in Munich in 1460 and is buried in Andechs, margaret, married in Mantua 10 May 1463 to Federico I Gonzaga. Elisabeth, married in Leipzig 19 November 1460 to Elector Ernst of Saxony, wolfgang, a canon in Passau, Augsburg and Köln. Also he had at least three illegitimate children