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Pages in category "1439 births"
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1439 births.|
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Hua Sui – Hua Sui was a Chinese scholar and printer of Wuxi, Jiangsu province during the Ming Dynasty. He belonged to the wealthy Hua family that was renowned throughout the region, Hua Sui is best known for creating Chinas first metal movable type printing in 1490 AD. Metal movable type printing had been invented in Korea during the earlier 13th century, movable type was invented and improved in China centuries before Hua Sui. During the Yuan Dynasty, the magistrate and scholar Wang Zhen was an early innovator of wooden movable type. Much like Bi Sheng experimenting with wooden movable type in the 11th century but finding it unsatisfactory, Wang Zhen wrote in the book of the Nong Shu, In more recent times, type has also been made of tin by casting. It is strung on a wire, and thus made fast in the columns of the form. But none of this type took ink readily, and it made untidy printing in most cases, for that reason they were not used long. Thus, Chinese metal type of the 13th century using tin was unsuccessful because it was incompatible with the inking process. Although unsuccessful in Wang Zhens time, the metal type of Hua Sui in the late 15th century would be used for centuries in China. Furthermore, a font of tin movable type was employed by a Mr. Tong of Guangdong in the 19th century. Hua Sui, who did not become a scholar until about the age of fifty and he had accumulated a sizable fortune, and desired to use that fortune in order to establish the reputation as a printer in the region. Hua Sui became the first of his clan to use his resources in establishing bronze-type printing in 1490. The first book printed in bronze-type in China was the Zhu Chen Zou Yi of that year, the books printed by Hua Sui contain the signature Hui Tong Guan, meaning he had mastered the process of metal movable type printing. Including the Zhu Chen Zou Yi, published 15 titles using metal type, family relatives of Hua Sui caught on and engaged in metal type printing as well. Hua Cheng, a distant relative of Sui, an antiquarian and he printed the Bai Chuan Xue Hai of 1501 using metal type, and printed many rare books he obtained in a rapid process thanks to the speed of metal typesetting. Hua Qian, a nephew of Hua Sui, was yet another bronze-type printer of the Hua family and his studio signature was Lan Xue Tang, and his largest printing project was reprinting the old Tang Dynasty encyclopedia of the Yi Wen Lei Ju. In addition, various members of the Hua family contributed to metal type printing. There was another family of Wuxi, Jiangsu province, who engaged in metal type printing
2. Pope Pius III – Pope Pius III, born Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini, was Pope from 22 September 1503 to his death on 18 October 1503. He had one of the shortest pontificates in papal history and his brothers were Antonio, Giacomo and Andrea. He was received as a boy into the household of Aeneas Silvius who permitted him to assume the name and he studied law at the University of Perugia and obtained a doctorate after the completion of his studies. Piccolomini was the administrator of the Archdiocese of Siena which his uncle had raised to the status of archbishopric and he was the administrator from 1460 to his own pontifical election. He was granted the title and the insignias of an archbishop in 1459 and he also served as the protector of England and Germany. Pope Pius II made his nephew a cardinal on 5 March 1460 in Siena, Pius II also appointed him in 1460 as the Archbishop of Siena when he was 21. Within the next few months the pope sent him as the legate to the March of Ancona with the experienced Bishop of Marsico as his counsellor and he proved studious and effective in his job. Piccolomini was also the legate to Rome and the rest of the Papal States in 1464 when his left for Ancona. Piccolomini was made the archdeacon of Brabant in Cambrai in 1462 and he participated in the conclave that elected Pope Paul II in 1464 and he was named the legate to Germany in 1471. He served in this important legation for events like the Imperial diet at Regensburg/Ratisbon and he was still there after the pope died and was absent for the election of Pope Sixtus IV. He became the Cardinal Protodeacon in 1471 and served in a new legation to Umbria for the pope to restore ecclesiastical authority. He participated in the conclave of 1484 which resulted in the election of Pope Innocent VIII and as the announced the election. He was made the administrator of Fermo in 1485 and resigned the position in 1494 in favor of Agostino Piccolomini and he was named once again when the latter stopped in 1496 and he kept that post until his pontifical election. He was also made the legate to Perugia in 1488 and he left in 1489 and he also participated in the conclave of 1492 which elected Pope Alexander VI and as such announced and crowned the new pontiff. He was also made the legate to France in 1493 to meet King Charles VIII and he was named the administrator of the see of Pienza and Montalcino in 1495 and occupied it until 1498 in favor of Girolamo Piccolomini. He was involved in Alexander VIs short-lived effort to reform the Roman Curia following the murder of his son Giovanni Borgia in 1497 and was named a member of a commission of six cardinals. Its iconography illustrating the donors career gives a version of Pius IIs life. Though Pinturicchio labored for five years, the books never reached their splendid destination, some of Pope Pius IIIs most famous portraits can be viewed in the Louvre Museum
3. Francesco di Giorgio Martini – Born in Siena, he apprenticed as a painter with Vecchietta. The third book is preoccupied with the city, constrained within star-shaped polygonal geometries reminiscent of the star fort. The design of the church of San Sebastiano in Vallepiatta in Siena is also attributed to him, di Giorgios painting of the Madonna and Child with 2 Angels is found at the Lowe Art Museum in Coral Gables, Florida. Born sometime in 1439 in Siena to a dealer, Francesco Maurizio di Giorgio di Martino was baptized on September 23,1439. Not much is known about his youth, except that he is assumed to have been a student of Vecchietta due to similarities in style between di Giorgios early paintings and those of the master. The first record of his work as an artist is from 1464 and he was married two times in quick succession when his first wife, Cristofana, died shortly after they were married in 1467. Di Giorgios early years as a professional artist, architect, and they were able to enlarge the fountain in the Piazza del Campo and make other improvements around the city, successfully fulfilling their contract in 1473. During this period, di Giorgio was also working with assistants on The Coronation of the Virgin for the Santa Maria della Scala, a large painted altarpiece. Sienese records from 1471 describe an episode in which the artist and nine others broke into the Monastery of the Holy Saviour outside Siena and they were sentenced to be banished from the city for three months, or to pay a 25 lire fine, which di Giorgio paid. During the mid-1470s, di Giorgio came into the employ of Federico da Montefeltro and he created multiple artistic works for the Duke, including the bronze relief Deposition from the Cross and served as an architect and engineer for the duke during the Pazzi conspiracy. In the fighting between Italian city-states which followed, di Giorgio constructed a series of fortifications for his patron. This source of employment for di Giorgio continued after da Montefeltros death with his son the new duke, architectural work also came to di Giorgio through his employment with the Duke, including what is probably his most famous building, Santa Maria delle Grazie al Calcinaio in Cortona. The church was challenging to design due to the incline of its location. Letters from 1485 reveal that the Sienese government wrote to Francesco di Giorgio to request that he return to his city and embark on the design. He did return to the city in 1486 and began receiving a salary of 800 florins for his position as official city engineer in which he would inspect all engineering projects throughout Siena. Di Giorgio also completed projects for the city, such as the candle-holding angel sculptures which he contributed to the altar at the Opera del Duomo. This time was one of prosperity and popularity for di Giorgio, whose presence and expertise were fought over by the rulers of several city-states, particularly Siena and his tax documents from 1488 show material wealth as well as familial wealth in the form of six children. In 1490 he was commissioned by the government of Milan to produce a model for dome of the Milan Cathedral and this project led him to journey to the site of the cathedral, where he met Leonardo da Vinci who had also been hired to consult on the building
4. Cosimo Rosselli – He painted almost entirely religious subjects, with a few portraits. He did other large frescos with his workship, from which Fra Bartolomeo and Piero di Cosimo and these include a chapel in SantAmbrogio, Florence and one of the large spaces in the cloister of Santissima Annunziata, Florence. In 1460, at the age of fourteen, he became a pupil of Neri di Bicci, a first youthful work of Cosimo mentioned by Giorgio Vasari is the Assumption of the Virgin altarpiece in the third chapel on the left of the nave in SantAmbrogio in Florence. In the same church, on the wall of one of the chapels, is a fresco by Cosimo which Vasari praises highly, especially for a portrait of the young scholar Pico of Mirandola. The scene, a bearing a miracle-working chalice, is painted with vigor. A picture painted by Rosselli for the church of the Annunziata, barbara, Matthew and the Baptist, is in the Academy of Florence. Rosselli also spent some time in Lucca, where he painted altarpieces for various churches. A picture attributed to him, taken from the church of St. Girolamo at Fiesole, is now in the National Gallery of London, though dry and hard in treatment, the figures are designed with much dignity. Rosselli and his collaborators executed two or three frescoes, the Descent from Mount Sinai, the Last Supper and, perhaps, the Sermon of the Mount, the Passage of the Red Sea is variously attributed to him, to Ghirlandaio or to Biagio dAntonio. The Gemäldegalerie, Berlin has three pictures by Rosselli, The Virgin in Glory, The Entombment of Christ and The Massacre of the Innocents. In 1480 Rosselli, together with the painters of Florence, was invited by Pope Sixtus IV to Rome to assist in the painting of the frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. Three of these were executed by him The Destruction of Pharaohs Army in the Red Sea, Christ Preaching by the Lake of Tiberias and his chief pupil was Fra Bartolomeo. Among Rosellis other pupils were Angelo di Donino and Giovanni Battista Vanni, according to Vasari, Rosselli died in 1484, but this is a mistake, as he was known to have been living on 25 November 1506. Sources This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh. Pope-Hennessy, John & Kanter, Laurence B, the Robert Lehman Collection I, Italian Paintings. New York, Princeton, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list
5. John V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg – John V of Saxe-Lauenburg was the eldest son of Duke Bernard II of Saxe-Lauenburg and Adelheid of Pomerania-Stolp, daughter of Duke Bogislaus VIII of Pomerania-Stolp. He succeeded his father in 1463 as duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, after a fire John V reconstructed Saxe-Lauenburgs residential castle in Lauenburg upon Elbe, started in 1180–1182 by Duke Bernard I. In 1481 John V redeemed Saxe-Lauenburgs exclave Land of Hadeln, which had been pawned to Hamburg as security for a credit of 3,000 Rhenish guilders since 1407. John V then made his son and heir apparent, Magnus, vicegerent of Hadeln, by early December 1499 Prince-Archbishop Johann Rode of Bremen converted Henry IV to their column so that Magnus lacked support. Mediated by Eric I of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Prince of Calenberg and Henry IV, Rode, Hadeln was restored to Magnus, while the Wursteners rendered homage to Rode on 18 August, thus in the end little had changed as compared with the status quo ante. 1503 Count Frederick of Spiegelberg Frederick Rudolph Henry Catherine, Cistercian nun in Reinbek bei Hamburg Elisabeth, ∞ Duke Henry IV, one of John Vs illegitimate children was, Bernhardus Sasse, auxiliary bishop in Münster and titular bishop of Ptolemais in Phoenicia, as of 23 March 1519. Elke Freifrau von Boeselager, „Das Land Hadeln bis zum Beginn der frühen Neuzeit, in, hans-Eckhard Dannenberg und Heinz-Joachim Schulze, Stade, Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden,1995 and 2008, vol, I Vor- und Frühgeschichte, vol. II Mittelalter, vol. III Neuzeit, ISBN ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5, ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2, ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9, ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5 Karl Ernst Hermann Krause, Johann III. Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze, Stade, Landschaftsverband der ehem, herzogtümer Bremen und Verden,1995 and 2008, vol. I Vor- und Frühgeschichte, vol. II Mittelalter, vol, III Neuzeit, ISBN ISBN 978-3-9801919-7-5, ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2, ISBN 978-3-9801919-9-9, vol
6. Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter – Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter was the first child and eldest surviving daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. Anne married twice and divorced her first husband, In 1447 aged eight years old, Anne was married to Henry Holland, during the Wars of the Roses Exeter sided with the House of Lancaster against his wifes family the House of York. Exeter was a commander at the great Lancastrian victories at the Battle of Wakefield and he was also a commander at the Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton. He fled to the Kingdom of Scotland after the battle, and then joined Margaret of Anjou in her exile in France, on 4 March 1461 Annes younger brother Edward, Duke of York, was declared in London as King Edward IV. Exeter was attainted but the new king gave his estates to Anne, Anne and Exeter separated in 1464 and divorced in 1472. If not decisive, her arguments certainly had some effect and thus she played some part in Edwards restoration, lady Dorset died sometime between 26 August 1467 and 6 June 1474 without children. Grey subsequently married Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington, another rich young heiress, Anne married secondly in about 1474 to Thomas St. Leger, a loyal follower of his brother-in-law King Edward IV. He took part in the Duke of Buckinghams attempted rebellion against King Edwards younger brother and eventual successor King Richard III, on the failure of which he was executed in 1483. King Edward IV had however in 1467 extended the remainder of most of the former Duke of Exeters lands to his sister Anne, thus, if she remarried any future children could inherit them. Anne died giving birth to her daughter by Thomas, Anne St. Leger. She married George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros, and was mother of the royal favourite Thomas Manners, in August 2012, a dig to find the remains of King Richard III took place in Greyfriars, Leicester. In September, it was reported that remains had found during the dig. The remains were tested using the mitochondrial DNA of Canadian Michael Ibsen, mitochodrial DNA is inherited unbroken from mother to offspring along a female line. Michael is a 17th generation descendant of Anne of York by his mother Joy and it was later named the Rutland Chantry in honour of her son-in-law George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros, father of Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland. And also the body of syr Thomas Sellynger knyght her husband which hathe funde within thys College a Chauntre with too prestys sy’gyng for ev’more, on whose soule god have mercy. Cawley, Charles, Earls of Kent –1408, Holand, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Ross, ladies of the Bower & Lords of the Tower A Medieval Re-enactment Society based in London, featuring members of the Neville/Plantagenet family
7. Bernardine of Feltre – The Blessed Bernardine of Feltre was a Friar Minor and missionary, b. at Feltre, Italy, in 1439 and d. at Pavia,28 September 1494. He is remembered in connexion with the monti di pietà of which he was the reorganizer and, in a certain sense, the feast of Blessed Bernardino is kept in the Order of Friars Minor on 28 September. Born Martin Tomitani, he belonged to the family of Tomitano and was the eldest of nine children. In 1456 St. James of the Marches preached the Lenten course at Padua, in May that year he joined the “Observantine” Franciscans, an austere branch of the Franciscan friars. He completed successfully his studies at Mantua and was ordained priest in 1463 and he was small, shy, and stammered but his superiors assigned him to preach home-missions. Cured of an impediment in his speech, Bernardine began his apostolate up, every city of note and every province from Lombardy in the north to Sardinia and the provinces of the south became successively the scene of his missionary labours. He was an extremely popular sermonizer because he simply and powerfully against the vanity, ambition. The crowds that flocked to him were too large for the local churches, so he addressed them in the city squares. Like many other missioners of his century, he had made a vast outdoor bonfire called “burning the Devils stronghold”. The crowds were asked to throw into the fire all objects of vanity and sin such as playing cards, dice, pornographic books and pictures, jewelry, wigs, superstitious charms, cosmetics, Bernardine was able to reconcile warring communities. He also sought civic legislation to correct public injustices such as usury, the charging of excessive interest for loans, in 1484, Bernardine established the charitable credit organization, mont-de-piétés run by a joint committee of clergy and laymen. The institution was founded as an alternative to the high interest loans of the Jewish money lenders and his insistence on charging a low interest to protect the institutions permanency raised a controversy among the theologians who thought it promoted the continuance of usury. In 1515, Pope Leo X declared the institution meritorious and it spread rapidly throughout France, Italy, aided by the practical notion of establishing mont-de-piétés, he called for the expulsion of Jews all over Italy and Tyrol. The authorship of the well-known Anima Christi has as often as not been ascribed to Bernardine of Feltre and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Herbermann, Charles, ed. Bl
8. Sigismund, Duke of Bavaria – For other nobles of the same name, please see Sigismund Sigismund of Bavaria was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. He ruled as Duke of Bavaria-Munich from 1460 to 1467, Sigismund was a son of Albert III of Bavaria with Duchess Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen. Sigismund was Duke of Bavaria-Munich from 1460 to 1467, until 1463 together with his brother John IV, in 1467 he resigned in favor of his younger brother Albert IV and then kept only the new duchy of Bavaria-Dachau as his domain until his death. In 1468 the foundation stone of the Frauenkirche in Munich was laid by Sigismund and he also ordered to enlarge Blutenburg Castle, to construct its chapel and to build the church St. Wolfgang in Pipping nearby. The redesign of the ducal court Alter Hof was initiated by Sigismund as well, Sigismund is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich
9. Joan of Portugal – She was born in the Quinta do Monte Olivete, Almada six months after the death of her father. On 21 May 1455 in Córdoba, Spain, she married as his second wife King Henry IV of Castile who had repudiated his first consort, Blanche II of Navarre and it was rumoured that their marriage had never been consummated due to the kings impotence. Henry and Joan shared the same grandparents, Ferdinand I of Aragon. They also shared the same paternal great-grandfather, John of Gaunt, Henry banished Joan from the royal court and she went to live in Coca at the castle of Henrys supporter, Bishop Fonseca. She soon fell in love with Bishop Fonsecas nephew, they embarked on a sexual affair, Henry subsequently declared their marriage had never been legal and thus divorced her in 1468. At the death of her husband in 1474, Joan championed her daughters right to succeed to the throne. This led to the outbreak of the War of the Castilian Succession and she was considered haughty, unscrupulous, ambitious and ruthless, participating in intrigues and completely controlling her husband. Joan has been credited with many lovers, including the poet Juan Rodríguez de la Cámara, Joan had two illegitimate children by Pedro de Castilla y Fonseca el mozo, nephew of Bishop Fonseca, and a great grandson of King Peter of Castille. Her two sons were Pedro de Castilla y Portugal and Andres Apostol de Castilla y Portugal, the birth of her two illegitimate children only added to Joans considerable notoriety. She later entered the convent of San Francisco in Segovia, Joan died in Madrid on 12 December 1475 at the age of 36. She was buried in the Convent of San Francisco
10. Margaret of Savoy, Countess of Saint-Pol – Margaret of Savoy, also known as Marguerite de Savoie or Margherita di Savoia, was the eldest surviving daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy. She was the wife of Margrave John IV of Montferrat and later the wife of Pierre II de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, of Brienne, de Ligny, Marle, margarets numerous descendants included Mary, Queen of Scots, and King Henry IV of France. Margaret was born in April 1439 in Turin, Italy, the eldest surviving daughter and one of the nineteen children of Louis, Duke of Savoy and Anne de Lusignan, Princess of Cyprus. In December 1458 at Casale, she married her first husband, John IV, Margrave of Montferrat and he was a condottiere for the Republic of Venice during the Wars in Lombardy which were a series of conflicts fought between Venice and Milan, and their various allies. Margaret brought a dowry of 100,000 scudi, and in return received Trino, Morano, Borgo San Martino, the marriage was childless, although he fathered several illegitimate children. He died on 19 January 1464, leaving her a widow at the age of twenty-five. Marie married secondly, François de Bourbon, Count of Vendôme, by whom she had six children including Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, Mary, Queen of Scots, King Henry IV of France, and the Lorraine Dukes of Guise were Maries direct descendants. Françoise of Luxembourg, Dame dEnghien, married Philip of Cleves-Ravenstein, Captain General of Flanders, margaret died at Bruges on 9 March 1483, less than six months after her husband Pierre, and she was buried at the Abbey of Happlaincourt. Margaret was survived by her two daughters, Marie and Françoise, her three sons having died in early infancy. Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Savoy Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Champagne, Nobility www. Worldroots. com, Descendants of Amadeus III of Savoy, Leo van de Pas