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Pages in category "1440 births"
The following 66 pages are in this category, out of 66 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1440 births.|
The following 66 pages are in this category, out of 66 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Hugh Denys – Hugh Denys of Osterley was a courtier of Kings Henry VII and of the young Henry VIII. Denys was thus a player in facilitating the first Tudor kings controversial fiscal policies. Denys was probably born at Olveston Court, Gloucestershire, c,1440, the second son of Maurice Denys, Lord of the Manor of Alveston and Earthcott Green, Gloucestershire. His mother was Maurices second wife, Alice Poyntz, daughter of Nicholas Poyntz of Iron Acton and that Hugh was a second son is suggested by his use of a crescent as a mark of difference in his armorials. The Heraldic Visitation of the Co. of Glos. of 1623, on the other hand, shows him as the third son. Denys married very advantageously to Mary Ros, the daughter and only child of Richard Ros, younger son of Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros, of Hamlake Castle, the latter had drowned in the River Seine while on campaign in France. Richards mother was Eleanor Beauchamp, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth Berkeley, daughter of Thomas 5th. Marys brother Thomas de Ros, 10th Baron de Ros of Hamlake married Philippa de Tiptoft, sister of John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester, Thomas de Ros, Denyss brother-in-law was an ardent Lancastrian and was attainted in 1461, and beheaded at Newcastle in 1464. Marys aunt was Margaret de Ros who married firstly William Lord Bottreux of North Cadbury and she married secondly in 1463 Sir Thomas Borough of Gainsborough, Lincolnshire. In 1464 he changed sides, again, back to the Lancastrians, margarets second husband Sir Thomas Borough was on the victorious Yorkist side at Hexham so possibly witnessed the beheading of his wifes stepbrother. At Denyss death Mary had borne him no children, and Mary went on to marry again and this office made its holder the Kings closest courtier. The duties in the earliest days of this ancient post involved assisting the king in the performance in a manner of his bodily function of excretion. Arrangements would have to be made for the custody of the stool itself, provision of a room for the use thereof, with curtains. Washing equipment would also have required, water, bowls. Whether the function of the office involved intimate bodily cleaning must be questioned, the answer would seem to be affirmative. It is unlikely, as in the imagination, to have been a duty demanded by the king to boost his royal ego. Disposable paper tissue would only make its appearance several centuries later, cloth, clearly the office was one where the king would want to select a person in whose company he felt relaxed and comfortable. From this relationship grew the role of the Groom as an adviser of the king
2. Ivan III of Russia – Ivan III Vasilyevich, also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus. He was one of the longest-reigning Russian rulers in history, Ivans rule is marked by what subsequent Russophile historians called the Gathering of the Russian Lands. Ivan brought the independent duchies of different Rurikid princes under the control of Moscow, leaving the princes. His first enterprise was a war with the Republic of Novgorod and these wars were waged over Moscows religious and political sovereignty, and over Moscows efforts to seize land in the Northern Dvina region. Ivan visited Novgorod Central several times in the several years, persecuting a number of pro-Lithuanian boyars. In 1477, two Novgorodian envoys, claiming to have been sent by the archbishops and the entire city, Ivan dispossessed Novgorod of more than four-fifths of its land, keeping half for himself and giving the other half to his allies. Subsequent revolts were punished by the en masse of the richest and most ancient families of Novgorod to Moscow, Vyatka. Archbishop Feofil was also removed to Moscow for plotting against the Grand Prince, the rival republic of Pskov owed the continuance of its own political existence to the readiness with which it assisted Ivan against its ancient enemy. The other principalities were eventually absorbed by conquest, purchase, or marriage contract, The Principality of Yaroslavl in 1463, Rostov in 1474, Tver in 1485, the eldest, Iurii, died childless on 12 September 1472. He only had a draft of a will that said nothing about his land, Ivan seized the land, much to the fury of the surviving brothers, who he placated with some land. Boris and Andrei the Elder signed treaties with Vasily in February and they agreed to protect each others land and not to have secret dealings with foreign states, they broke this clause in 1480, fleeing to Lithuania. It is unknown whether Andrei the Younger signed a treaty and he died in 1481, leaving his lands to Ivan. In 1491 Andrei the Elder was arrested by Ivan for refusing to aid the Crimean Tatars against the Golden Horde and he died in prison in 1493, and Ivan seized his land. In 1494 Boris, the only brother able to pass his land to his sons, however, their land reverted to the Tsar upon their deaths in 1503 and 1515 respectively. There was one semi-autonomous prince in Muscovy when Ivan acceded, Prince Mikhail Andreevich of Vereia, in 1478 he was pressured into giving Belozersk to Ivan, who got all of Mikhails land on his death in 1486. The character of the government of Moscow changed significantly under Ivan III and this was a natural consequence of the hegemony of Moscow over the other north-eastern Rus lands, but also to new imperial pretensions. Ivan himself appeared to welcome the idea, and he began to style himself tsar in foreign correspondence, fennell emphasizes Ivans success in centralizing control over local rulers, he adds, however, that his reign was also a period of cultural depression and spiritual barrenness. Freedom was stamped out within the Muscovite lands, by his bigoted anti-Catholicism Ivan brought down the curtain between Muscovy and the west
3. Ladislaus the Posthumous – Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas, was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He was the son of Albert of Habsburg and Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert had bequeathed all his realms to his son on his deathbed. Fearing of an Ottoman invasion, the majority of the Hungarian lords, the Hussite noblemen and towns of Bohemia did not acknowledge the hereditary right of Alberts descendants to the throne, but did not elect a new king. After Ladislauss birth, his mother seized the Holy Crown of Hungary and had Ladislaus – known as Ladislaus V in Hungary – crowned king in Székesfehérvár on 15 May 1440, However, the Diet of Hungary declared Ladislauss coronation invalid and elected Vladislaus king. A civil war broke out which lasted for years, Elizabeth appointed her late husbands distant cousin, Frederick III, King of the Romans, Ladislauss guardian. Ladislaus lived in Fredericks court, where Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini wrote a treatise of his education, Ladislauss rival in Hungary, Vladislaus, fell in the Battle of Varna in November 1444. Next year, the Diet of Hungary offered to acknowledge Ladislaus as king if Frederick III renounced his guardianship, after Frederick III rejected the offer, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent in 1446. In Bohemia, the head of the moderate Hussites, George of Poděbrady, the Estates of Austria forced Frederick III to resign the guardianship and hand over Ladislaus to them in September 1452. Royal administration was restored in Hungary after Hunyadi resigned the regency in early 1453. Ulrich II, Count of Celje became Ladislauss main advisor, but an Austrian baron, Ulrich Eytzinger, although Ladislaus was crowned king of Bohemia on 28 October 1453, Poděbrady remained in full control of the government. During the following years, Eytzinger, Hunyadi and Poděbrady closely cooperated to secure their positions. Ladislaus was reconciled with Celje in early 1455, with the support of the leading Hungarian barons, Ladislaus persuaded Hunyadi to withdraw his troops from most royal castles and renounce the administration of part of the royal revenues. After the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II decided to invade Hungary, Ladislaus, the sultan laid siege to Nándorfehérvár. Hunyadi relieved the fortress on 22 July 1456, but he died two weeks later, However, most Hungarian barons were hostile towards Ladislaus Hunyadi. With their support, Ladislaus captured him and his brother, Matthias, after Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed in March 1457, his relatives stirred up a rebellion against Ladislaus, forcing him to flee from Hungary. He was the last male member of the Albertinian Line of the House of Habsburg, Ladislaus was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg and Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert was the hereditary Duke of Austria, while Elizabeth was the child of the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund
4. Albertus Pictor – Celebrations for the quincentenary of his death were arranged for 2009. Albertus was originally called Albertus Immenhusen, after the German town of Immenhausen in Hessen of which he was a native and he occurs in Swedish historical sources from 1465, when he was admitted a burgher of Arboga. Eight years later he moved to Stockholm, where, in accordance with current practice and he was a versatile and prolific artist, known to his contemporaries not only for his church wallpaintings, but also as an organist and embroiderer. More than thirty of his schemes, mostly in a technique, are extant, many in the Lake Mälaren region. Notable examples include wallpaintings at Bromma kyrka, near Stockholm, Lid kyrka, in Södermanland, part of his life and work are depicted in the illustrated book, Albert målare och sommaren i Härkeberga, which describes his painting of the small church of Härkeberga in Uppland. Albertuss illustration of Death playing chess from Täby kyrka inspired the scene in Ingmar Bergmans 1957 film The Seventh Seal in which a knight plays chess with personified Death. Albertus Pictor himself appears as a character in the film, in a dialog with Jöns, Antonius Blocks squire, Albertus Pictors paintings are considered preserved in 37 churches. Nine of the painting are either signed with some variant of Albertus name or the signing documented was destroyed, other paintings ascribed to Albertus Pictor are based on attributes made by experts on the subject. Attenuation on stylistic grounds based on comparisons to those of the churches that have secure signings is difficult to determine especially when it concerns the making of the works, a lot of them are also strong influenced by over-liming and production with subsequent restoration. Albertus Pictors painting, however, differ so much from contemporary Swedish painters that they usually can not be attributed to the author and it is conceivable that in some cases they rather have strong influences
5. Kabir – Kabir was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings influenced Hinduisms Bhakti movement and his verses are found in Sikhisms scripture Adi Granth. His early life was in a Muslim family, but he was influenced by his teacher. During his lifetime, he was threatened by both Hindus and Muslims for his views, when he died, both Hindus and Muslims he had inspired claimed him as theirs. Kabir suggested that True God is with the person who is on the path of righteousness, considered all creatures on earth as his own self, to know God, suggested Kabir, meditate with the mantra Rāma, Rāma. Kabirs legacy survives and continues through the Kabir panth, a community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects. Its members are known as Kabir panthis, the years of Kabirs birth and death are unclear. Some historians favor 1398–1448 as the period Kabir lived, while others favor 1440–1518, many legends, inconsistent in their details, exist about his birth family and early life. However, modern scholarship has abandoned these legends for lack of historical evidence, according to the Indologist Wendy Doniger, Kabir was born into a Muslim family and various birth legends attempt to drag Kabir back over the line from Muslim to Hindu. This alone would explain his relative ignorance of Islamic tenets, his acquaintance with Tantric-yoga practices. He appears far more conversant with Nath-panthi basic attitudes and philosophy than with the Islamic orthodox tradition, some legends assert that Kabir never married and led a celibates life. Kabirs family is believed to have lived in the locality of Kabir Chaura in Varanasi, kabīr maṭha, a maṭha located in the back alleys of Kabir Chaura, celebrates his life and times. Accompanying the property is a house named Nīrūṭīlā which houses Niru, the house also accommodates students and scholars who live there and study Kabirs work. Kabir composed poems in a pithy and earthy style, fused with imagery and his poems were in vernacular Hindi, borrowing from various dialects including Avadhi, Braj, and Bhojpuri. They cover various aspects of life and call for a devotion for God. Kabir and his followers named his verbally composed poems of wisdom as bāņīs and these include songs and couplets, called variously dohe, śalokā, or sākhī. The latter term means witness, implying the poems to be evidence of the Truth, literary works with compositions attributed to Kabir include Kabir Bijak, Kabir Parachai, Sakhi Granth, Adi Granth, and Kabir Granthawali. However, except for Adi Granth, significantly different versions of texts exist and it is unclear which one is more original, for example. The most in depth analysis of various versions and translations are credited to Charlotte Vaudeville
6. Leonhard of Gorizia – Leonhard of Gorizia was the last Count of Görz from the Meinhardiner dynasty, who ruled at Lienz and Gorizia from 1454 until his death. Leonhard was born at the comital residence Bruck Castle in Lienz, the son of Henry VI, Count of Gorizia and his wife, Katalin, in 1454 he succeeded his father, who left him an almost ruined county with two separate territories. Leonhard at first ruled jointly with his brothers John II and Louis, John as the eldest apparently held most of the power while younger Louis did not exercise any political role and died between 1456 and 1457. The Counts of Görz had to move to Heinfels Castle, John died in 1462 and Leonhard became sole ruler. With the help of his capable deputy Virgil von Graben, a relative from the House of Graben von Stein, the Venice Ten, who since 1434 ruled over the Domini di Terraferma in Friuli, intended to seize the adjacent inner county centered on the town of Gorizia itself. In the end Leonhard leaned towards the Habsburgs and signed a treaty with Fredericks son Emperor Maximilian I. Upon his death, Austrian troops immediately occupied the town of Gorizia, the Habsburgs united Lienz with the County of Tyrol and went on to rule as Counts in Gorizia. Leonhards former deputy Virgil von Graben, who had played a role in the convergence to the Habsburg dynasty
7. Melchior von Meckau – Melchior von Meckau was a German Roman Catholic cardinal and bishop. Melchior von Meckau was born in Meissen in 1440, the son of Gaspar von Meckau and he began his studies at Leipzig in 1458, and then enrolled at the University of Bologna in 1459. He ultimately received a doctorate in law from the University of Bologna and he became provost of the Cathedral of Magdeburg in 1470. He moved to Rome and became a secretary in the Chancery of Apostolic Briefs, in 1473, Pope Sixtus IV nominated him to be dean of the cathedral chapter of Meissen Cathedral. From 1473, he was also a counselor of Sigismund, Archduke of Austria and he was also a canon of Brixen Cathedral. On April 20,1482, he was named bishop of Georg Gosler. He spent most of his time with Archduke Sigismund in Innsbruck until 1488, when Bishop Gosler died on June 20,1489, Bishop Meckau succeeded as Prince-Bishop of Brixen. He celebrated a synod in November 1489, where the major topic of discussion was the Breviary. In 1490, he became a canon of St. Lamberts Cathedral, upon the death of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, the new emperor, Maximilian I, left Bishop Meckau in charge of the territorial government of Tyrol. He was a governor and supported the emperor financially during the Swabian War. Bishop Meckau was a patron of the arts, architecture and literature, Pope Alexander VI made him a cardinal priest in the consistory of May 31,1503. He received the church of San Nicola in Carcere on June 12,1503. He did not participate in the conclave of September 1503 that elected Pope Pius III. Emperor Maximilian named Cardinal Meckau as his ambassador to arrange for the necessary for his coronation. Cardinal Meckau visited the pope in Rome on December 16,1506 and then visited the Republic of Venice, on January 5,1507, he opted for the titular church of Santo Stefano Rotondo. Because of the intransigence of the Republic of Vienna, Maximilian could not be crowned and traveled to Trent. In February 1507, Maximilian declared that he was Holy Roman Emperor even though he had not been crowned, Cardinal Meckau conveyed this decision to the pope and he died in Rome on March 3,1509. He was buried in Santa Maria in Araceli
8. Matteo Maria Boiardo – Matteo Maria Boiardo was an Italian Renaissance poet. Boiardo was an example of a gifted and accomplished courtier, possessing at the same time a manly heart. At an early age he entered the University of Ferrara, where he acquired a knowledge of Greek and Latin. He was in due time admitted doctor in philosophy and in law, in 1473 he joined the retinue which escorted Eleonora of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand I, to meet her spouse, Ercole, at Ferrara. Five years later Boiardo was invested with the governorship of Reggio, in his youth Boiardo had been a successful imitator of Petrarcas love poems. More serious attempts followed with the Istoria Imperiale, some adaptations of Nepos, Apuleius, Herodotus, Xenophon, etc. and these were followed by a comedy, Il Timone. He is best remembered, however, for his poem of chivalry. Rime, another work from 1499, was forgotten until the English-Italian librarian Antonio Panizzi published it in 1835. Almost all Boiardos works, and especially the Orlando Innamorato, were composed for the amusement of Duke Ercole and his court, though not written within its precincts. It is uncertain when Boiardo wrote a poem about a self-composed, unusual Tarot game, which is of relevance to Tarot research of the 15th century, a deck, which was produced according to the poem has partially survived