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The following 47 pages are in this category, out of 47 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1440 deaths.|
The following 47 pages are in this category, out of 47 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Cennino Cennini – Cennino dAndrea Cennini was an Italian painter influenced by Giotto. He was a student of Agnolo Gaddi in Florence, Gaddi trained under his father, called Taddeo Gaddi, who trained with Giotto. Cennini was born in Colle di Val dElsa, Tuscany, after training as an artist with Agnolo Gaddi in Florence he worked at the Carrara court in Padua for some years before apparently returning to Colle di Val dElsa. He is remembered mainly for having authored Il libro dellarte, thought to have been written around the turn of the 15th century, the book is a how to on late Medieval and early Renaissance art. It contains information on pigments, brushes, drawing, panel painting, Cennini also mentions oil painting in passing, which was important for dispelling the myth, propagated by Giorgio Vasari and Karel Van Mander, that oil painting was invented by Jan van Eyck. The dates of Cenninis life are highly speculative and it is often falsely assumed that he was alive in 1437 because that date appears on the earliest of the four extant copies of his manuscript. However, a document from Colle di Val dElsa dated 1427 probably refers to his son. The techniques Cennini describes range from ones which were already in use in the 13th century to ones which were innovative in the fourteenth century. The extent to which Cennini intended to provide a handbook for the apprentice painter is disputed. Some scholars believe that his book was a book or a guild book instead. Along with technical methods, Cennini offered advice on the sort of lifestyle to which a young painter should subscribe, according to Victoria Finlay, in her book Colour, Travels Through The Paintbox, the infamous UK forger, Eric Hebborn was greatly influenced by Cennino Cennini. The last book Hebborn wrote before he was murdered was The Art Forgers Handbook. Giuseppe Tambroni, ed. Trattato della Pittura, Cenninis Treatise of Painting - was translated by Mary Philadelphia Merrifield in 1844. Broecke, L. Cennino Cennini, Il libro dellarte, frezzato, F. Cennino Cennini, Il Libro dell’Arte, Vicenza, Neri Pozza. Thompson, D. V. Jr. Cennino d’Andrea Cennini da Colle di Val d’Elsa, the Craftsman’s Handbook ‘Il Libro dell’ Arte’ by Cennino d’A. Cennini, New Haven, Yale University Press, in the 1970s, Boskovits established a small oeuvre for Cennini, which has been confirmed by later scholarship. This includes frescoes in the church of San Lucchese in Poggibonsi, the two paintings pictured above were added to the corpus at a later date. Cennino Cennini - Pittore nonconformista, Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz,17, skaug, E. “Cenniniana, Notes on Cennino Cennini and his Treatise”, Arte Cristiana 754
2. Laurens Janszoon Coster – Laurens Janszoon Coster, or Laurens Jansz Koster, is the name of a purported inventor of a printing press from Haarlem. He allegedly invented printing simultaneously with Johannes Gutenberg and is regarded by some in the Netherlands as having invented printing first and he was an important citizen of Haarlem and held the position of sexton of Sint-Bavokerk. He is mentioned in documents as an assessor, and as the city treasurer. He probably perished in the plague that visited Haarlem in 1439-1440, there are no known works printed by Laurens. Hadrianus Junius, otherwise known as Adriaen de Jonghe, wrote this story around 1567 in his book Batavia, published only in 1588 and his story was echoed by his friend Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert, who started a printing business in Haarlem in 1560. Later Samuel Ampzing repeated the story in Lavre-Kranz Voor Lavrens Koster Van Haerlem and he proceeded to invent a new type of ink that didnt run, and he began a printing company based on his invention with a primitive typesetting arrangement using moveable type. Since the Haarlemmerhout was burned during a siege by the Kennemers in 1426 during the Hook and Cod wars, using wooden letters at first, he later used lead and tin movable type. There is support for the claim that Coster might be the inventor, in the anonymous Kölner Chronik of 1499, Ulrich Zell, a printing assistant from Cologne, who was then between the age of 60 and 69 years old, claimed that printing had started in Mainz. He based this statement on knowledge that Holland used to print Latin grammar texts, neither Coster nor Haarlem are mentioned in that chronicle. If true, this points to Johann Gutenberg about a decade after Costers death, however, the first securely dated book by Dutch printers is from 1471, long after Gutenberg. Either way, Coster is somewhat of a Haarlem local hero, between 1483 and 1486, Jacob Bellaert worked in Haarlem. His books were known for their artistic woodcuts, Haarlem, Gouda, and Delft were all cities with early printing presses. This was because these cities did not have powerful religious institutions or universities, bellart did not enjoy much success, however, because there were few buyers for his books in Nederduits. Most people who could afford a book wanted it to be in French, the earliest printed book from the Netherlands that has been dated with any certainty is from 1473. It is in the possession of the Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum and was printed in Utrecht, in 1740 Martin Holtzhey produced a medal to commemorate 300 years of printing and Costers invention. At the top of the scene, the heraldic shields of 4 men can be seen in addition to the coat of arms of Haarlem. In 1823 Haarlem celebrated the 400th anniversary of Costers invention with a monument in the Haarlemmerhout, the monument is decorated with Latin inscriptions and a memorial text in Dutch, with symbolic A decorations at the top. De Vries was supported by the professor and city council member David Jacob van Lennep, in the period after the Flanders Campaign which led to the French occupation of the Netherlands from 1794-1815, Haarlems economy was severely depressed and the city council sought a local hero
3. Jacques d'Arc – Jacques dArc was a farmer in the village of Domrémy in Lorraine, and the father of the French heroine and Roman Catholic saint Joan of Arc. Born at Ceffonds, he held the post of doyen in Domrémy, in 1405, he married Isabelle Romée, a native of the nearby village of Vouthon-Bas, and together they had five children, Jacquemin, Jean, Joan, Pierre, and Catherine. King Charles VII ennobled Jacques and Isabelles family on 29 December 1429 with an inheritable symbolic denomination, the Chamber of Accounts in France registered the familys designation to nobility on 20 January 1430. The grant permitted the family to change their surname to du Lys, during Joan of Arcs youth, Jacques and his wife owned about 50 acres of land—30 acres of pasture,10 acres of cropland, and 10 acres of forest. According to a family tradition, it is said that two months after his daughter died, Jacques fell ill of grief and died as a result. The family tradition is presumably wrong here since Joan died in 1431, Joan of Arc bibliography Name of Joan of Arc Du Lys coat of arms on Heraldica. org
4. Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg – He was called Fortunatus as he was able to secure Delmenhorst for his branch of the Oldenburgs. Dietrich was the father of Christian I of Denmark, an ancestor to the present-day Danish throne under Margarethe II of Denmark as well as the last Czar of imperial Russia. He is also the male line ancestor of Charles, Prince of Wales, Dietrich of Oldenburg was the son of Christian V of Oldenburg and his wife, Countess Agnes of Honstein. His grandfather, Conrad I of Oldenburg had left his lands divided between Dietrichs father and uncle, Conrad II, Dietrich’s father, Christian V, managed to gain the upper hand when Conrad IIs son Maurice II died in 1420. After this, most of the Oldenburg family patrimony was under the power of Dietrich’s branch, however, the house had several minor branches that had estates and claims, as was usual in any medieval fief. Dietrich of Oldenburg was the grandson of Ingeborg of Itzehoe, a Holstein princess who had married count Conrad I of Oldenburg. Since other legitimate descent from King Valdemar apparently was extinct by this time, Dietrich was considered the general of Kings Valdemar I of Sweden. Dietrich succeeded his father as head of the House of Oldenburg in 1423, all his legitimate children were born of the second wife. His second marriage strengthened this interest in Scandinavian monarchies, since Helvig was a descendant of King Eric V of Denmark, King Haakon V of Norway, at this time, all Scandinavia lived under the Kalmar Union erected by Queen Margarethe I of Denmark. In 1387 she had lost her own heir Olav IV of Norway, the new heirs now being Eric of Pomerania and his sister Catherine, Maurice V of Delmenhorst, when his elder brother became king, he was given the County of Delmenhorst. The third son got his name from usages of the mothers Holstein clan, adelheid, first married Ernest III, Count of Hohnstein and then, in 1474, Gerhard VI, Count of Mansfeld. ^ Alternate names include, Medieval Latin, Teudericus de Oldenburg Medieval Scandinavian, Didrik af Oldenborg German, Dietrich von Oldenburg Medieval French, Thierry dOldenbourg
5. William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas – William, 6th Earl of Douglas was a short-lived Scottish nobleman. He was the eldest son of Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglas and he married Lady Janet Lindsay, daughter of David, Earl of Crawford, and succeeded to the earldom on the death of his father, who had served as regent of James II. Following Archibald Douglass death, Sir William Crichton, Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar, together they conspired to break the power of the late Archibald Douglass family, and summoned William and his younger brother David to Edinburgh. The so-called Black Dinner which followed saw the two boys summarily beheaded on trumped up charges, over the protests of the young King James II, S. R. Crockett based his book, The Black Douglas on the death of William. His death at the Black Dinner served as the basis for The Red Wedding in George R. R. Martins A Song of Ice and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Douglas
6. Frances of Rome – Although the marriage had been arranged, it was a happy one, lasting for forty years, partly because Lorenzo admired his wife, and partly because he was frequently away at war. With her sister-in-law Vannozza, Frances visited the poor and took care of the sick, soon after her marriage, Frances fell seriously ill. Her husband called a man in who dabbled in magic, but Frances drove him away, when her mother-in-law died, Frances became mistress of the household. During a time of flood and famine, she turned part of the country estate into a hospital. During the wars between the pope in Rome and various anti-popes in the Western Schism of the Catholic Church, according to one story, their son, Battista, was to be delivered as a hostage to the commander of the Neapolitan troops. Obeying this order on the command of her director, Frances brought the boy to the Campidoglio. On the way, she stopped in the Church of the Aracoeli located there, when they arrived at the appointed site, the soldiers went to put her son on a horse to transport him off to captivity. The horse, however, refused to move, despite heavy whipping, the superstitious soldiers saw the hand of God in this and returned the boy to his mother. During a period of forced exile, much of Lorenzos property, in the course of one occupation of Rome by Neapolitan forces in the early part of the century, he was wounded so severely that he never fully recovered. Frances nursed him throughout the rest of his life, Frances experienced other sorrows in the course of her marriage with Lorenzo Ponziani. They lost two children to the plague, chaos ruled the city in that period of neglect by the pope and the ongoing warfare between him and the various forces competing for power on the Italian peninsula devastated the city. The city of Rome was largely in ruins—wolves were known to enter the streets, Frances again opened her home as a hospital and drove her wagon through the countryside to collect wood for fire and herbs for medicine. It is said she had the gift of healing, and more than sixty cases were attested to during the canonization proceedings, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, With her husbands consent St. Frances practiced continence, and advanced in a life of contemplation. Her visions often assumed the form of drama enacted for her by heavenly personages and she had the gift of miracles and ecstasy, as well as the bodily vision of her guardian angel, had revelations concerning Purgatory and Hell, and foretold the ending of the Western Schism. She could read the secrets of consciences and detect plots of diabolical origin and she was remarkable for her humility and detachment, her obedience and patience. In March 1433, she founded a monastery at Tor de Specchi, near the Campidoglio and this monastery remains the only house of the Institute. On July 4 of that year, they received the approval of Pope Eugene IV as a religious congregation of oblates with private religious vows. The community later known simply as the Oblates of St. Frances of Rome
7. Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg – Frederick was Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and Elector of Brandenburg as Frederick I. He was a son of Burgrave Frederick V of Nuremberg and Elisabeth of Meissen, Frederick entered early into the service of Austria and fought on the side of King Sigismund of Hungary. After he returned to Nuremberg, he divided the inheritance from his father with his brother John, who received Bayreuth, while Frederick kept Ansbach. At first he tried to mediate in the confusion between King Wenceslaus and the party of Rupert of the Palatinate, but he fought on the side of Rupert in September 1399 nonetheless. Frederick resumed his rule of Ansbach in 1409 and after heavy feuding, in 1410, the death of Rupert, King of the Germans, left the throne of the Holy Roman Empire vacant. Sigismund enlisted Fredericks help in obtaining the throne, at the time, Jobst of Moravia ruled Brandenburg and thus was one of the prince-electors who had the right to vote for the new king. However, Sigismund disputed Jobsts claim to Brandenburg and his right to vote in the imperial election, Sigismund claimed these rights for himself and designated Frederick to represent him as elector of Brandenburg in the imperial election of 20 September 1410. While Sigismund won this vote, Jobst of Moravia won the support of a majority of electors in an election in October 1410. Jobsts death under suspicious circumstances in January 1411 cleared the way for Sigismunds recovery of Brandenburg, in gratitude for Fredericks services, King Sigismund made him Oberster Hauptmann and Verwalter der Marken. With an iron hand Frederick fought against the nobility of the March of Brandenburg and, in the end. Frederick also became a member of the Parakeet Society and of the League of Constance, at the Council of Constance Sigismund granted Frederick the titles of Margrave and Prince-elector of Brandenburg. On 21 October 1415 the Brandenburg states meeting in a Landtag asked him to rule in Berlin, the king awarded him the formal enfeoffment of the margravate on 18 April 1417. As Frederick did not agree with the action of Sigismund against the Hussites. Constant feuding with the nobility of Brandenburg led Frederick to withdraw to his castle at Cadolzburg in 1425, after 1427 he organized the imperial war against the Hussites and subsequently provided substantial assistance in the mediation of the Compacta of Prague at the Council of Basel. Upon his death in 1440, Frederick was succeeded as elector by his second-eldest son and he married Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut, daughter of Duke Frederick of Bavaria-Landshut and Maddalena Visconti. Their children were, Elisabeth, married, in Konstanz 1418 Duke Louis II of Brieg and Legnica, John the Alchemist, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. Married in 1416 Princess Barbara of Saxe-Wittenberg Cecilia, married, in Berlin 30 May 1423 Duke William III of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Margaret, married, in 1423 to Duke Albert V, Duke of Mecklenburg, in Ingolstadt 20 July 1441 to Louis VIII, Duke of Bavaria, magdalene, married, in Tangermünde 3 July 1429 to Duke Frederick of Brunswick-Lüneburg
8. Alexander Seton, Lord Gordon – Alexander Seton, Lord Gordon was a Scottish baron, Lord of Parliament and progenitor of the Gordon Earls and Marquesses of Huntly. Alexander Seton was the son of Sir William Seton of Seton and his wife. Alexander Seton was one of those taken prisoner along with the future king, Elizabeth and Alexander wed in 1408. He acquired through his marriage to Elizabeth Gordon the lands of Gordon and Huntly, three years later Alexander fought at the Battle of Harlaw and was knighted before 1419. In 1421–2 he traveled to France and visited King James of Scotland, Alexander Seton was one of those who negotiated for the release of the Scottish monarch and was a hostage for his king, but was released after a year in England to return to his family in Scotland. In that same year Alexander and Elizabeth were granted a charter for half the lands of Culclarochy, about 1436 Alexander was created a Lord of Parliament as Alexander Seton, Lord Gordon. Elizabeth predeceased her husband dying at Strathbogie on 16 March 1439 while Alexander died in 1440–41, Alexander Seton married Elizabeth Gordon, daughter of Adam de Gordon, Lord of Gordon and Elizabeth Keith, daughter of William Keith, Marischal of Scotland. Was the ancestor of the Setons of Meldrum Henry Seton killed with his brother William at the Battle of Brechin Elizabeth Seton, married to Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross
9. Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn – Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn, a powerful Welsh marcher lord, succeeded to the title on his fathers death in July 1388. Reginald Grey was the eldest son of Reginald Grey, 2nd Baron Grey de Ruthyn and his paternal grandparents were Roger Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Ruthyn and Elizabeth de Hastings. His maternal grandparents were John Le Strange, 2nd Baron Strange of Blackmere and his youngest sister Ida de Grey, who married Sir John Cockayne, was an ancestress of Anne and Mary Boleyn. Sir John Grey, eldest surviving son, who predeceased his father and he married Constance Holland, the daughter of Elizabeth Plantagenet and John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter by whom he had issue. Margaret Grey, who married William Bonville, 1st Baron Bonville and these were the great-grandparents of wealthy heiress Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington who married Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, a descendant of Reginald Grey by his second marriage. Catherine Grey, married George Lucy, Baron Lucy, Eleanor Grey, who married Robert Poynings, 4th Baron Poynings, by whom she had three sons, Sir Richard Poynings, Sir Robert Poynings and Edward Poynings. Robert Grey, who married Eleanor Lowe, Constance Grey, who married Sir John Cressy. Elizabeth Grey, who married Sir William Calthorpe, by whom she had issue, Eleanor Grey, who married William Lucy, esquire, of Charlecote, Warwickshire. Since he had gained the right to bear arms from his claim through his paternal grandmother, he displayed Quarterly 1 &4, Grey de Ruthyn,2 &3. More important from a perspective, he gained title to certain properties of the estate. De Grey enjoyed the favour both of Richard II and Henry IV, and his military exploits were against the Welsh. Reynold de Grey was responsible for issuing and enforcing royal demands in the Northern March, such as calling the local nobility and gentry and their men to Royal and he was already in a long-running legal dispute with Glyndŵr, claiming a tranche of Glyndwrs land as his own. Under King Richard II the case had found in favour of Glyndŵr. Early in September 1400, Henry IV left Newcastle and traveled south to Northampton, there news reached the King of the quarrel that had broken out between Grey and Glyndwr. Grey was a member of the Kings Council, Glyndŵr responded in law early in 1400 but his case was not granted a hearing, instead it was asked of Glyndŵr that he grant Lord Grey further concessions. Such an act as refusal or failure to respond to an order of the King was deemed a treasonous act, Glyndŵrs estates were deemed forfeit until he could prove his loyalty or receive due punishment. On 16 September Owain and brothers had taken up arms and burned Greys property, on 24 September, Glyndwrs forces were encircled at Welshpool and defeated. De Grey now invited Glyndŵr to a meeting, but arrived with a large force, attempting to surround Glyndŵr
10. Itzcoatl – Itzcoatl was the fourth king of Tenochtitlan, ruling from 1427 to 1440, the period when the Mexica threw off the domination of the Tepanecs and laid the foundations for the eventual Aztec Empire. Itzcoatl was a son of tlàtoāni Acamapichtli and an unknown Tepanec woman from Azcapotzalco. He was elected as the king when his predecessor, his nephew Chimalpopoca, was killed by Maxtla of the nearby Tepanec āltepētl of Azcapotzalco, allying with Nezahualcoyotl of Texcoco, Itzcoatl went on to defeat Maxtla and end the Tepanec domination of central Mexico. After this victory, Itzcoatl, Nezahualcoyotl, and Totoquilhuaztli, king of Tlacopan, forged what would become known as the Aztec Triple Alliance, Itzcoatl next turned his attention to the chinampas districts on the south shores of Lakes Xochimilco and Chalco. Fresh water springs lining these shores had allowed the development of extensive raised gardens, or chinampas, set on the shallow lake floors. With this string of victories, Itzcoatl took the title Culhua teuctli, Lord of the Culhua while Totoquilhuaztli, king of Tlacopan, took the title Tepaneca teuctli, in 1439, Itzcoatl undertook a campaign outside the Valley of Mexico against Cuauhnahuac. According to the Florentine Codex, Itzcoatl ordered the burning of all historical codices because it was not wise that all the people should know the paintings, among other purposes, this allowed the Aztec state to develop a state-sanctioned history and mythos that venerated Huitzilopochtli. Itzcoatl also continued the building of Tenochtitlan, during his reign temples, roads, Itzcoatl established the religious and governmental hierarchy that was assumed by his nephew Moctezuma I upon his death in 1440. Itzcoatl was a son of Acamapichtli and half-brother of Huitzilihuitl and he was an uncle of Chimalpopoca and Moctezuma I. He married princess Huacaltzintli and had a son Tezozomoc and was a grandfather of Axayacatl, Tizoc, list of Tenochtitlan rulers History of the Aztecs Izcohuatl
11. Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland – Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, was the fourth of the four children of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford. In her widowhood, she was a landowner in the North of England. She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire and her surname probably reflects her fathers lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France, where she might also have been born. In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallée and they had two daughters before he died in about 1395. Along with her three brothers, Joan had been privately declared legitimate by their cousin Richard II of England in 1390 and her parents were married in Lincoln Cathedral in February 1396. Joan was already an adult when she was legitimized by the marriage of her mother and father with papal approval. Soon after the legitimation, on 3 February 1397, when she was eighteen, Joan married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, who had also been married once before. When Ralph de Neville died in 1425, his lands and titles should, by law of rights, have passed on to his grandson through his first marriage, another Ralph Neville. Instead, the bulk of his estate went to his wife, Joan Beaufort, even though the title Earl of Westmorland. Joan, with her blood and connections, was far too powerful to be called to account. Inevitably, when Joan died, the lands would be inherited by her own children, Joan died on 13 November 1440 at Howden in Yorkshire. Rather than be buried with her husband Ralph, she was entombed next to her mother in the magnificent sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. A1640 drawing of them survives, showing what the tombs looked like when they were intact, Henry then married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and their son became Henry VIII of England. Henry VIIIs sixth wife, Catherine Parr, was also a descendant of Joan through Joan and Ralphs eldest son, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, the Earl of Salisbury was father to Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker. In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallée and they had 2 children, Elizabeth Ferrers, 6th Baroness Boteler of Wem. She is buried at Black Friars Church, York and she married John de Greystoke, 4th Baron Greystoke, on 28 October 1407 in Greystoke Castle, Greystoke, Cumberland, and had issue. She married her stepbrother, Sir Ralph Neville, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland, had issue. com The Katherine Swynford Society Katherine Swynford
12. Henry de Lichton – Henry de Lichton was a medieval Scottish prelate and diplomat, who, serving as Bishop of Moray and Bishop of Aberdeen, became a significant patron of the church, a cathedral builder, and a writer. He also served King James I of Scotland as a diplomat in England, France, Lichton was born in the diocese of Brechin somewhere between 1369 and 1379 to Henry and Janet Lichton. Lichton followed a career simultaneously with his studies. The first notice of this comes in 1392, when he was vicar of Markinch in Fife. He was a canon of the diocese of Moray by 1394, after the death of Bishop John de Innes in 1414, the chapter of Elgin Cathedral met to elect a new bishop, and on 18 May Lichton was elected Bishop of Moray. Lichton travelled to Continental Europe to receive consecration, and was consecrated on 8 March 1415, at Valencia by Pope Benedict XIII. Lichton was probably a kinsman of Stewart, as he is described as a kinsman of Stewarts uncle, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, as Bishop of Aberdeen, Lichton was one of its greatest builders. Licthon also constructed a new chapel dedicated to St John the Evangelist and he also authored several legal and religious texts, though none have survived. Henry was frequently used as an ambassador by the king, James I of Scotland, on 9 June 1425, he and other prelates received a safe-conduct from King Henry VI of England enabling them to travel through England on their way to visit Pope Martin V at Rome. On 31 March 1434, Lichton is found in attendance at the Council of Basel, lichtons death cannot be precisely dated. He was buried in his new chapel, the one dedicated to St John the Evangelist. As a churchman, Lichton could never marry and did not, he did father a bastard, a daughter named Janet. Brown, Michael, James I, Cowan, Ian B, fasti Ecclesiae Scotinanae Medii Aevi ad annum 1638, 2nd Draft
13. Nund Rishi – He is considered to be founder of the Rishi order of saints which deeply influenced many great mystics like Hamza Makhdoom, Resh Mir Sàeb, Shamas Faqir till present day. Nund Rishi was born in a village called Qaimoh in Kulgam district and his fathers name was Sheikh Sala-ud-din his mother Sadra, was called Sadra Moji or Sadra Deddi. In Kashmir, Moji means mother and Deddi denotes elderly, Nur-ud-din was apprenticed to a couple of traders, one after the other. He felt disgusted with the ways of the world, and, deciding upon renunciation and it is said that he lived for twelve years in the wilderness. Hence, perhaps, kaimuh is given the derivation of kai-wan in rustic belief, the actual cave of contemplation is shown in kaimuh and is about 10 feet deep. In his last days, he is claimed to have sustained life on one cup of milk daily, the Sultan accompanied his bier to the grave. The burial prayers were led by a divine or Alim of the age, the tomb of Sheikh Nur-ud-din at Charari Sharief, a small town perched on a dry bare hill,20 miles south west of Srinagar, is visited by pilgrims to the present day. During his lifetime, he witnessed much change in the valley, various historical events helped to shape his mind in such a manner that he produced some works of philosophy, in his own manner of verses and poetry. Sheikh ul-Alam was deeply affected by events and this is apparent in his verses. The biggest event that occurred in the Sheikhs childhood was the coming of another Sufi preacher, Amir Kabir Mir Syed Hamadani, shah Hamadan, as he was popularly called, came to Kashmir in September 1372 CE,1379 CE and the third time in the year 1383 CE. Sheikh Nur-ud-din- appears to have married Zai Ded from Dadasara in Tral and her father Akber-u-Din and two brothers Kamal-u-din and Jamal-u-din are buried in Dadasara and had two sons and one daughter. On the death of the children, Zai Ded also renounced the world and she was buried at Kaimuh on her death. Sheikh Nur-ud-dins life has impressed the Kashmiri people, the Afghan governor, Ata Muhammad Khan, gave, as it were, expression to public sentiment when coins were struck by him in the name of Sheikh Nur-ud-din in 1223-25 A. H. He used his poetry as tool to spread the knowledge of absolute and his poetry is commonly known as Shrukhs. Tawhid, Risala, Maad, human lust are main subjects of his poetry and he vehemently criticized the so-called Mullas and other pseudo-scholars of Islam. One of his most famous and oft quoted couplets is meaning Food will last as long as forests last Lal Ded the Shaivite poetess of Kashmir was his contemporary and she had a great impact on his spiritual growth. He has in one of his poems prayed to God to grant him the level of spiritual achievement as God had bestowed on Lal Ded. His sayings are preserved in the Nur-nama, commonly available in Kashmir, the Nur-nama also gives the life of the saint
14. Gilles de Rais – Gilles de Montmorency-Laval, Baron de Rais, was a knight and lord from Brittany, Anjou and Poitou, a leader in the French army, and a companion-in-arms of Joan of Arc. He is best known for his reputation and later conviction as a serial killer of children. A member of the House of Montmorency-Laval, Gilles de Rais grew up under the tutelage of his maternal grandfather and he earned the favour of the Duke of Brittany and was admitted to the French court. In 1434/1435, he retired from life, depleted his wealth by staging an extravagant theatrical spectacle of his own composition. After 1432 Gilles was accused of engaging in a series of child murders, the killings came to an end in 1440, when a violent dispute with a clergyman led to an ecclesiastical investigation which brought the crimes to light, and attributed them to Gilles. At his trial the parents of missing children in the surrounding area, Gilles was condemned to death and hanged at Nantes on 26 October 1440. Gilles de Rais is believed to be the inspiration for the 1697 fairy tale Bluebeard by Charles Perrault, Gilles de Rais was probably born in late 1405 to Guy II de Montmorency-Laval and Marie de Craon in the family castle at Champtocé-sur-Loire. He was an intelligent child, speaking fluent Latin, illuminating manuscripts, following the deaths of his father and mother in 1415, Gilles and his younger brother René de La Suze were placed under the tutelage of Jean de Craon, their maternal grandfather. On 30 November 1420, however, Craon substantially increased his grandsons fortune by marrying him to Catherine de Thouars of Brittany, heiress of La Vendée and their only child Marie was born in 1429. In the decades following the Breton War of Succession, the faction led by Olivier de Blois, Count of Penthièvre. The Blois faction, who refused to relinquish their claim to rule over the Duchy of Brittany, had taken Duke John VI prisoner in violation of the Treaty of Guérande. The sixteen-year-old Gilles took the side of the House of Montfort, Rais was able to secure the Dukes release, and was rewarded with generous land grants which were converted to monetary gifts. In 1425, Rais was introduced to the court of Charles VII at Saumur, at the battle for the Château du Lude he took prisoner the English captain Blackburn. From 1427 to 1435, Rais served as a commander in the Royal Army, in 1429, he fought along with Joan of Arc in some of the campaigns waged against the English and their Burgundian allies. He was present with Joan when the Siege of Orléans ended, on the same day, he was officially created a Marshal of France. Following the Siege of Orléans, Rais was granted the right to add a border of the royal arms, the letters patent authorizing the display cited Gilles’ high and commendable services, the great perils and dangers he had confronted, and many other brave feats. In May 1431, Joan of Arc was burned at the stake, the play consisted of more than 20,000 lines of verse, requiring 140 speaking parts and 500 extras. Gilles was almost bankrupt at the time of the production and began selling property as early as 1432 to support his extravagant lifestyle, by March 1433, he had sold all his estates in Poitou and all his property in Maine
15. Giovanni Vitelleschi – Giovanni Maria Vitelleschi was an Italian cardinal and condottiere. Vitelleschi was born in Corneto, some kilometers north to Rome and he received a military education, which he refined as apostolic protonotary under Pope Martin V. The city was restored to obedience by Giovanni Vitelleschi in the following October, Vitelleschi abrogated all Roman rights and had the Roman senate declare him tertius pater patriae post Romulum. He commanded the troops against René of Anjou, who claimed the throne of Naples. In 1439 he was sent by the Pope to expel the rebel Corrado IV Trinci from Foligno, the nobleman was beheaded and the city restored to Papal authority. Vitelleschi had received his training as a youth in the banda of Tartaglia and refined his education under the tutelage of Pope Martin V. His success at putting down the republicans at Rome earned him the honorary title Patriarch of Aquileia. The correspondence was in cipher and full of circumlocutions but was interpreted as dangerous to the Pope himself, eugene IV determined to incarcerate the Patriarch. The patriarchs followers at first began to use threats, but being informed of the directions they were appeased. The castellan comforting him with words, he replied, that the great do not make each other prisoners to let them go again. He shortly afterward died in prison, Vitelleschi died in 1440 and succeeded by Ludovico Trevisan. The Vitelleschi clan retained considerable weight in Central Italy, vitelleschis nephew, Bartolomeo Vitelleschi, bishop of Corneto and Montefiascone, was made a cardinal 6 April 1444. Giovanni Vitelleschi commissioned Filippo Lippi to paint the famous Madonna and Child Enthroned for his palace in Tarquinia, the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Machiavelli, History of Florence, chapters xxxv and xxxvi
16. Henry Wardlaw – Henry Wardlaw was a Scottish church leader, Bishop of St Andrews and founder of the University of St Andrews. He was a son of II Laird of Wilton Henry Wardlaw who was b,1318, and a nephew of Walter Wardlaw, Bishop of Glasgow, who is said to have been made a cardinal by the antipope Clement VII in 1381. Educated at the universities of Oxford and of Paris, Henry Wardlaw returned to Scotland in about 1385 and he passed some time at Avignon, and it was while at the papal court that he was chosen Bishop of St Andrews, he was consecrated in 1403. Returning to Scotland, he acted as tutor to the future King James I of Scotland, having helped to bring about the release of James from his captivity in England, he crowned the king in May 1424, and afterwards acted as one of his principal advisers. He appears to have been an excellent bishop, although he tried to suppress the teaching of John Wyclif by burning its advocates, wardlaws chief claim to fame is the fact that he was the founder of the University of St Andrews, the first university in Scotland. He issued the charter of foundation in February 1411, and the privileges of the new seat of learning were confirmed by a bull of the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII, the university was to be an impregnable rampart of doctors and masters to resist heresy. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Wardlaw
17. John de Winchester – John de Winchester was a 15th-century English cleric who distinguished himself as an administrator and bishop in Scotland. Winchester was a student of law from 1418, graduating with a bachelorate in 1421. After entering Scotland, James was chaplain and secretary to the king, Winchester was out of Scotland in 1432, attending the Council of Basel on behalf of King James, he was also Clerk of the Register in this year. He was Dean of Aberdeen in 1431, and was provided as Treasurer of the diocese of Glasgow sometime in 1431, however, he did become Provost of the Collegiate Church of Lincluden between 1434 and 1436. Winchesters services to the king were rewarded further in November 1435 when, after the death of Columba de Dunbar and he was not, however, consecrated until 9 May 1437, a few months after the death of King James, his consecration took place at Cambuskenneth Abbey. After becoming bishop, Winchester continued in the service of Queen Joan through the minority of James II of Scotland, Bishop Winchester died April,1460, probably at Spynie Castle and was buried in St Marys Aisle within Elgin Cathedral. Fasti Ecclesiae Scotinanae Medii Aevi ad annum 1638, 2nd Draft