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Pages in category "1442 births"
The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1442 births.|
The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Edward IV of England – Edward IV was the King of England from 4 March 1461 until 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England, before becoming king, he was 4th Duke of York, 7th Earl of March, 5th Earl of Cambridge and 9th Earl of Ulster. He was also the 65th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Edward of York was born at Rouen in France, the second son of Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. He was the eldest of the four sons who survived to adulthood and he bore the title Earl of March before his fathers death and his accession to the throne. Edwards father Richard, Duke of York, had been heir to King Henry VI until the birth of Henrys son Edward in 1453, Richard carried on a factional struggle with the kings Beaufort relatives. He established a dominant position after his victory at the First Battle of St Albans in 1455, in which his chief rival Edmund Beaufort, however, Henrys Queen, Margaret of Anjou, rebuilt a powerful faction to oppose the Yorkists over the following years. The Yorkist leaders fled from England after the collapse of their army in the confrontation at Ludford Bridge, the Duke of York took refuge in Ireland, while Edward went with the Nevilles to Calais where Warwick was governor. In 1460 Edward landed in Kent with Salisbury, Warwick and Salisburys brother William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, raised an army and this left Edward, now Duke of York, at the head of the Yorkist faction. He defeated a Lancastrian army at Mortimers Cross in Herefordshire on 2–3 February 1461 and he then united his forces with those of Warwick, whom Margarets army had defeated at the Second Battle of St Albans, during which Henry VI had been rescued by his supporters. Edwards father had restricted his ambitions to becoming Henrys heir, and he then advanced against the Lancastrians, having his life saved on the battlefield by the Welsh Knight Sir David Ap Mathew. He defeated the Lancastrian army in the exceptionally bloody Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on 29 March 1461, Edward had effectively broken the military strength of the Lancastrians, and he returned to London for his coronation. King Edward IV named Sir David Ap Mathew Standard Bearer of England, Lancastrian resistance continued in the north, but posed no serious threat to the new regime and was finally extinguished by Warwicks brother John Neville in the Battle of Hexham in 1464. Henry VI had escaped into the Pennines, where he spent a year in hiding, Queen Margaret fled abroad with the young Prince Edward and many of their leading supporters. Even at the age of nineteen, Edward exhibited remarkable military acumen and he also had a notable physique and was described as handsome and affable. His height is estimated at 6 feet 4.5 inches, making him the tallest among all English, Scottish, most of Englands leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, therefore, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, however, the king increasingly became estranged from their leader the Earl of Warwick, due primarily to his marriage. Warwick, acting on Edwards behalf, made arrangements with King Louis XI of France for Edward to marry either Louis daughter Anne or his sister-in-law Bona of Savoy. He was humiliated and enraged to discover that, while he was negotiating, Edward had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, Edwards marriage to Elizabeth Woodville has been criticised as an impulsive action that did not add anything to the security of England or the York dynasty
2. Wilhelm von Bibra – Wilhelm von Bibra was a Papal Emissary. Wilhelm functioned as a Papal Emissary for both the archbishop of Cologne and Kaiser Friedrich, as an emissary, he traveled to Rome three times,1483,1487, and 1490. By July 8,1490, Wilhelm was referred to as miles auratus, in 1490, Wilhelm became ill when returning from Rome as an emissary of the emperor Frederick III. He was a guest at the Palazzo of the countly Pellegrini family when he died August 28,1490, wilhelms tomb stone is still to be seen in the Pellegrini Chapel of the Santa Anastasia in Verona. Originally, it was on the floor and was moved to the wall in summer of 1804, gulielmus de Bibra Eques aureus, Ducatu Franciae Orientalis Oriundus, Sereniss. D. Frederici III◦ Caesoris victiss, et Massimiliani eius nati, incliti Romanorum Regis Consiliar ad S. D. N, vIII◦ Orator et Nuntius, atque Reverendiss. D. Hermani Archiepiscopi Coloniensis Principis Electoris Magister Curiae et consiliarius completa legatione ex Ro, obiit in hac inclita Urbe Veronae die. In piedi ancora queste parole, Peregrinorum familia pietatis gratia nunc mihi soli in hoc sacello tu mulum concessit An, jahrgang 1961, Universitaetsdruckerei H. Stuertz AG. VON BIBRA, Geschicte der Familie der Freiherrn von Bibra,1870, Wilhelm Freiherr von Bibra,1882, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf, P. 251-269. net/WilhelmvonBibra
3. Katherine Neville, Baroness Hastings – Katherine Neville, Baroness Hastings, was a noblewoman and a member of the powerful Neville family of northern England. She was one of the six daughters of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Katherines second husband was William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, a powerful noble who was beheaded in 1483 on the order of King Richard III, who placed Katherine directly under his protection. Lady Katherine Neville was born in 1442, one of the ten children and her mother was the only child and heiress of Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury by his first wife Lady Eleanor Holland. Katherines eldest brother was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, 6th Earl of Salisbury and he was the most important and influential peer in the realm, and one of the principal protagonists in the Wars of the Roses. Lady Katherine married her first husband, William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington of Aldingham in 1458, the Bonvilles were, like her own family, staunch adherents of the House of York. Both her father and first cousin, Edmund, Earl of Rutland were also executed after the battle, queen Margaret had not been present at Wakefield as she was in Scotland at the time raising support for the Lancastrian cause. Katherine was left a widow at the age of eighteen, the proclamation was followed by the decisive Yorkist victory on 29 March at the Battle of Towton in which Edward had served as commander of the Yorkist army and crushingly defeated the Lancastrians. In addition to her own dowry, Katherine brought the wardship of her daughter Cecily to her new husband. Together William Hastings and Katherine had six children, Richard Hastings William Hastings Sir Edward Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings, married Mary Hungerford, Baroness Botreaux, by whom he had issue. King Edward died on 9 April 1483, his son Edward V and kingdom were placed under the guardianship of his youngest brother Richard and it was Katherines husband William Hastings who advised Richard to take the young King Edward V into protective custody immediately following the death of Edward IV. It was about time that Katherines husband became the lover of Jane Shore. The latter had married her eldest daughter, Cecily in 1474, Hastings had confided to his mistress his concern that his considerable power and influence was on the wane under the protectorate of Richard. She encouraged him to enter into a conspiracy with the Woodville family against the Lord Protector, Richard, upon discovering Hastings treachery ordered his immediate execution, which took place on 13 June 1483 at the Tower of London. Richard assured Katherine that Hastings would never be attainted, and that she would be defended against any attempt by intimidation or fraud to deprive her of her rights and he was crowned king on 6 July. In order for Katherine to retain these properties, she was compelled to pay Lovell the sum of 200 marks in cash, Richard made no move to curtail the avarice of his friend, who had assumed a powerful role in the government during the Kings brief reign. King Richard was killed at the Battle of Bosworth on 22 August 1485, Katherines eldest surviving son, Edward fought on the side of King Henry against Lovell at the Battle of Stoke in June 1487. This battle saw the defeat of the House of York and Lovell, as one of the Yorkists chief leaders, afterwards fled to Scotland, however. She herself died on a date in early 1504 having left a will dated 22 November 1503, arranging her burial within the Lady Chapel at the parish church of Ashby de la Zouche
4. John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk – Sometime before February 1458, John married Elizabeth, the second surviving daughter of Richard of York and Cecily Neville. She was the sister of Edward IV and Richard III, John was thus brother-in-law of two Kings of England. Richard, Duke of York had been an enemy of Johns father. The Dukedom of Suffolk had been forfeited when Johns father was executed, the title was restored by Edward IV, and John was created Duke of Suffolk by Letters Patent on 23 March 1463. He was Constable of Wallingford Castle and held the Honour of Wallingford, in 1472 he was made a Knight of the Garter and appointed High Steward of Oxford University. He was also sometime Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and he submitted to Henry VII after Bosworth Field. He served Henry loyally, even three of his sons later rebelled. He was buried at Wingfield, Suffolk and he had eleven known children, all by Elizabeth, John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln. He was designated heir to his maternal uncle Richard III, married to Lady Margaret FitzAlan and had a son Edward de la Pole, who died young. Rebelled against Henry VII and was killed at the Battle of Stoke Field, married to Henry Lovel, 8th Baron Morley, without issue. Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, yorkist pretender in succession to his brother John. Beheaded by order of Henry VIII, married to William Stourton, 5th Baron Stourton, without issue. Sir William de la Pole, knight, of Wingfield Castle, William was kept in the Tower of London, his date of death is generally regarded as being during late 1539, either October or November. Yorkist pretender in succession to Edmund, killed at the Battle of Pavia. Burkes General Armorie, London,1844, gives the Dukes arms as, a fesse between three leopards or. Burke, John, and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, burke, Sir Bernard, Ulster King of Arms, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire, London,1883, p.441. Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md, richardson, Douglas, Magna Carta Ancestry, Baltimore, Md
5. Benedetto da Maiano – Benedetto da Maiano was an Italian sculptor of the early Renaissance. Born in the village of Maiano, he started his career as companion of his brother, when he reached the age of thirty he started training under the sculptor Antonio Rossellino. There he learned to work with marble and eventually became more famous than Rossellino, during his early life he specialised in wood-mosaic. His early attributed works include a dedicated to San Savino for the cathedral of Faenza. Although he was prolific in sculpting religious subjects, he also carved some portraits of important Florentines, for instance, in 1474. In 1475, he worked with his brother Giuliano on the Collegiata church in San Gimignano, benedettos most important contribution was the carved altar in the chapel of Santa Fina. In 1480, he made the framework of the doorway of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, the marble pulpit in the Santa Croce in Florence is considered his masterpiece. On the pulpit are scenes from the life of St. Francis of Assisi, also in 1480, with his brother Giuliano, he built and made the sculptures for the little oratory of the Madonna dellOlivo, outside Prato. The adolescent St. John of the Bargello is ascribed to the year 1481, in 1489 Benedetto designed the Strozzi Palace in Florence which still stands. It is believed he went to Naples in 1490, and there finished the works begun by Rossellino in the SantAnna church and he also executed various sculptures in Naples, among them an Annunciation at the church of Monte Oliveto. He died in Florence at the age of 55, master of the Marble Madonnas This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Herbermann, Charles, ed. Benedetto da Majano
6. Erhard Ratdolt – Erhard Ratdolt was an early German printer from Augsburg. He was active as a printer in Venice from 1476 to 1486, from 1475 to 1478 he was in partnership with two other German printers. The first book the partnership produced was the Calendarium, written and previously published by Regiomontanus, Ratdolt is also famous for having produced the first known printers type specimen book. His innovations of layout and typography, mixing type and woodcuts, have subsequently been much admired and his graphic choices and technical solutions influenced also those of William Morris
7. John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford – He was the principal commander of King Henry VIIs army at the Battle of Bosworth, and again led Henrys troops to victory at the Battle of Stoke two years later. He became one of the men of the Kings regime. John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, was born on 8 September 1442, the son of John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, and his wife Elizabeth Howard. The 12th Earl was beheaded on Tower Hill on 26 February 1462 and his son Aubrey had been beheaded on the same scaffold six days earlier. Pursuing a conciliatory policy with Lancastrian families, King Edward allowed John de Vere to succeed his father, in November 1468, however, he was committed to the Tower, and confessed to plotting with the Lancastrians against the King. He was likely released before 7 January 1469, and received a pardon on 5 April of that year. However, by early July 1469 Oxford had joined the discontented Yorkists led by his brother-in-law, the Earl of Warwick, and King Edwards brother and he fled overseas in the following spring to the court of King Henry VIs wife, Margaret of Anjou. In September 1470 he joined Warwick and Clarence in the invasion of England which restored Henry VI to the throne, and on 13 October bore the Sword of State before Henry in a procession to St Pauls. He was appointed Lord High Constable of England, and as such on 15 October tried and condemned for treason the same Earl of Worcester who had in 1462 condemned Oxfords own father and brother. In March 1471, he prevented Edward IVs army from landing in Norfolk, however this early success in the battle turned to disaster when Oxfords forces began pillaging. Whereupon Oxford and his men cried Treasoune, after this defeat Oxford escaped to Scotland with 40 men, accompanied by his two brothers, George and Thomas Vere, and the Viscount Beaumont. From there he went to France, where he collected ships, although he was not attainted after leaving England in 1471, his lands were confiscated, and his wife, Margaret, is said to have been subjected to great financial hardship. On 28 May 1473, Oxford attempted a landing at St Osyth in Essex. On 30 September 1473, he seized St Michaels Mount in Cornwall, after most of his men had deserted and he had been wounded in the face with an arrow, Oxford was eventually compelled to surrender on 15 February 1474, along with his two brothers and Beaumont. Oxford was imprisoned at Hammes Castle near Calais, and was attainted early in 1475, at this time his mother, the 12th Earls widow, was forced to surrender her property to the Duke of Gloucester. In 1478 Oxford scaled the walls of Hammes and leapt into the moat and it is said that Richmond was ravished with joy incredible at this event. Oxford immediately returned to Hammes to bring the garrison there to join Richmond, to celebrate the Tudor victory at Bosworth, Oxford commissioned the building of the church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Lavenham. According to Gunn, Oxford was immediately recognized as one of the men of Henry VIIs regime
8. Urbano Bolzanio – It is not inappropriate, however, since the Delle Fosse family was originally from Bolzano, a village near Belluno. Despite the claims of Pierio Valeriano, the Dalle Fosse family was not noble, in 1450, when he was eight years old, Urbano appears as a novice at the Conventual Franciscan convent of San Pietro di Belluno. In 1465 he was still a student at the monastery, but in 1466 he was in Treviso, in 1472 he spent time in the convent of San Nicolò della Lattuga in Venice, probably in order to further his studies in philosophy and dialectic. Wishing to study languages and learn about eastern cizilizations, he travelled by foot to Thrace, Greece, Syria, Arabia, Palestine. His account of these travels is lost, but is referenced by many surviving works, returning to Italy, he climbed Mount Etna twice to study the crater, which Pietro Bembo references in his dialogue De Aetna. He was follower of Constantine Lascaris at Messina, friend of Pietro Bembo, Urbano was well integrated into the cultural life of Venice, where he was soon joined by his nephew Pietro Valeriano. In 1484 Urbano moved to Florence at the invitation of Lorenzo de Medici who appointed him tutor of his son Giovanni, when Giovanni became a cardinal and was transferred to Pisa, Urbano returned to Venice, where he taught Greek from 1489 to 1497. In 1502, in the company of Andrea Gritti, Urbano travelled to Constantinople, the last journey of which we have record is a trip to Rome in 1515 to visit his former pupil, Pope Leo X. He died in 1525 aged 81 years, as recorded by Pierio Valeriano on his tombstone in the wall of the Basilica Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice. Bolzanios most important work is a grammar of Ancient Greek published for the ciricle of Aldo Manuzio, in this work, originally written entirely in Latin, he describes the nouns, verbs and other parts of speech. It was extraordinarily successful, enjoying 23 editions in only a few years, lucia Gualdo Rosa, «DALLE FOSSE, Urbano», in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Volume 32, Roma, Istituto dellEnciclopedia Italiana,1986. Ticozzi Stefano, Storia dei letterati ed artisti del dipartimento della Piave, Belluno, presso FrancescAntonio Tissi,1813, Lib
9. Vannozza dei Cattanei – Vannozza dei Cattanei was an Italian woman who was one of the many mistresses of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, later to become Pope Alexander VI. Among them, she was the one whose relationship with him lasted the longest, born in 1442, most likely in Mantua, Vannozza moved to Rome where she was landlady of several inns, at first in the Borgo, then in Campo de Fiori. Before becoming Borgias mistress, she allegedly had a relationship with Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, Vannozzas relationship with Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia began sometime between 1466 and 1472. She is believed to have married Domenico dArignano, an officer of the Church, perhaps in 1473 and she bore four children whom Borgia openly acknowledged as his, Cesare Giovanni, 2nd Duke of Gandia Lucrezia Gioffre Domenico died before Giovanni was born. In 1480 Borgia arranged Vannozzas marriage to Giorgio di Croce, for whom he had procured a position as apostolic secretary, during the marriage to Giorgio, Vannozza had a son, Ottavio, who did not live long. In 1486 Giorgio died and Vannozza married Carlo Canale, before his elevation to the papacy, Borgias passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life. However, Borgias love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever, it proved, indeed and he lavished vast sums on them and lauded them with every honour. Vannozza died in 1518 and was buried in the Basilica of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome, arnold Mathew wrote, Vannozza breathed her last at Rome, November 26,1518, at the age of seventy-six. She was buried with conspicuous honours almost like a Cardinal in the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo, near her son, an official character was imparted to the ceremony by the presence of the papal Court. Pope Leo X in this way recognised Vannozza either as the widow of Alexander VI or as the mother of the Duchess of Ferrara, in the 2006 film The Conclave, she is played by Nora Tschirner. In Showtimes 2011 series The Borgias, she is played by Joanne Whalley, in Borgia, the French/German production of the same year created by Tom Fontana, she is played by Assumpta Serna. Los Borgia, Juan Antonio Cebrián, Temas de Hoy,2006