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Pages in category "1444 births"
The following 32 pages are in this category, out of 32 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1444 births.|
The following 32 pages are in this category, out of 32 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Charlotte, Queen of Cyprus – Charlotte, was Queen of Cyprus and Princess of Antioch, as well as titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia. She was the eldest and only surviving daughter of King John II of Cyprus, at the age of 14, she succeeded to the Cypriot throne upon the death of her father in 1458. Her illegitimate half-brother, James challenged her right to the crown, with the support of the Egyptians, he forced her to flee the island in 1463, and he was later crowned king. She made an attempt to regain her throne, but was unsuccessful. Charlotte was born in Nicosia on 28 June 1444, the eldest and only surviving daughter of King John II of Cyprus and Helena Palaiologina. Her younger sister Cleopha died in June 1448, shortly before Charlottes fourth birthday, leaving her the sole heir to the Cypriot throne. She had an illegitimate half-brother, James, born to her fathers Greek mistress Marietta de Patras and she was raised in the Byzantine tradition and spoke fluent Greek, which she learned from her mother. She could write French, Italian, and possibly Latin, due to her outspoken manner, Pope Pius II called her the Greek torrent. Charlotte succeeded as Princess of Antioch in 1456 the same year she married her first husband and she was widowed in 1457, and on 28 July 1458 her father died. At the age of fourteen Charlotte became Queen of Cyprus and was crowned at St. Sophia Cathedral on 7 October 1458 and she had a tenuous hold on the kingdom as her right to the throne was constantly being challenged by her illegitimate half-brother James. On 7 October 1459, she married her husband, Louis of Savoy. This marriage had been arranged by the Genoese who promised their assistance in retaining her crown against the claims by James, in 1460 he managed to capture Famagusta and Nicosia with aid from the Egyptian sultanate of Sayf ad-Din Inal. After being blockaded in the castle of Kyrenia for three years, she and Louis fled to Rome in 1463, whereupon her half-brother was crowned King James II and she took up residence at the Convertendi Palace in Trastevere. She later formed a court on the Greek island of Rhodes. She made a military attempt to regain her throne with papal support. She also intrigued against the Regent of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, in November 1483 she was received by Pope Sixtus IV in the Vatican Palace and was seated in a chair of the same height and dignity as the pope. In Rome, she lived in a house in Piazza Scossacavalli in Borgo which had already hosted queen Catherine of Bosnia and she died childless on 16 July 1487, shortly after her forty-third birthday. She had adopted as her son, Alfonso of Aragon, the child of King Ferdinand II of Naples
2. Donato Bramante – Donato Bramante, born as Donato di Pascuccio dAntonio and also known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect. He introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome and his Tempietto marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome when Pope Julius II appointed him to build a sanctuary over the spot where Peter was allegedly crucified. Bramante was born under the name Donato dAugnolo, Donato di Pascuccio dAntonio, here, in 1467, Luciano Laurana was adding to the Palazzo Ducale an arcaded courtyard and other Renaissance features to Federico da Montefeltros ducal palace. Around 1474, Bramante moved to Milan, a city with a deep Gothic architectural tradition, and built several churches in the new Antique style. The Duke, Ludovico Sforza, made him virtually his court architect, beginning in 1476, space was limited, and Bramante made a theatrical apse in bas-relief, combining the painterly arts of perspective with Roman details. There is a sacristy, surmounted by a dome. In Milan, Bramante also built the tribune of Santa Maria delle Grazie, other works include the Cloisters of SantAmbrogio, Milan. However, in 1499, with his Sforza patron driven from Milan by an invading French army, Bramante made his way to Rome, in Rome, he was soon recognized by Cardinal Della Rovere, shortly to become Pope Julius II. Despite its small scale, the construction has all the proportions and symmetry of Classical structures, surrounded by slender Doric columns. According to an engraving by Sebastiano Serlio, Bramante planned to set it within a colonnaded courtyard. In November 1503, Julius engaged Bramante for the construction of the grandest European architectural commission of the 16th century, the cornerstone of the first of the great piers of the crossing was laid with ceremony on 17 April 1506. Very few drawings by Bramante survive, though some by his assistants do, Bramantes plan envisaged four great chapels filling the corner spaces between the equal transepts, each one capped with a smaller dome surrounding the great dome over the crossing. So Bramantes original plan was much more Romano-Byzantine in its forms than the basilica that was actually built. Bramante also worked on other commissions. Among his earliest works in Rome, before the Basilicas construction was under way, is the cloister of Santa Maria della Pace near Piazza Navona, Santa Maria presso San Satiro, Milan, ca. Palazzo Caprini, Rome, started around 1510 Leon Battista Alberti Giorgio Vasari Davies, Paul, Bramante, Donato, The Dictionary of Art, Vol. IV, New York, Grove, pp. 642–653, ISBN9781884446009. Bramante, Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Vol. IV, New York, Charles Scribners Sons,1878, Bramante, Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. Vol. IV, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,1911, p.418. Donato Bramante Source Information, Pictures & Documentaries about Donato
3. Pazzi – The Pazzi were a noble Florentine family of the Mediaeval and Renaissance periods. In 1342 they gave up their titles of nobility so that members could be elected to public office. Their main trade during the 15th century was banking.131 The historical basis of this legend has been in question since the work of Luigi Passerini Orsini de Rilli in the mid-nineteenth century. Andrea de Pazzi was the patron of the chapter-house for the Franciscan community at the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence and commissioned construction of the Pazzi Chapel. His son Jacopo de Pazzi became head of the family in 1464.131 Guglielmo de Pazzi married Bianca de Medici, sister of Lorenzo de Medici, francesco de Pazzi was one of the instigators of the Pazzi Conspiracy in 1477–78. He, Jacopo de Pazzi and Jacopos brother Renato de Pazzi were executed after the plot failed.141 Maria Maddalena de Pazzi was a Carmelite nun and mystic, the Pazzi Chapel was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi. Construction began in 1442 in a cloister of the Franciscan church of Santa Croce, above its traditionally rusticated ground floor of the yellow-ochre sandstone, it had a then-novel stuccoed first and second floor, with delicate designs in the windows influenced by Brunelleschi. The central court is surrounded on three sides by round-headed arcading, with bosses in the spandrels. Palazzo Pazzi Ammannati, a palace in the Borgo degli Albizi. It houses a section of the Museum of Natural History of Florence, the façade is attributed to Bartolomeo Ammannati.131 Sixtus gave tacit support to the conspirators.254 The assassination attempt was made during mass in the Duomo of Florence on 26 April 1478. He was tortured, then hanged from the Palazzo della Signoria next to the corpse of Salviati. He was buried at Santa Croce, but the body was dug up and it was then dragged through the streets and propped up at the door of Palazzo Pazzi, where the rotting head was mockingly used as a door-knocker. Their name and their coat of arms were perpetually suppressed, the name was erased from public registers, and all buildings and streets carrying it were renamed. Their shield with its dolphins was obliterated, the conspiracy is central to Ruggero Leoncavallos opera I Medici, first performed on 9 November 1893
4. Antonio de Ferraris – Antonio de Ferraris, also known by his epithet Galateo, was an Italian scholar, academic, doctor and humanist. Antonius De Ferraris was born in 1444 in Galatone, located in Salento, both his great-grandfather and grandfather were priests in the Eastern Orthodox Church and were fluent in both Greek and Latin literature. His father was also fluent in both Greek and Latin and his family was part of the historical Greek community of Southern Italy. He used the nickname in almost every document, and the name was inherited by his children and grandchildren. Here he learned Greek and Latin texts, and hereinafter guidelines on philosophical and medical matters which came to characterize his cultural journey. At sixteen he went to Naples on Etiquette for the first time, in order to pursue studies in medicine and philosophy, on August 3,1474 Galateus received his “Privilegium artibus et medicine” under the guidance of Girolamo Castelli in the Studio of Ferrara. Following this Galateus alternated his residence more or less between Naples, Gallipoli and Lecce, in 1490 he once again returned to Naples at the invitation of King Ferdinand of Aragon, who offered him a job as a court doctor, there he associated with Giovanni Pontano. It was during this time that the French invaded under king Charles VIII, in 1510 Galateus visited Pope Julius II, in Rome with a manuscript copy of the donation Constantine extracted from the library of San Nicola di Casole in Otranto. Galateus returned to Salento for the time where he spent his last years between Gallipoli and Lecce. And in Lecce, in his home indicated epigraph “Apollini Aesculapio et Musis”, antonio died in Lecce in his native province of Otranto on November 12,1517. The most important of de Ferraris works is the De situ Japigiae, reprinted in Naples in 1624, it amended some critical steps toward the Catholic Church hierarchy. Other editions and translations into various languages followed, byzantine scholars in Renaissance Griko language
5. Galeazzo Maria Sforza – Galeazzo Maria Sforza was the fifth Duke of Milan from 1466 until his death. He was famous for being lustful, cruel and tyrannical and he was born to Francesco Sforza, a popular condottiero and ally of Cosimo de Medici who would gain the Duchy of Milan in 1450, and Bianca Maria Visconti. He married into the Gonzaga family, on the death of his first wife Dorotea Gonzaga, Galeazzo Maria Sforza was born in Fermo, near the familys castle of Girifalco, the first son of Francesco Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti. At the death of his father, Galeazzo was in France at the head of an expedition to help King Louis XI of France against Charles I of Burgundy. Called back home by his mother, Galeazzo returned to Italy by a trip under a false name. The false identity was necessary as he had to pass by the territories of the enemy, the Duke of Savoy. He entered Milan on 20 March, acclaimed by the populace, in his first years Galeazzo and his mother ruled jointly, but later his ruthless character pushed him to oust Bianca Maria from Milan. Sforza was famous as a patron of music, under his direction, financial backing and encouragement, his chapel grew into one of the most famous and historically significant musical ensembles in Europe. Composers from the north, especially the Franco-Flemish composers from the present-day Low Countries, came to sing in his chapel and write masses, motets, some of the figures associated with the Sforza chapel include Alexander Agricola, Johannes Martini, Loyset Compère, and Gaspar van Weerbeke. However, most of the singers at the Sforza chapel fled after Galeazzos murder and took positions elsewhere, as a result, Galeazzo Sforza is also known to have had a cruel streak. He was a womanizer who often passed his women on to his courtiers once he was tired of them. Sforza once had a poacher executed by forcing him to swallow an entire hare and he also had a priest who predicted a short reign for Sforza punished by being starved to death. This made him enemies in Milan. There were three principal assassins involved in Sforzas death, Carlo Visconti, Gerolamo Olgiati and Giovanni Andrea Lampugnani, Lampugnani, descended from Milanese nobility, is recognized as the leader of the conspiracy. His motives were based primarily on a dispute, in which Galeazzo had failed to intervene in a matter which saw the Lampugnani family lose considerable properties. Visconti and Olgiati also bore the duke enmity - Olgiati was a Republican idealist, supported by about thirty friends, the three men waited in the church for the duke to arrive for mass. When Galeazzo Sforza arrived, Lampugnani knelt before him, after words were exchanged, Lampugnani rose suddenly and stabbed Sforza in the groin. Olgiati and Visconti soon joined in, as did a servant of Lampugnanis, Sforza was dead within a matter of seconds
6. John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk – John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk, KG, known as 1st Earl of Surrey between 1451 and 1461, was the only son of John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk and Eleanor Bourchier. His maternal grandparents were William Bourchier, Count of Eu and Anne of Gloucester, in 1451 the earldom of Surrey was revived for him. Mowbray was descended from a sister of the last earl of the previous creation, in 1461 he succeeded his father as 4th Duke of Norfolk and hereditary Earl Marshal. He continued his fathers efforts to possess Caister Castle, finally taking it in September 1469 after a siege, under pressure from the Church, Norfolk did at least grant the other defenders a safe conduct. In 1476, within a day of Norfolks death, the Paston family took Caister back again, Norfolk was invested as a Knight of the Garter in 1472. He died very suddenly, having apparently been in good health the day before and he married Elizabeth Talbot, daughter of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and his second wife Lady Margaret Beauchamp. They had only one child, Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk, Anne, who was only 3 years old when her father died, inherited his extensive lands and wealth. The dukedom would be recreated in 1481 and again in 1483, the 1483 creation survives to the present day. Dukes of Norfolk family tree Tait, James, John Mowbray, third Duke of Norfolk
7. Pietro Delfino – Cam. was an Italian Camaldolese monk, patristic scholar, theologian, abbot, and Superior General of his religious Order. Pietro Delfin was a patrician of Venice, member of the famous Delfin family, Pietro entered the Camaldolese Monastery of St. Michael, which was located on the island of Murano in the Venetian Lagoon. In 1479, he was elected abbot of the same community, the following year he was made prior general of the Order, based at Camaldoli in the region of Arezzo. He held that office until the year 1513 when he resigned in favour of Paul Giustiniani, Delfin was the forty-sixth prior general from St. Romuald, the founder of the Camaldolese, and he was the last elected for life--the office after him being held for three years only. From 1481 to 1508, Delfin was proposed to serve as bishop of Venice in five different occasions, in four different occasions he was also proposed to serve as Patriarch of Aquilea, but refused again. He was also presented with the cardinalate in two occasions, but respectfully declined to the Pope to continue serving the camaldolese order, Delfin was one of the main oppossers to Savonarola, but still promoted the reform inside the Catholic Churh which would lead to the Council of Trento. A collection of his Latin letters was published at Venice in 1524, several others that had been omitted in the Venetian editions were included later in Martènes Veterum Scriptorum amplissima collectio. The Apothegmata Patrum and the Dialogues on Savonarola are still unedited, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Herbermann, Charles, ed. Pietro Delfino. The entry cites, MARTENE, Veterum Scriptorum et monumentorum ecclesiasticorum et dogmaticorum amplissima collectio, III,915
8. Diego Deza – Diego de Deza was a theologian and inquisitor of Spain. He was one of the notable figures in the Spanish Inquisition. Deza was born in Toro, Zamora and entered the Dominican Order at a young age. He held a number of posts, and also tutored Prince Juan de Aragón y Castilla, also known as John, Prince of Asturias. He was fundamental in granting navigator Christopher Columbus access to Queen Isabella, after first serving as Bishop of Zamora, Bishop of Salamanca, Bishop of Jaén, and Bishop of Palencia, he became Archbishop of Seville in 1505. Deza was commissioned as Grand Inquisitor for Castile, León, on 1 September of the following year, his authority was expanded to cover the whole of Spain. Deza was the successor to Tomás de Torquemada, perhaps the most famous of all inquisitors, like Torquemada, Deza had a particular dislike of conversos — Jews or Muslims who had converted to Christianity but who were often accused of secretly retaining their original faith. It is reported shortly after his arrival to Palencia, he managed, on 25 April 1500. As the 25 April was Saint Marcus day according to the calendar and he was commissioned as Archbishop of Seville on 30 October 1504. Arriving in Seville in October 1505, just one year after his appointment, with the help of Martín de Ullate, numerous Sevillian Muslims and Jews were thus converted no later than the end of 1505. He also held the inquisitorial enquiries on the new Archbishopric of Granada, like Torquemada, Deza was accused of being overzealous in his work, and of showing excessive cruelty – his reputation was sufficient that in 1507, the Pope was forced to publicly request moderation. Accusations were also made that Deza used his position to enrich himself, Deza himself was later accused of secretly practicing Judaism, a charge mainly based on the fact that he himself had Jewish blood on his mothers side. The accusation was probably political, but nevertheless damaged his standing somewhat and his position was further undermined by several open insurrections against the Inquisition, particularly against his chief lieutenant Diego Rodriguez Lucero. Lucero intensely disliked the false converted, and in 1500 handled papers sent to Pope Julius II on the Archbishop of Granadas Jewish ancestry, Pope Julius II seems to have brought some common sense to Deza and Luceros researches choosing to ignore them. After King Ferdinand II of Aragon remarried, he decided that Deza had become a liability, hernando de Talavera would die also in 1507 without knowing the whereabouts of his process in Rome. It is likely that Diego de Deza could have returned to his office, because it is known that he was named Archbishop of Toledo. His tomb in his College of Santo Tomas was opened by Napoleonic troops in 1810 with the aim of stealing his rings, collars and she thought it would be useful to set up a bath to look after her beauty
9. Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk – Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk was the sixth child and third daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. She was a sister of Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, Edward IV of England and Edmund. She was a sister of Margaret of York, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence. Sometime before February 1458, Elizabeth was married to John de la Pole, John was the eldest son of William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Alice Chaucer. His maternal grandparents were Thomas Chaucer and Maud Burghersh and her father-in-law had served as the principal power behind the throne for Henry VI of England from 1447 to 1450. His three years in this position saw the loss of the English possessions in northern France. Suffolk could not avoid taking the fall for the failure and he had been imprisoned in the Tower of London and had been attainted. Consequently, John had not succeeded to his titles when his father was executed on 2 May 1450 and her older brother Edward IV of England restored his brother-in-law to the title of Duke of Suffolk in 1463. She remained the Duchess of Suffolk until his death in 1491/1492 and they were settled in Wingfield Suffolk. She survived her husband by almost a decade and she is last mentioned alive in January 1503. She was mentioned being deceased by May 1504 and her death is placed in the sixteen months in between the two reports. With Suffolk, she had the children, John de la Pole. He was designated heir to his maternal uncle Richard III, married to Lady Margaret FitzAlan and had a son, Edward de la Pole, who died young. Rebelled against Henry VII and was killed at the Battle of Stoke Field, married to Henry Lovel, 8th Baron Morley, without issue. Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, yorkist pretender in succession to his brother John. Beheaded by order of Henry VIII, married to William Stourton, 5th Baron Stourton, without issue. Sir William de la Pole, Knight, of Wingfield Castle, William was kept in the Tower of London, his date of death is generally regarded as being during late 1539, either October or November. Yorkist pretender in succession to Edmund, killed at the Battle of Pavia
10. Pier Francesco Fiorentino – Pier Francesco Fiorentino, was a 15th-century painter, active in San Gimignano for much of his mature life, depicting religious-themed subjects. Fiorentino was the son of the Florentine painter Bartolomeo di Donato, at age 25 he was ordained a priest. He joined in the circle of painter Benozzo Gozzoli and worked with him in San Gimignano, an altarpiece in the Gallery at Empoli dates from about 1474. In February 1475 he worked together with Domenico Ghirlandaio on the decoration of the nave of the Duomo of San Gimignano and he signed a Madonna and Saints in SantAgostino Church, San Gimignano and a Tobias and the Angels. He is said to have worked with Ghirlandaio at San Gimignano circa 1475, anonymous masters Anna Padoa Rizzo, Art and patronage in Val dElsa and Era, Florence, Octavo,1997, pp. 102–103. Routes of the Museum of the Collegiate Church and the Church of Santo Stefano, necklace Library Lo Studiolo, Florence, Becocci – Scala,2005, pp.39,42. Rosanna Caterina Proto Pisani, Museum of the Collegiate Church of SantAndrea in Empoli, R. Razzi, The Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Gimignano in Pancole. The History and the Image, Poggibonsi, Graphic Arts Nencini,2002