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Pages in category "1447 births"
The following 30 pages are in this category, out of 30 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1447 births.|
The following 30 pages are in this category, out of 30 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Abu Bakr al-Aydarus – Abu Bakr led most of his adult life in Aden, where he was well respected for his societal contributions to the well-being of the citys residents. After his death in 1508, he was mourned by the citys residents, Abu Bakr was born in Tarim in 1447. In his youth, Abu Bakr studied the teachings of Al-Ghazali, Abu Bakr oversaw the construction of the citys mosque and its Sufi school, and later settled down in the city. Nevertheless, he made return trips to his family in Tarim. He was highly respected by the residents, who described him as a very brilliant. Abu Bakr was also respected by members of the local Jewish community, Abu Bakr also travelled to Harar after settling in Aden and introduced the Qadiriyyah Tariqa among the Ethiopian natives. According to the Tarikh of an-Najm al-Ghazzi, Abu Bakr became impressed with the strong stimulating effect of the fruit after he ate the berries of a coffee tree during his wanderings. He praised the effects of the fruit, took the coffee berries. Abu Bakrs death in 1508 was greatly mourned by the Adenis, the city residents published copies of obituaries commemorating the life of Abu Bakr, and an account of Abu Bakrs birthplace, Tarim was also published. His grave has since been visited by thousands of Muslim pilgrims every year who continue to pay their respects, the Sikh, who was suffering from a stomachache, fell asleep beside his tomb. In his dream, Abu Bakr instructed the Sikh to bathe in a nearby pond, the Sikh met Abu Bakr again after his return to India, who narrated to Abu Bakr of his difficulty of bringing wood to Yemen for the construction of the mosques doors. Abu Bakr provided instructions to the Sikh on the fate of the logs, to which he duly followed. Residents at Sira later reported of receiving the wooden logs which the Sikh had thrown into the sea, the mosque later became the centre of Sufi learning in Aden, and several of his descendants took on the duty of the mosques custodians. Renovations works were initiated during the 19th century and again in the 1990s, after relocating to Aden, Abu Bakr raised a family of his own and started off a new lineage. The al-ʿAydarūs clan was an offshoot of the Ba Alawiyya as-Saqqaf clan of Tarim, many of his descendants established trading links with the Bedouins and the Quaiti sultans and took up prominent political positions
2. Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria – Duke Albert IV of Bavaria-Munich, from 1467 Duke of Bavaria-Munich, from 1503 Duke of the reunited Bavaria. Albert was a son of Albert III, Duke of Bavaria, after the death of his older brother John IV, Duke of Bavaria he gave up his spiritual career and returned from Pavia to Munich. When his brothers Christoph and Wolfgang had resigned Albert became sole duke, after Sigismunds death in 1501, it reverted to Bavaria-Munich. The marriage of Kunigunde of Austria to Albert IV, was a result of intrigues and deception, Albert illegally took control of some imperial fiefs and then asked to marry Kunigunde, offering to give her the fiefs as a dowry. Frederick agreed at first, but after Albert took over yet another fief, Regensburg, on January 2,1487, however, before Fredericks change of heart could be communicated to his daughter, Kunigunde married Albert. A war was prevented only by intermediation by the Emperors son, for Alberts wedding the Grünwald castle was extended in 1486/87 by Jörg von Weikertshausen. Albert finally decided to return territorial acquisitions in Swabia in 1492 to avoid a war with the Habsburg and the Swabian League. He then also had to release Regensburg which had been reunited with Bavaria in 1486 and had to renounce Further Austria when Sigismund, for the Palatinate branch a new duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg was created. To avoid any future division of Bavaria, Albert decreed the everlasting succession of the prince in 1506. Nevertheless, his oldest son and successor William IV, Duke of Bavaria had to share his power from 1516 onwards with his younger brother Louis X, after the death of Louis in 1545, the edict became effective until the end of Bavarian monarchy in 1918. Albert is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich, on 3 January 1487 he married to Archiduchess Kunigunde of Austria, daughter of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Eleonore of Portugal
3. Bayezid II – Bayezid II or Sultân Bayezid-î Velî was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. During his reign, Bayezid II consolidated the Ottoman Empire and thwarted a Safavid rebellion soon before abdicating his throne to his son and he is most notable for evacuating Jews from Spain after the proclamation of the Alhambra Decree and resettling them throughout the Ottoman Empire. Bayezid II was the son of Mehmed II and Emine Gülbahar Hatun, Bayezid II married Gülbahar Hatun, who was the mother of Bayezid IIs successor, Selim I and nephew of Sitti Mükrime Hatun. Bayezid IIs overriding concern was the quarrel with his brother Cem, having been defeated by his brothers armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. Eventually, the Knights handed Cem over to Pope Innocent VIII, the Pope thought of using Cem as a tool to drive the Turks out of Europe, but as the papal crusade failed to come to fruition, Cem was left to languish and die in a Neapolitan prison. Bayezid II paid both the Knights Hospitaller and the pope to keep his brother prisoner, Bayezid II ascended the Ottoman throne in 1481. Like his father, Bayezid II was a patron of western and eastern culture, unlike many other Sultans, he worked hard to ensure a smooth running of domestic politics, which earned him the epithet of the Just. The last of these ended in 1501 with Bayezid II in control of the whole Peloponnese. Ottoman authority in Anatolia was indeed seriously threatened during this period and at one point Bayezid IIs grand vizier, in July 1492, the new state of Spain expelled its Jewish and Muslim populations as part of the Spanish Inquisition. Bayezid II sent out the Ottoman Navy under the command of Admiral Kemal Reis to Spain in 1492 in order to evacuate them safely to Ottoman lands and he sent out proclamations throughout the empire that the refugees were to be welcomed. He granted the refugees the permission to settle in the Ottoman Empire and he ridiculed the conduct of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in expelling a class of people so useful to their subjects. You venture to call Ferdinand a wise ruler, he said to his courtiers, he who has impoverished his own country and enriched mine. Bayezid addressed a firman to all the governors of his European provinces, ordering them not only to refrain from repelling the Spanish refugees and he threatened with death all those who treated the Jews harshly or refused them admission into the empire. Moses Capsali, who helped to arouse the sultans friendship for the Jews, was most energetic in his assistance to the exiles. He made a tour of the communities and was instrumental in imposing a tax upon the rich, the Muslims and Jews of al-Andalus contributed much to the rising power of the Ottoman Empire by introducing new ideas, methods and craftsmanship. The first printing press in Constantinople was established by the Sephardic Jews in 1493, on September 14,1509, Constantinople was devastated by an earthquake. During Bayezid IIs final years, a battle developed between his sons Selim I and Ahmet. Ahmet unexpectedly captured Karaman, an Ottoman city, and began marching to Constantinople to exploit his triumph, fearing for his safety, Selim staged a revolt in Thrace but was defeated by Bayezid and forced to flee back to the Crimean Peninsula
4. Piero Capponi – Piero Capponi was an Italian statesman and warrior from Florence. He was at first intended for a career, but Lorenzo de Medici, appreciating his ability, sent him as ambassador to various courts. In November Charles, on his way to Naples, entered Florence with his army, and immediately began to behave as though he were the conqueror of the city, because he had entered it lance in rest. The signory was anxious to be on terms with him, but when he spoke in favour of the Medici their temper changed at once. Tumults broke out between French soldiers and Florentine citizens, barricades were erected and stones began to fly from the windows and this alarmed Charles, who lowered his tone and said nothing more about conquered cities or the Medici. The Florentines were willing to pay him a sum of money. Charles, who was full the Medicis promises, made exorbitant demands, and finally presented an ultimatum to the signory, who rejected it. Then we shall sound our trumpets, said the king, to which Capponi replied And we shall toll our bells, Charles, who did not relish the idea of house-to-house fighting, was forced to moderate his claim and concluded a more equitable treaty with the republic. On November 28 he departed, and Capponi was appointed to reform the government of Florence, but being more at home in the camp than in the council chamber, he was glad of the opportunity of leading the armies of the republic against the Pisan rebels. He proved a most capable general, but while besieging the castle of Soiana and his death was greatly regretted, for the Florentines recognized in him their ablest statesman and warrior. Italian Wars This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Capponi
5. Catherine of Genoa – She was a member of the noble Fieschi family, and spent most of her life and her means serving the sick, especially during the plague which ravaged Genoa in 1497 and 1501. She died in that city in 1510 and her fame outside her native city is connected with the publication in 1551 of the book known in English as the Life and Doctrine of Saint Catherine of Genoa. She and her teaching were the subject of Baron Friedrich von Hügels classic work The Mystical Element of Religion, Catherine was born in Genoa in 1447, the last of five children. Catherines parents were Jacopo Fieschi and Francesca di Negro, both of illustrious Italian birth, the family was connected to two previous popes, and Jacopo became Viceroy of Naples. Catherine wished to enter a convent when about 13, perhaps inspired by her sister Limbania who was an Augustinian nun. However, the nuns to whom her confessor applied on her behalf refused her on account of her youth and their marriage was probably a ploy to end the feud between their two families. The marriage turned out wretchedly, it was childless and Giuliano proved to be faithless, violent-tempered and a spendthrift, and he made his wifes life a misery. Then, after ten years of marriage, desperate for an escape and she was converted by a mystical experience during confession on 22 March 1473, her conversion is described as an overpowering sense of Gods love for her. After this revelation occurred, she left the church, without finishing her confession. This marked the beginning of her life of union with God in prayer. She combined this with service to the sick in a hospital at Genoa, in which her husband joined her after he. He later became a Franciscan tertiary, but she joined no religious order and her husbands spending had ruined them financially. He and Catherine decided to live in the Pammatone, a hospital in Genoa. She eventually became manager and treasurer of the hospital and she died in 1510, worn out with labours of body and soul. Her death had been slow with many days of pain and suffering as she experienced visions and he had been a director of the hospital where her husband died in 1497. To him she explained her states, past and present, during this period, her life was devoted to her relationship with God, through interior inspiration alone. In 1551,41 years after her death, a book about her life and this is the source of her Dialogues on the Soul and the Body and her Treatise on Purgatory, which are often printed separately. This suggestion is now discredited by recent scholarship, which attributes a large part of works to St. Catherine, even though they received their final literary form only after her death
6. Chenghua Emperor – The Chenghua Emperor, born Zhu Jianshen, was Emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, between 1464 and 1487. His era name Chenghua means accomplished change, Zhu Jianshen was a son of the Zhengtong Emperor. He was only two years old when his father was captured by the Oirat Mongols and held captive in 1449, after that his uncle, the Jingtai Emperor, took over whilst his father was put under house arrest for almost seven years. During this time, Zhu Jianshen lived under his uncles shadow, Zhu Jianshen was only reinstated as crown prince on the eve of the death of the Jingtai Emperor in 1457. The Chenghua Emperor ascended the throne at the age of 16, during the early part of his administration, he carried out new government policies to reduce tax and strengthen the Ming dynasty. However these did not last and by the years of his reign, governmental affairs once again fell into the hands of eunuchs. Peasant uprisings occurred throughout the country, however, they were violently suppressed and this institute, not unlike a spy agency, would administer punishment to those whom they suspected of treason. The Western Depot would eventually be shut down but it was the start of a dangerous trend, the Chenghua Emperor was also under the influence of Lady Wan who was an imperial concubine who was seventeen years older than him. Lady Wan had been a figure to the young emperor. Lady Wang died in 1487 and shortly after the Chenghua Emperor died in 1487 and he was buried in the Maoling mausoleum of the Ming Dynasty Tombs. His reign also saw a cultural flourishing with famous persons such as Hu Juren and Chen Baisha dominating the academic scene and this led to the degradation of the ruling class and wasteful spending by corrupt individuals which eventually depleted the Ming governments coffers. ¹ Imperial China – 900–1800, F. W. Mote, Page 630, First Harvard University Press,2003
7. Philippe de Commines – Philippe de Commines was a writer and diplomat in the courts of Burgundy and France. He has been called the first truly modern writer and the first critical and philosophical historian since classical times, neither a chronicler nor a historian in the usual sense of the word, his analyses of the contemporary political scene are what made him virtually unique in his own time. Commines was born at Renescure, to a wealthy family. His parents were Colard van den Clyte and Marguerite dArmuyden, in addition to being seigneur of Renescure, Watten and Saint-Venant, Clyte became bailiff of Flanders for the Duke of Burgundy in 1436, and had been taken prisoner at the Battle of Agincourt. Philippe took his surname from a seigneurie on the Lys which had belonged to the family of his paternal grandmother and his paternal grandfather, also named Colard van den Clyte, had been governor first of Cassel and then of Lille. However, the death of Commines father in 1453 left him the owner of an estate saddled with enormous debts. In his teens he was taken into the care of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy and he fought at the Battle of Montlhéry in 1465 and the Battle of Brusthem in 1467 but in general seems to have kept a low profile. A key event in Comminess life seems to have been the meeting between Charles and Louis XI of France at Péronne in October 1468, although Comminess own account skates over the details, it is apparent from other contemporary sources that Louis believed Commines had saved his life. This may explain Louiss later enthusiasm in wooing him away from the Burgundians, in 1470 Commines was sent on an embassy to Calais, then an English possession. He also met King Edward IV of England during the latters continental exile and later wrote a description of his appearance, Commines was a great favorite with Duke Charles for seven years. Everyone in the Burgundian court started calling Commines booted head, many, like Comines, have had the boot dashed on their nose. Personal rancour wonderfully enlivens the style, memoirs are often dictated by its fiercest spirit, and then histories are composed from memoirs. Not always in histories and memoirs and he fled by night from Normandy on 7 August 1472, and joined Louis near Angers. On the following morning, when Duke Charles discovered his servant and god-brother missing and these were later given to Philip I of Croÿ-Chimay. Louis was generous in making up for those losses, on 27 January 1473 the king wed him to a Poitevin heiress, Hélène de Chambes, dame of the seigneuries of Argenton, Varennes, and Maison-Rouge. Some of these he gave to Commines for life, including the Princedom of Talmond in Poitou, and the seigneuries of Berrie, Sables. As a long-time enemy of Burgundy, Louis no doubt valued the inside information Commines was able to provide, and Commines quickly became one of the kings most trusted advisers. Jean Dufournets 1966 study of Commines has shown that the five years, up to 1477, were the most prosperous from Comminess point of view