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Pages in category "1449 births"
The following 28 pages are in this category, out of 28 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1449 births.|
The following 28 pages are in this category, out of 28 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Domenico Ghirlandaio – Domenico Ghirlandaio was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence. Ghirlandaio was part of the third generation of the Florentine Renaissance, along with Verrocchio. Many apprentices passed through Ghirlandaios workshop, including the famous Michelangelo, Ghirlandaio was born Domenico di Tommaso di Currado di Doffo Bigordi. Tommaso had two children by his second wife, also named Antonia, whom he married in 1464. Domenicos half-sister Alessandra married the painter Bastiano Mainardi in 1494, both Ghirlandaios father and his uncle, Antonio, were setaiuolo a minuto. Giorgio Vasari reported that Domenico was at first apprenticed to his father, the nickname Il Ghirlandaio came to Domenico from his father, who was famed for creating the metallic garland-like headdresses worn by Florentine women. He was eventually apprenticed to Alesso Baldovinetti to study painting and mosaic, according to the art historian Günter Passavent, he was apprenticed in Florence to Andrea del Verrocchio. He maintained an association with other Florentine painters including Botticelli. Ghirlandaio excelled in the painting of frescos and it is for his fresco cycles that he is best known, an early commission came to him in the 1470s from the Commune of San Gimignano to decorate the Chapel of Santa Fina in the Collegiate Church of that city. The frescos, executed from 1477 to 1478, depict two miraculous events associated with the death of Saint Fina, in 1480, Ghirlandaio painted St. Jerome in His Study as a companion piece to Saint Augustine in His Study by Botticelli in the Church of Ognissanti, Florence. He also painted a life-sized Last Supper in its refectory, from 1481 to 1485, he was employed on frescoes at the Palazzo Vecchio, painting among other works an Apotheosis of St. Ghirlandaio painted the Vocation of the Apostles. He also painted the now lost Resurrection of Christ, the Crossing of the Red Sea has also been attributed to him, but is consistent with the style of Cosimo Roselli who was also part of the commission. Ghirlandaio is known to have created works in Rome, now lost. The first of these paintings contains portraits of Lorenzo de Medici, Sassetti and Lorenzos children with their tutor, the Resuscitation shows the painters own likeness. In 1483, there arrived in Florence a masterpiece of the Flemish painter Hugo van der Goes, now known as the Portinari Altarpiece, it was an Adoration of the Shepherds, commissioned by Tommaso Portinari, an employee of the Medici Bank. The painting was in oil paint, not the tempera employed in Florence, the aspect of the painting that had a profound effect on Ghirlandaio was the naturalism with which the shepherds were depicted. Ghirlandaio painted the altarpiece of the Sassetti chapel, an Adoration of the Shepherds and it is in this painting that he particularly shows his indebtedness to the Portinari Altarpiece. The shepherds, among whom is a portrait of the artist himself, are portrayed with a realism that was an advance in Florentine painting at that time, the altarpiece is still in position in Santa Trinita, surrounded by the frescos of which it was the centrepiece
2. Lorenzo de' Medici – Lorenzo de Medici was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic, who was one of the most powerful and enthusiastic patrons of the Renaissance. Also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent by contemporary Florentines, he was a magnate, diplomat, politician and patron of scholars and he is well known for his contribution to the art world by sponsoring artists such as Botticelli and Michelangelo. His life coincided with the phase of Italian Renaissance and his death coincided with the end of the Golden Age of Florence. The fragile peace that he helped maintain among the various Italian states collapsed with his death and he is buried in the Medici Chapel in Florence. Lorenzos grandfather, Cosimo de Medici, was the first member of the Medici family to combine running the Medici Bank with leading the Republic of Florence, Cosimo was one of the wealthiest men in Europe and spent a very large portion of his fortune in government and philanthropy. He was a patron of the arts and funded public works, Lorenzos mother, Lucrezia Tornabuoni, was a writer of sonnets and a friend to poets and philosophers of the Medici Academy. She became her sons advisor after the deaths of his father, with his brother Giuliano, he participated in jousting, hawking, hunting, and horse breeding for the Palio, a horse race in Siena. His own horse was named Morello di Vento, Piero sent Lorenzo on many important diplomatic missions when he was still a youth, which included trips to Rome to meet the pope and other important religious and political figures. Lorenzo was described as plain of appearance and was of average height, having a broad frame and short legs, a swarthy skin, squashed nose, short-sighted eyes. Giuliano, on the hand, was regarded as handsome, he was used as a model by Botticelli in his painting of Mars. Lorenzo, groomed for power, assumed a role in the state upon the death of his father in 1469. Lorenzo, like his grandfather, father, and son, ruled Florence indirectly through surrogates in the city councils, threats, payoffs, although Florence flourished under Lorenzos rule, he effectively reigned as a despot, and people had little political freedom. Rival Florentine families inevitably harboured resentments over the Medicis dominance, the most notable of the rival families was the Pazzi, who nearly brought Lorenzos reign to an end right after it began. Alum had been discovered by local citizens of Volterra, who turned to Florence to get backing to exploit this important natural resource. When they realized the value of the mine, the people of Volterra wanted its revenues for their municipal funds rather than having it enter the pockets of their Florentine backers. Thus began an insurrection and secession from Florence, which involved putting to death several opposing citizens, Lorenzo sent mercenaries to suppress the revolt by force, and the mercenaries ultimately sacked the city. Lorenzo hurried to Volterra to make amends, but the incident would remain a dark stain on his record, Giuliano was killed, brutally stabbed to death, but Lorenzo escaped with only a minor wound to the shoulder, having been defended by the poet Politian. That success enabled Lorenzo to secure constitutional changes within the Florentine Republics government, Lorenzo maintained good relations with Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire, as the Florentine maritime trade with the Ottomans was a major source of wealth for the Medici
3. George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence – He played an important role in the dynastic struggle between rival factions of the Plantagenets known as the Wars of the Roses. Though a member of the House of York, he switched sides to support the Lancastrians and he was later convicted of treason against his brother, Edward IV, and was executed. He appears as a character in William Shakespeares plays Henry VI, Part 3 and Richard III, George was born on 21 October 1449 in Dublin at a time when his father, the Duke of York, had begun to challenge Henry VI for the crown. His godfather was James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond and he was the third of the four sons of Richard and Cecily who survived to adulthood. In 1461 his elder brother, Edward, became King of England as Edward IV, despite his youth, he was appointed as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the same year. Clarence joined Warwick in France, taking his pregnant wife and she gave birth to their first child, a girl, on 16 April 1470, in a ship off Calais. Warwicks efforts to keep Henry VI on the ultimately failed. The re-instated King Edward IV restored his brother Clarence to royal favour, Edward intervened and eventually divided the estates between his brothers. Clarence was created first Earl of Warwick on 25 March 1472, in 1475 Clarences wife Isabel gave birth to a son, Edward, later Earl of Warwick. Isabel died on 22 December 1476, two months after giving birth to a son named Richard, and they are buried together at Tewkesbury Abbey in Gloucestershire. Their surviving children, Margaret and Edward, were cared for by their aunt, Anne Neville, until she died in 1485 and she was hanged immediately after trial with John Thursby, a fellow defendant. Clarences mental state, never stable, deteriorated from that point, in 1477 Clarence was again a suitor for the hand of Mary, who had just become duchess of Burgundy. Edward objected to the match, and Clarence, jealous of Gloucesters influence and he implicated one Thomas Burdett, and one Thomas Blake, a chaplain at Staceys college. All three were tried for treason, convicted, and condemned to be drawn to Tyburn and hanged, Blake was saved at the eleventh hour by a plea for his life from James Goldwell, Bishop of Norwich, but the other two were put to death as ordered. This was a warning to Clarence, which he chose to ignore. He appointed Dr John Goddard to burst into Parliament and regale the House with Burdett, Goddard was a very unwise choice, as he was an ex-Lancastrian who had expounded Henry VIs claim to the throne. Edward summoned Clarence to Windsor, severely upbraided him, accused him of treason, shakespeare portrays Clarence as weak-willed and changeable, his initial defection from Edward IV to Warwick is prompted by outrage at Edward IVs unwise marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. Several lines reference his penchant for wine, Gloucester nimbly stage-manages Clarences death, fast-tracking the order of execution and then intercepting Edward IVs pardon when he changes his mind
4. Sankardev – He is widely credited with building on past cultural relics and devising new forms of music, theatrical performance, dance, literary language. Besides, he has left an extensive oeuvre of trans-created scriptures, poetry and theological works written in Sanskrit, Assamese. Sankardev inspired the Bhakti movement in Assam just as Guru Nanak, Ramananda, Kabir, Basava and his influence spread even to some kingdoms as the Matak Kingdom founded by Bharat Singha, and consolidated by Sarbanda Singha in the latter 18th century endorsed his teachings. His literary and artistic contributions are living traditions in Assam today, the religion he preached is practised by a large population, and Sattras that he and his followers established continue to flourish and sustain his legacy. These are generally classed in two groups, early and late, the authorship of the biography credited to Ramcaran Thakur, Daityari Thakurs father, is doubted and it is generally dated to the 17th-century and classed with the late biographies. In general, all biographies consider Sankardev as an incarnation of Vishnu, including that by Daityari Thakur, Sankardev, then named Sankaravara, was born into the Shiromani Baro-Bhuyans family at Alipukhuri near Bordowa in present-day Nagaon district in c1449. Though some authors have expressed doubt that Sankardev could have lived long, considering that he was of robust health 1449 is generally accepted. The Baro-Bhuyans were independent landlords in Assam, and Sankardev belonged to the Kayastha Hindu caste and his family-members, including parents Kusumvar Bhuyan and Satyasandhya Devi, were Saktas. Sankardev lost his father to smallpox when he was about 7 years old, and his mother died soon after his birth, or soon after his fathers death. He began attending Mahendra Kandalis tol or chatrasaal at the age of 12, the complete poem was written before he was taught the vowels except, of course, the first one, and is often cited as an example of the early flowering of his poetic genius. He stayed at the tol during his teens, and studied grammar and he practised yoga and was physically very able, and according to legend, he could swim across the Brahmaputra while it was in spate. It is generally believed that he wrote his first work, Harishchandra upakhyan, Mahendra Kandali changed his name to Sankdardev while he was at school. Sankardev soon mastered the scriptures of Sanatana Dharma and thereafter left the tol in his late teens to attend to his responsibilities as the Shiromani Bhuyan. He came to be known as the Dekagiri among his subjects, as Alipukhuri had become crowded, he moved his household from Alipukhuri to Bordowa. He married his first wife Suryavati when he was in his early 20s and he handed over the maintenance of his household to his son-in-law Hari, the Bhuyan Shiromaniship to his grand uncles Jayanta and Madhav, and began his journey in 1481. He was accompanied by seventeen others including his friend and associate Ramaram, at this point of time, he was 32. The pilgrimage took him to Puri, Mathura, Dwaraka, Vrindavan, Gaya, Rameswaram, Ayodhya, Sitakunda and he seem to have spent many years at Jagannath-kshetra at Puri, where he read and explained the Brahma Purana to the priests and lay people. At Badrikashram in 1488, he composed his first borgeet—mana meri ram charanahi lagu—in Brajavali, according to Katha Gurucharit, the first Borgeet was Rama meri hridaya pankaje baise and he composed it in 1481 at the very outset of the pilgrimage at a place called Rowmari
5. Domenico Gagini – Domenico Gagini was a Swiss-Italian sculptor who was active in Northern as well as Southern Italy. He was the son of Pietro Gagini, the Gagini were a family of sculptors and painters working during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. First recorded in Genoa in the early 15th century, was Domenicos grandfather Beltrame Gagini, Domenico Gagini was the first sculptor of this family to achieve international fame. Born at Bissone, in the Ticino he studied in Florence under Brunelleschi, returning to Genoa in 1447 he worked on the sculpture of the dome of the church of S. In 1457 he was recorded as working in Naples for Alfonso of Aragon, Gagini died in Palermo in 1492. Media related to Domenico Gagini at Wikimedia Commons
6. Pierre de Foix, le jeune – Peter of Foix the Younger was a French Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal. Pierre de Foix was born in Pau on February 7,1449, the son of Gaston IV, Count of Foix and he was the nephew of Louis XI of France and the grand-nephew of Cardinal Pierre de Foix, le vieux. He studied at Paris and then at the University of Ferrara, after graduation, he traveled to Rome, where he delivered an oration before Pope Paul II and the College of Cardinals. He joined the Order of the Friars Minor at this time, the pope made him a protonotary apostolic. On May 17,1475, he was elected Bishop of Vannes, Pope Sixtus IV confirmed his appointment on March 11,1476 and Foix subsequently occupied this see until his death. On July 31,1475, he was also named Bishop of Aire, Pope Sixtus IV made him a cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 18,1476. He received the red hat and the deaconry of Santi Cosma e Damiano on January 15,1477 and he served as apostolic administrator of the see of Bayonne from May 5,1484 until his death. He did not participate in the conclave of 1484 that elected Pope Innocent VIII. He served as administrator of the metropolitan see of Palermo from May 14,1485 until July 6,1489. Around 1485, he brokered a deal between Charles VIII of France and Francis II, Duke of Brittany. He later entered Rome on January 27,1488 for an audience with the pope and he then traveled to the Kingdom of Naples to visit his friend Ferdinand I of Naples. He returned to Rome on October 15,1488, on July 6,1489, he was named apostolic administrator of the see of Malta, holding this position until his death. He died in Rome on August 10,1490 and he was buried in the church dedicated to St. Tryphon which has since been demolished
7. Adriana of Nassau-Dillenburg – Adriana of Nassau-Dillenburg was a daughter of Count John IV of Nassau-Dillenburg and his wife Maria of Loon-Heinsberg. She died on 15 January 1477 and was buried in the church of St. Mary in Hanau, on her epitaph, she is depicted in a praying position towards the high altar. This epitaph and her grave stone have been preserved very well, on 12 September 1468, she married Count Philip I the Younger of Hanau-Münzenberg. Stadt und Grafschaft, Cologne,1951, p.91 and 112 ff Reinhard Suchier, Genealogie des Hanauer Grafenhauses, in, august 1894, Hanau,1894 Ernst J. Zimmermann, Hanau - Stadt und Land, 3rd ed. Hanau,1919, reprinted 1978
8. Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus – Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus, was a late medieval Scottish magnate. He became known as Bell the Cat and he became the most powerful nobleman in the realm through a successful rebellion and established his family as the most important in the kingdom. Angus, born about 1449 at Tantallon Castle in East Lothian, succeeded his father, George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus, in 1462 or 1463 at the age of just fourteen. In 1481, Angus became Warden of the East March, but the year he joined the league against James III and his favourite, Robert Cochrane. The earliest written source for the story is in David Hume of Godscroft, the phrase to bell the cat comes from the fable The Mice in Council, erroneously ascribed to Aesop, and refers to a dangerous task undertaken for the benefit of all. However, in March Albany and Angus returned, outwardly at least, to their allegiance, after a period of peace between them, Angus and the king again started to quarrel. Angus now decided to rebel against the king, having the support of the Scottish nobility this time, he marched against James III and they fought the Battle of Sauchieburn during which the king was killed. Angus became one of the guardians of the young king James IV. but soon lost influence, to the Homes and Hepburns, and he also agreed to hand over Hermitage Castle, commanding the pass through Liddesdale into Scotland, on the condition of receiving English estates in compensation. In October 1491 he fortified his castle of Tantallon against James, in 1493 Angus again returned to favour, receiving various grants of lands. He became Chancellor, which office he retained till 1498, in June 1497 he opened talks for the surrender of Perkin Warbeck at Jenyn Haugh. In 1501, in once more, he was confined to Dumbarton Castle. At the disaster at Flodden Field in 1513, though absent himself, as the Scottish nation licked its wounds, Angus won appointment as one of the councilors of Margaret Tudor the queen regent, but the newly appointed councilor died at the end of October 1513. His successor to the Earldom of Angus was his grandson, Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus
9. Bona of Savoy – Bona of Savoy, Duchess of Milan was the second spouse of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan and a member of the noble Italian House of Savoy. She served as regent of Milan during the minority of her son 1476–1481, born in Avigliana, Turin, Bona was a daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy and Anne de Lusignan of Cyprus. She was one of nineteen children and her many siblings included, Amadeus IX of Savoy, Philip II, Duke of Savoy, Louis of Savoy, Count of Geneva, Marguerite of Savoy and Charlotte of Savoy, who married King Louis XI. In 1464, Bona was to have been betrothed to Edward IV of England and she married Galeazzo Maria Sforza on 9 May 1468. Hermes Maria Sforza, Marquis of Tortona, bianca Maria Sforza, in January 1474, married firstly Philibert I, Duke of Savoy, on 16 March 1494, married secondly, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, she had no issue by her two husbands. Anna Maria Sforza, married Alfonso I dEste, later Duke of Ferrara, bonas husband was assassinated, on 26 December 1476 at the age of 32 by three young noblemen on the porch of the cathedral church of San Stefano in Milan. Galeazzo was succeeded after his 10-year reign by his 7-year-old son Gian Galeazzo Sforza under the regency of Bona, but dissensions soon arose between the regent and her brother-in-law, Ludovico Maria Sforza, nicknamed Il Moro. In the first encounter Bona and her chief counsellor, Cicco Simonetta, were victorious, in order to obtain his re-admission, Ludovico, took advantage of the rivalry between Tassino and Simonetta. The fall and execution of Simonetta followed, from 1479 the real government of Milan lay in the hands of Ludovico, whose power was further secured in 1480, when he seized his nephew Gian, deprived him of the duchy and assumed control. Consequently, Bona was obliged to leave Milan and Ludovico was left to rule unchallenged, Bona of Savoy commissioned the Sforza Book of Hours manuscript, which was painted in about 1490 by a famous court artist, Giovan Pietro Birago. She used the book, which contained devotional texts and is considered to be one of the most outstanding treasures of the Italian Renaissance
10. Friedrich von Hohenzollern – Not to be confused with Eitel Frederick von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Friedrich von Hohenzollern was Prince-Bishop of Augsburg from 1486 to 1505, friedrich von Hohenzollern was born in Hohenzollern in 1449. He was a member of the House of Hohenzollern, in 1478, he was ordained as a priest in Mainz. The cathedral chapter of Augsburg Cathedral elected him Prince-Bishop of Augsburg on 21 March 1486, pope Innocent VIII confirmed his appointment on 21 June 1486 and he was consecrated as a bishop by Otto von Sonnenberg, Bishop of Constance, on 17 September 1486