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The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
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The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Maurice Denys (sheriff) – Maurice Denys, Esquire, of Siston, Gloucestershire, was twice Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1460 and 1461. The Denys family were stated by Sir Robert Atkyns, the 18th-century historian of Gloucestershire and he was the eldest son and heir of Sir Gilbert Denys of Siston, Glos. by his 2nd wife Margaret Russell, eldest daughter of Sir Maurice Russell of Dyrham, Glos. Due to Maurice having been in wardship, a record of his birth and baptism is provided in the record of his proof of age inquisition dated 22 Sept.1431 at Tetbury. He knows because he met the godfathers and godmother of Maurice by the church on the day of the baptism and they told him about the birth of Maurice, and he was overjoyed. Thomas Reome,54 and more, knows because Elizabeth his mother stood as godmother to Maurice, John Born,60 and more, held a torch in the church during Maurices baptism. Richard Williams,70 and more, was there and saw John Blount, godfather of Maurice, give him a piece of silver with a cover on the day of the baptism, and give 6s. Walter Dore,53 and more, knows because William his son was born & baptised on the day that Maurice was baptised. John Seymour,49 and more, gave Katherine his daughter in marriage to John Pynchepole on the day that Maurice was baptised, John Felde,72 and more, carried a basin and ewer from the manor to the church. He provided water for the godfathers and godmother of Maurice to wash their hands after he was raised from the font, philip Fermer,60 and more, knows because Robert his son celebrated his first mass in the same church on the day that Maurice was baptised. John Kyngton,60 and more, knows because William his son was born on the day that Maurice was baptised. John Stafford,55 and more, was in the church when Maurice was baptised, and saw John Grevell, godfather of Maurice, give him a goblet with a cover immediately after the baptism. John Thorndon,57 and more, carried a torch in front of Maurice from the manor of Siston to the church on the day that he was baptised, and held it during the baptism. Maurice was aged 10 on the death of his father in 1422, the Inquisition post mortem of Gilbert Denys, dated at Chipping Sodbury,25 June 1422, stated Maurice Denys is his son and next heir, and he is of the age of 14 years and more. As Sir Gilbert Denys was a tenant-in-chief of the king in respect of the manor of Alveston, Maurice became a ward of the crown. In May 1422 Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester had been appointed keeper of the realm whilst King Henry V was away in France, in August 1422 the dying king appointed Gloucester as regent of England. Gilbert Denys had been in the service of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Stradling later agreed with the treasurer on the sum of 20 marks per annum as the price of his wardship of Maurice. Margaret Russell, mother of Maurice Denys, retained on the death of Gilbert Denys as her customary dower 1/3rd of his lands for life, thus Edward Stradling had available only the remaining 2/3rds. as his wardship lands. As Kemeys did not die until 1477,11 years after Maurice Denyss death, Maurice never lived to enjoy his entire patrimony. ”Joan had as her dowry 1/3rd of the lands of Maurice Russell
2. Donatello – Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, better known as Donatello, was an early Renaissance sculptor from Florence. He worked with stone, bronze, wood, clay, stucco and wax, and had several assistants, with four perhaps being a typical number. Though his best-known works were mostly statues in the round, he developed a new, very shallow, type of bas-relief for small works, and a good deal of his output was larger architectural reliefs. Donatello was the son of Niccolò di Betto Bardi, who was a member of the Florentine Arte della Lana, Donatello was educated in the house of the Martelli family. He apparently received his artistic training in a goldsmiths workshop. While undertaking study and excavations with Filippo Brunelleschi in Rome, work that gained the two men the reputation of treasure seekers, Donatello made a living by working at goldsmiths shops. In 1409–1411 he executed the colossal seated figure of Saint John the Evangelist, which until 1588 occupied a niche of the old cathedral façade and this work marks a decisive step forward from late Gothic Mannerism in the search for naturalism and the rendering of human feelings. The face, the shoulders and the bust are still idealized, while the hands, in 1411–13, Donatello worked on a statue of St. Mark for the guild church of Orsanmichele. In 1417 he completed the Saint George for the Confraternity of the Cuirass-makers, the elegant St. George and the Dragon relief on the statues base, executed in schiacciato is one of the first examples of central-point perspective in sculpture. From 1423 is the Saint Louis of Toulouse for the Orsanmichele, Donatello had also sculpted the classical frame for this work, which remains, while the statue was moved in 1460 and replaced by Incredulity of Saint Thomas by Verrocchio. Between 1415 and 1426, Donatello created five statues for the campanile of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, also known as the Duomo. These works are the Beardless Prophet, Bearded Prophet, the Sacrifice of Isaac, Habbakuk, and Jeremiah, from the late teens is the Pazzi Madonna relief in Berlin. In 1425, he executed the notable Crucifix for Santa Croce, this work portrays Christ in a moment of the agony, eyes and mouth partially opened, the body contracted in an ungraceful posture. From 1425 to 1427, Donatello collaborated with Michelozzo on the monument of the Antipope John XXIII for the Battistero in Florence. Donatello made the recumbent bronze figure of the deceased, under a shell, in 1427, he completed in Pisa a marble relief for the funerary monument of Cardinal Rainaldo Brancacci at the church of SantAngelo a Nilo in Naples. In the same period, he executed the relief of the Feast of Herod, the relief is mostly in stiacciato, with the foreground figures are done in bas-relief. Around 1430, Cosimo de Medici, the foremost art patron of his era and this is now Donatellos most famous work, and the first known free-standing nude statue produced since antiquity. Also from this period is the disquietingly small Love-Atys, housed in the Bargello, some have perceived the David as having homo-erotic qualities, and have argued that this reflected the artists own orientation
3. Johann Fust – Johann Fust or Faust was an early German printer. Fust belonged to a rich and respectable family of Mainz. Members of the family held many civil and religious offices, the name was written Fust until 1506, when Peter Schöffer, in dedicating the German translation of Livy to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, called his grandfather Faust. Thenceforward the family assumed this name, the Fausts of Aschaffenburg, an old and quite distinct family, placed Johann Fust in their pedigree. There is no evidence for the theory that Johann Fust was a goldsmith, because of his connection with Johann Gutenberg, he has been called the inventor of printing, and the instructor as well as the partner of Gutenberg. New editions of the Psalter were with the type in 1459,1490,1502 and 1516. 242 and 239 leaves,48 lines to a full page the Sixth Book of Decretals, with Andreaes gloss, December 17,1465, folio 1211 leaves Cicero. Of course, many came to light about why Fust turned his back on Gutenberg merely a year before the 42-Line Bible was to be completed. Many people believe that Fust turned on Gutenberg solely because he wanted to take the spotlight, there is, however, another twist to this story. Peter Schoeffer was an associate of Fust that worked as an apprentice to Gutenberg during the making of the 42-Line Bible, Schoeffer took Fust’s side when the court case was presented to Gutenberg and subsequently had his name join Fust’s on the completed copies of the Bible. The twist is that Schoeffer ended up marrying Fust’s only daughter, Christina, there are facts there to say that Fust and Schoeffer had this planned all along, even before the loans were handed over to Gutenberg. This theory states Gutenberg was, in fact, doomed from the start and it is to be noted that Johann Fust was not much of a printer but more of a businessman and a salesman. Fust loaned 800 guilders to Johannes Gutenberg with which to start his original project, later another large sum of money was handed over from Fust to Gutenberg. At this point, Fust felt as if he needed to be included as a partner on the project since he had now invested so much into it, there were all but three Bibles left to be completed when Fust decided to foreclose on his loans. On November 6,1455, Fust demanded 2,026 guilders from Gutenberg and he also revealed in court that he had to borrow the money he gave to finance Gutenberg at 6% in order to even give the loan. All in all Gutenberg ended up having to pay 1,200 guilders to Fust along with all of the completed Bibles, unfinished books, from that point on Gutenberg was hardly ever heard from again and Fust went into partnership with Peter Schoeffer. Schoeffer had learned all the skills of printing from Gutenberg. Johann Fust was a savvy businessman
4. John III of Grumbach – John of Grumbach was prince-bishop of Würzburg as John III from 1455 until his death in 1466. Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities
5. John V, Count of Hoya – John V, Count of Hoya, nicknamed the Pugnacious, or the Wild, was the ruling Count of Hoya from 1426 until his death. He was the son of Count Eric I of Hoya and his wife Helen and his brother Albert was Bishop of Minden. His brothers Eric and Otto were administrators of Münster and Bremen respectively, john spent his life fighting wars and feuds. Shortly after he took up government, he fought in the Battle of Detern, later, he fought wars against the cities of Lüneburg, Bremen and Osnabrück. In 1441, he was prisoner by the citizens of Osnabrück. He spent the six years in the so-called Johanniskasten, a small oak dungeon cell in the Bucksturm tower. After he was released, he fought in the Feud of Soest, during his reign, the St. Martins church in Nienburg was built. John V died in 1466 and was buried in this church, in 1459, when he was already over sixty years old, he married Elisabeth of Diepholz
6. Isotta Nogarola – Isotta Nogarola was an Italian writer and intellectual. She was passionate about her education, and became one of the most famous humanists of the Italian Renaissance, inspiring generations of female artists. Born into a family in Verona, Italy. She was one of ten siblings, seven of which survived into adulthood, during Nogarolas life, Italy was going through its Renaissance 1400–1500, which means rebirth in French. A new appreciation for art, education, and enriching culture surrounded Italians, politically, Italy was divided into city-states ruled by extremely wealthy families, Genoa, Florence, and Venice are examples. Men ruled all political procession, and in time, there was no place for women in public society. Young boys studied humanism, which began in Florence in the 14th century and spread throughout Italy, by focusing on works of ancient Rome and Greece, scholars believed humanist education would produce the most well equipped men with the best understanding of knowledge. Schools were set up to teach poetry, grammar, rhetoric, history, and moral philosophy, to become an actual humanist, a young man would have to send a letter to an already respected man of the field, and wait for a reply. If the response yielded endorsements and compliments for the pupil, he would spread this news. Nogarolas mother, a widow, allowed her and her sister to be educated and her first tutor was Martino Rizzoni, who had been taught by the famous Guarino da Verona, one of the most forward humanist thinkers. Isotta proved to be an able student, with literary works that began to gain acclaim throughout the region. Her eloquence in Latin was well respected and it concerned her that her fame did not come from the sheer volume of intelligence she seemed to possess, but from the novelty of her gender. At the time a common way to start a humanist career was to write to an established academic and she did this in 1437, choosing Guarino da Verona himself, a lofty goal. This news spread throughout Verona, which inspired much ridicule from women in the city. A year passed without a reply, and she wrote a second letter to Guarino, in which she said, Why. was I born a woman. I ask myself this question in solitude and your unfairness in not writing to me has caused me much suffering, that there could be no greater suffering. You yourself said there was no goal I could not achieve, but now that nothing has turned out as it should have, my joy has given way to sorrow. For they jeer at me throughout the city, the women mock me, much of her work is not detailed in letters to her peers
7. John Paston (died 1466) – John Paston, was the son of William Paston, Justice of the Common Pleas, and Agnes Berry. A number of his letters survive among the Paston Letters, a source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period. He had three brothers, two of whom, Edmund and Clement, died without issue. Another brother, William, married Anne Beaufort, third daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset. He also had a sister, Elizabeth Paston, who married firstly Sir Robert Poynings, slain at the Second Battle of St Albans on 17 February 1461, Paston was educated at Trinity Hall and Peterhouse at the University of Cambridge, and like his father, became a lawyer. He was admitted to the Inner Temple by 1440, and succeeded his father, although Paston inherited a substantial estate, in the latter 1440s the family suffered a series of reverses, including the loss of the manor of East Beckham in 1445. The circumstances of these reverses are recounted in the Paston Letters, in February 1448, almost certainly on Heydons initiative, Robert Hungerford, 3rd Baron Hungerford, asserted his wifes claim to Pastons manor of Gresham. Paston attempted to recover the manor through negotiation and legal action, and when these proved fruitless, sent his wife, Margaret. In the following January Hungerfords servants assaulted and damaged the house, Hungerford remained in possession of Gresham for the next three years. Among Pastons associates during this period were the courtier Thomas Daniel, Margaret Pastons kinsman, Sir John Fastolf. Suffolk fell from power at the beginning of 1450, and early in 1451 Paston regained possession of the manor of Gresham. During the years 1450–51 he was involved in attempts by the Duke of Norfolk, John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, and Sir John Fastolf to remove Suffolks servants from positions of local power. These efforts were unsuccessful, and by the spring of 1451 Suffolks widow, Alice. In 1455 he was elected as one of the Knights of the Shire for Norfolk, in 1457 he paid a fine for declining a knighthood. In 1458 Paston, his brother William and others were accused of riotous behaviour, from 1460–6 he was Justice of the Peace for Norfolk, and was elected as a member of parliament in 1460 and again in 1461. In 1461, as a result of conflict with Sir John Howard, then Sheriff of Norfolk, in 1464, in connection with his involvement in the estate of the late Sir John Fastolf, he was accused of trespass, outlawed, and imprisoned in the Fleet. In 1465 he was imprisoned in the Fleet for the third time, much of Pastons time from the mid-1450s had in fact been taken up by his position as adviser to his wifes kinsman, the ageing, wealthy, and childless Sir John Fastolf. In 1456 he was appointed one of the feoffees of Fastolfs lands, in June 1459 Fastolf made a will which provided that his ten executors found a college in Caister
8. Peter, Constable of Portugal – Peter of Coimbra was the son of Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra, who became the fifth Constable of Portugal and third Grand Master of the Order of Saint Benedict of Aviz. The Consell de Cent later granted Peter the crown of Aragon, sometimes called Peter V, his status as king of Aragon, however, along with that of John IIs other challengers, is disputed. His parents were Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra, and Isabella of Urgell and his fathers position as the regent of the Kingdom of Portugal gained him special advantages. Afonso, Marquis of Valença, the son of his half-uncle Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganza, had expected to become constable, but Peters father had appoint him instead. This political move along with Afonso Vs marriage to Isabella of Coimbra, Peters sister, in 1448, when King Afonso V of Portugal became of age and took reign, the Duke of Coimbra stepped down as regent. Afonso V, because of influence of the Duke of Braganza and their disagreements led to the Battle of Alfarrobeira, where the Duke of Coimbra died and Peter was exiled to Castile. In 1454, Peter reconciled with King Afonso V and the Duke of Braganza, thus allowing him to return to Portugal, to further improve his bond with Afonso V, Peter helped Afonso V take Alcácer Ceguer and Tangiers. In 1463, the Catalan institutions, which were in war with John II of Aragon. He was chosen King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and he reigned de facto in Catalonia and parts of Aragon, but only de jure in Valencia, which was occupied by John II of Aragon. The territory under his control only included Barcelona, Catalonia and parts of Aragon, with the support of his aunt Isabella, the Duchess of Burgundy, he became engaged to Margaret of York, sending her an engagement ring and a marriage contract. Margaret would later marry Isabellas own son Charles the Bold, after a long series of military problems, Peter died from illness in 1465, in Granollers. He is buried in Church of Santa Maria del Mar in Barcelona, after his death, the Catalans offered the crown to René of Anjou. Nobreza de Portugal e do Brasil – Vol. I, pages 268-270, genealogical information on Infante John, Lord of Reguengos
9. Enguerrand Quarton – Six paintings by him are documented, of which only two survive, and in addition the Louvre now follows most art historians in giving him the famous Avignon Pietà. His two documented works are the remarkable Coronation of the Virgin and The Virgin of Mercy, two smaller altarpieces are also attributed to him. Quarton was born in the diocese of Laon in northern France, there he worked in Aix-en-Provence, Arles in 1446, and Avignon, where he was based from 1447 until his death there in about 1466. All were influenced by both Italy and the Netherlands to varying degrees, the Popes and Anti-Popes were no longer living in Avignon, but it remained Papal territory, and the city contained many Italian merchants. Many of Quartons clients were important figures in Renés court and administration, the attribution to him of the Avignon Pietà has only been generally accepted since about the 1960s. This work, also known as the Cadard Altarpiece after the donor, uses a motif that is most often found in Italian art, one possibility is that Villate was responsible for a predella now lost. A recently discovered document of 1466 orders some painted or stained glass for the Town Hall of Arles from a maître Enguibran living in Avignon. He may have had help from Pierre Villate, who is documented as fulfilling many commissions for glass, hardly any work certainly his survives, but it is clear he had a considerable reputation in his day. He was younger than Quarton, but already a master of the Guild in 1452, around the Trinity, blue and red angels are deployed similar to those in Fouquets Melun diptych. The depiction of Rome and Jerusalem in the landscape below is also specified in the contract. Beneath this Purgatory and Hell open up, and in the centre the donor kneels before a Crucifixion, on the extreme left a church is shown in cut-away style, containing a Mass of Saint Gregory. Quarton was given seventeen months from the date to deliver the painting by September 29,1454. As is usual, materials were specified, elements of the language used appear to come from the dialect of Quartons native Picardy. The contract has been described as the most detailed to survive for medieval European painting and his very strong colours have little shading, and his lighting is harsh, even merciless. The landscape includes perhaps the first appearance in art of Mont Sainte-Victoire, later to be painted so often by Cézanne, the painting remains in the monastery Chartreuse du Val de Bénédiction, Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, for which it was commissioned by a local clergyman, Jean de Montagny. The curved back form of Christs body is original. Before the painting was attributed to Quarton, some art historians thought the painting might be by a Catalan or Portuguese master. The bare background landscape falls away to a horizon broken by the buildings of Jerusalem, the clerical donor, portrayed with Netherlandish realism, kneels to the left
10. Francesco I Sforza – Francesco I Sforza was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, Italy, and was the fourth Duke of Milan from 1450 until his death. He was the brother of Alessandro, whom he fought alongside. Francesco Sforza was born in San Miniato, Tuscany, one of the seven sons of the condottiero Muzio Sforza. He spent his childhood in Tricarico, the marquisate of which he was granted in 1412 by King Ladislaus of Naples, in 1418, he married Polissena Ruffo, a Calabrese noblewoman. From 1419, he alongside his father, soon gaining fame for being able to bend metal bars with his bare hands. He later proved himself to be a tactician and very skilled field commander. After some successes, he fell in disgrace and was sent to the castle of Mortara as a de facto. He regained his status after leading an expedition against Lucca, in 1431, after a period during which he fought again for the Papal States, he led the Milanese army against Venice, the following year the dukes daughter, Bianca Maria, was betrothed to him. Despite these moves, the wary Filippo Maria never ceased to be distrustful of Sforza, in 1436-39, he served variously both Florence and Venice. In 1440, his fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples were occupied by King Alfonso I, on 25 October 1441, in Cremona, he could finally marry Bianca Maria. The following year, he allied with René of Anjou, pretender to the throne of Naples, Sforza later found himself warring against Francesco Piccinino and, later, the alliance of Visconti, Eugene IV, and Malatesta, who had allegedly murdered Polissena. With the help of Venice, Sforza was again victorious and, in exchange for abandoning the Venetians, after the duke died without a male heir in 1447, fighting broke out to restore the so-called Ambrosian Republic. The name Ambrosian Republic takes its name from St. Ambrose, agnese del Maino, his wifes mother, convinced the condottiero who held Pavia to restore it to him. He also received the seigniory of other cities of the duchy, including Lodi, in 1450, after years of famine, riots raged in the streets of Milan and the citys senate decided to entrust to him the duchy. Sforza entered the city as Duke on 26 February and it was the first time that such a title was handed over by a lay institution. While the other Italian states gradually recognized Sforza as the legitimate Duke of Milan and that did not come to the Sforza Dukes until 1494, when Emperor Maximilian formally invested Francescos son, Ludovico, as Duke of Milan. Under his rule, Sforza modernised the city and duchy, in Milan, he founded the Ospedale Maggiore, restored the Palazzo dellArengo, and had the Naviglio dAdda, a channel connecting with the Adda River, built. During Sforzas reign, Florence was under the command of Cosimo de Medici, after the peace, Sforza renounced part of the conquests in eastern Lombardy obtained by his condottieri Bartolomeo Colleoni, Ludovico Gonzaga, and Roberto Sanseverino after 1451
11. Miles Stapleton – Sir Miles Stapleton, KG was Lord of the Manor of Ingham, Norfolk and de jure Baron Ingham of Ingham, Norfolk, and Lord of the Manor of Bedale, Yorkshire. He did homage for his inheritance on 2 February 1440. They had two daughters, the eldest, Elizabeth Stapleton, married before March 1464, Sir William Calthorpe, Knt. of Burnham Thorpe. The younger daughter, Jane Stapleton, married Sir Christopher Harcourt and he was a Knight of the Shire for Suffolk, and for Norfolk also, and was High Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk in 1440. In 1441-2 Sir Miles Stapleton and Thomas Tudenham were summoned as Knights, in 1442 he also had a Royal Commission for the Safekeeping of the seas. The following year he and his brother, Bryan Stapleton of Crispings, in Happisburgh, & Hasilden, Norfolk, Stapleton is mentioned in the 1449 poem Amoryus and Cleopes, as the patron of its author John Metham. His Arms are recorded as Argent, a lion rampant sable, Stapleton was buried in Ingham Priory, Norfolk, where there was once a monumental brass. Hervey, William, Clarenceaux King of Arms, and John Raven, Richmond Herald, baronia Anglica Concentrata, or Baronies in Fee, London,1844, p.267, where a summary pedigree appears for this family. Burke, John, and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, waters, Robert E. C, B. A. barrister of the Inner Temple, Genealogical Memoirs of the Extinct Family of Chester of Chicheley &c. London,1878, vol.1, pps,140 and 255, flower, William, Norroy King of Arms, The Visitation of Yorkshire, 1563/4, London,1881, p.295. Rye, Walter, Norfolk Families, part II, Norwich,1912, notes on the Families of Calthorpe & Calthrop, etc. Third edition, London,1933, p.43, Oxford University Press, The Dictionary of National Biography, Compact Edition, Oxford,1975. Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md, richardson, Douglas, Magna Carta Ancestry, Baltimore,2005, pps.41 and 896
12. James Stewart (bishop) – James Stewart was a prelate from 15th century Scotland. Stewart was a member of the Stewart kindred of Lorne and he was Dean of Moray from 1435 until May 19,1460, when he was provided to the bishopric. He was consecrated as Bishop of Moray sometime towards the end of the year and he resigned the see two years later in the papal curia in favour of his brother, David Stewart. He died on August 5,1466, dowden, John, The Bishops of Scotland, ed. J. Maitland Thomson, Keith, Robert, An Historical Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops, Down to the Year 1688, Watt, D. E. R. Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae Medii Aevi ad annum 1638, 2nd Draft
13. Uesugi Norizane – Uesugi Norizane was a Japanese samurai of the Uesugi clan who held a number of high government posts during the Muromachi period. Shugo of Awa and Kōzuke Province, he was appointed Kantō kanrei in 1419, when Mochiuji rebelled against the shogunate, and attacked Norizane directly, Norizane complained to the shogunate, and fled to Kōzuke province. He returned to Kamakura in 1439, following Mochiujis death, Norizane, as Kantō kanrei, now controlled the Kantō in the absence of a Kantō kubō, from then on, the kanrei would be the shoguns direct deputy, the kubō serving only as an empty title. Norizane left his post to his brother Uesugi Kiyotaka soon afterwards, over the course of his life, he was the patron of the Ashikaga Academy and helped to expand its library
14. Ulrich I, Count of East Frisia – Ulrich I of East Frisia, first count of East Frisia, was a son of the chieftain Enno Edzardisna of Norden and Greetsiel, and Gela of Manslagt. His father Enno had inherited Nordens Attena, and had become headling of Norden, Ulrich also received the inheritance of the respected family Cirksena through his mother Gela, daughter of Affo Beninga, headling of Pilsum and Manslagt, and Tiadeka Siartze of Berum. Gela and her cousin Frauwa Cirksena were the heirs of the Cirksenas of Berum. Ulrichs father Enno had used the opportunity to arrange a marriage between his son from his first marriage, Ulrichs stepbrother Edzard, and Frauwe, Ulrich and Edzard took their wives family name and arms. When Edzard and Frauwa died childless in 1441 from the plague, in 1430, together with his father and eldest stepbrother Edzard, Ulrich concluded the Freiheitsbund der Sieben Ostfrieslande. This alliance was aimed against the ruling Focko Ukena, Edzard, together with his brother Ulrich, managed to put an end to the rule of the Ukena-faction. Ulrich Cirksena also followed a marriage strategy. His first wife was Folka, only daughter and heir of headling Wibet van Esens and she transferred the lordship Esens to Ulrich in 1440. After Ulrich Cirksenas marriage to Theda, granddaughter of his opponent, in 1455, only the lordships of Jever and Friedeburg remained independent. Sibet Attena, a nephew and ally of Ulrich, received the lordships Esens, Stedesdorf and Wittmund, the Harlingerland did remain under the authority of the Cirksena family. Because Ocko I tom Brok had loaned East Frisia to the Count of Holland in 1381, Ulrich decided to improve his status by turning directly to the emperor. Emperor Frederick III subsequently raised Ulrich to the status of Imperial Count in 1464, Ulrich and his second wife, Theda, had the following children, Heba, married count Eric I of Schaumburg-Pinneberg, Gela, Enno I, Edzard I, Uko, Almut
15. Margaret, Countess of Vertus – Margaret, Countess of Vertus, was born on 4 December 1406. She was the daughter of Louis I, Duke of Orléans, and Valentina Visconti, and her mother was the daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, and Isabella of France, who was a daughter of King John II of France. In 1423 she married Richard of Montfort, son of John IV, Duke of Brittany, Margaret succeeded her brother Philip as Countess of Vertus. She and Richard had seven children, of only two, Francis and Catherine, would have progeny. In 1458 Francis succeeded his uncle Arthur III as Duke of Brittany, Margaret, widowed in 1438, lived for a long time at Longchamp and in other monasteries with her younger daughters, Margaret and Madeleine. She was a pious woman. The Book of Hours of Marguerite dOrleans, an example of the Illustrated Prayer Book of the Fifteenth Century, was made for her so that she might practice her devotion on a daily basis. She obtained a declaration from the Cardinal of Estouteville that sheltered her liberty and she finally retired to the Abbey at Guiche, order of Sainte Claire near Blois, where she died April 24,1466 at the age of sixty. Marie of Brittany, Abbess of Fontevrault since 1457 until her death, Catherine of Brittany, Dame de lEpine-Gaudin, married on 19 August 1438 to William VII of Chalon, Prince of Orange, Count of Penthièvre and Seigneur de Cerlier. Francis II, Duke of Brittany Unnamed son, however, the claim was disputed by the then Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, who succeeded his father John the Fearless in 1419 after the latters assassination by the agents of Dauphin Charles. The new king confirmed his gift to the duke by letters patent presented to his widow in 1442. However, this decision was contested by the Attorney General of the Parlement, Margaret is best remembered for the Book of Hours produced for her. The miniature showing Margaret praying to the Virgin served as the source for the lithographs of Margaret published by Delpech in 1820