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The following 57 pages are in this category, out of 57 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
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The following 57 pages are in this category, out of 57 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Adolf of Burgundy – Adolf of Burgundy was Lord of Veere and admiral of the Netherlands. He was a son of Philip of Burgundy-Beveren and Anna of Borselen, in 1517 he succeeded Philip of Burgundy-Blaton, who became Bishop of Utrecht, as admiral of the Netherlands until 1540. In 1509 he married Anna of Bergen, daughter of John III of Bergen op Zoom and he had been taught by Jacob Badt, a friend of Erasmus. Adolf of Burgundy-Beveren also became Knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1515
2. Antoine, Duke of Lorraine – Antoine, known as the Good, was Duke of Lorraine from 1508 until his death in 1544. Antoine was born at Bar-le-Duc, the son of René II, Duke of Lorraine and he was raised at the court of King Louis XII together with his brother Claude, and also made friends with the Duke of Angoulême, the future King Francis I. After Louis death, he went again to Italy under Francis I, however, called back home by problems in Lorraine, he was absent at the decisive battle of Pavia, in which Francis was taken prisoner and his brother François, comte de Lambesc, was killed. In Lorraine, Antoine had to face the spreading of Protestant Reformation, the situation worsened the following year, when a rebellion, known as German Peasants War, broke out in Alsace. The insurrectionists captured Saverne and tried to conquer Saint-Dié, while the peasants of Bitscherland also rose in May 1525, Antoine launched an expedition which reconquered Saverne on 17 May and crushed a peasant army on 20 May near Sélestat. He subsequently promulgated other edicts against the Protestants, Antoine was able to enlarge his duchy through heritages and acquisitions. Starting from 1525, he preferred to remain neutral in the wars which ensued between Francis I and Emperor Charles V. By 1539, Antoine suffered from gout and asked his niece, Mary of Guise, on 26 June 1515, he married Renée of Bourbon, daughter of Gilbert de Bourbon, Count of Montpensier by Clara Gonzaga, and sister of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon
3. Charles II, Duke of Savoy – Charles II or Charles John Amadeus, was the Duke of Savoy from 1490 to 1496 but his mother Blanche of Montferrat was the actual ruler as a regent. In 1485 his father Charles I had received the rights to the Kingdoms of Cyprus, Jerusalem. During his reign, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and conquered Naples, born in Turin, Duke Charles died in Moncalieri at about seven, falling by his bed. His duchy was inherited by his granduncle Philip II, the male heir of the Savoy line. Charless heir-general was his underage sister Violante Ludovica, who was married to Philips eldest son Philibert the Handsome, Violante however died in 1499,12 years old and childless, leaving the 18-year-old Philibert a widower. Charless and Violantas next heir general was their first cousin Princess Charlotte of Naples, the next year, Charlotte married Nicolas Guy de Montfort, Count of Laval
4. Antonio da Correggio – In his use of dynamic composition, illusionistic perspective and dramatic foreshortening, Correggio prefigured the Rococo art of the 18th century. He is considered a master of chiaroscuro, antonio Allegri was born in Correggio, Italy, a small town near Reggio Emilia. His date of birth is uncertain, otherwise little is known about Correggios early life or training. It is, however, often assumed that he had his first artistic education from his fathers brother, after a trip to Mantua in 1506, he returned to Correggio, where he stayed until 1510. To this period is assigned the Adoration of the Child with St. Elizabeth and John, by 1516, Correggio was in Parma, where he spent most of the remainder of his career. Here, he befriended Michelangelo Anselmi, a prominent Mannerist painter, in 1519 he married Girolama Francesca di Braghetis, also of Correggio, who died in 1529. One of his sons, Pomponio Allegri, became an undistinguished painter, from this period are the Madonna and Child with the Young Saint John, Christ Leaving His Mother and the lost Madonna of Albinea. Correggios first major commission was the decoration of the private dining salon of the mother-superior of the convent of St Paul called the Camera di San Paolo at Parma. Here he painted an arbor pierced by oculi opening to glimpses of playful cherubs, below the oculi are lunettes with images of feigned monochromic marble. The fireplace is frescoed with an image of Diana, the iconography of the scheme is complex, combining images of classical marbles with whimsical colorful bambini. While it recalls the secular frescoes of the palace of the Villa Farnesina in Rome. He then painted the illusionistic Vision of St. John on Patmos for the dome of the church of San Giovanni Evangelista. Three years later he decorated the dome of the Cathedral of Parma with a startling Assumption of the Virgin, the recession and movement implied by the figures presage the dynamism that would characterize Baroque painting. Other masterpieces include The Lamentation and The Martyrdom of Four Saints, the Lamentation is haunted by a lambence rarely seen in Italian painting prior to this time. The Martyrdom is also remarkable for resembling later Baroque compositions such as Berninis Truth and Ercole Ferratas Death of Saint Agnes, aside from his religious output, Correggio conceived a now-famous set of paintings depicting the Loves of Jupiter as described in Ovids Metamorphoses. The voluptuous series was commissioned by Federico II Gonzaga of Mantua, however, they were given to the visiting Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and thus left Italy within years of their completion. Danaë, now in Romes Borghese Gallery, depicts the maiden as she is impregnated by a curtain of gilded divine rain. Her lower torso semi-obscured by sheets, Danae appears more demure and gleeful than Titians 1545 version of the same topic, the picture once called Antiope and the Satyr is now correctly identified as Venus and Cupid with a Satyr
5. Thomas Cranmer – Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henrys marriage to Catherine of Aragon, along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm. During Cranmers tenure as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was responsible for establishing the first doctrinal and liturgical structures of the reformed Church of England, under Henrys rule, Cranmer did not make many radical changes in the Church, due to power struggles between religious conservatives and reformers. However, he succeeded in publishing the first officially authorised vernacular service, when Edward came to the throne, Cranmer was able to promote major reforms. He wrote and compiled the first two editions of the Book of Common Prayer, a liturgy for the English Church. Cranmer promulgated the new doctrines through the Prayer Book, the Homilies, after the accession of the Roman Catholic Mary I, Cranmer was put on trial for treason and heresy. Imprisoned for over two years and under pressure from Church authorities, he made several recantations and apparently reconciled himself with the Roman Catholic Church. However, on the day of his execution, he withdrew his recantations, to die a heretic to Roman Catholics, Cranmer was born in 1489 in Aslockton in Nottinghamshire, England. His parents, Thomas and Agnes Cranmer, were of modest wealth and were not members of the aristocracy and their oldest son, John, inherited the family estate, whereas Thomas and his younger brother Edmund were placed on the path to a clerical career. Today historians know nothing definite about Cranmers early schooling and he probably attended a grammar school in his village. At the age of fourteen, two years after the death of his father, he was sent to the newly created Jesus College, Cambridge. It took him a surprisingly long eight years to reach his Bachelor of Arts degree following a curriculum of logic, classical literature, during this time, he began to collect medieval scholastic books, which he preserved faithfully throughout his life. For his masters degree he took a different course of study, concentrating on the humanists, Jacques Lefèvre dÉtaples and this time he progressed with no special delay, finishing the course in three years. Shortly after receiving his Master of Arts degree in 1515, he was elected to a Fellowship of Jesus College, sometime after Cranmer took his MA, he married a woman named Joan. Although he was not yet a priest, he was forced to forfeit his fellowship, to support himself and his wife, he took a job as a reader at Buckingham Hall. When Joan died during her first childbirth, Jesus College showed its regard for Cranmer by reinstating his fellowship and he began studying theology and by 1520 he had been ordained, the university already having named him as one of their preachers. He received his Doctor of Divinity degree in 1526, not much is known about Cranmers thoughts and experiences during his three decades at Cambridge. Traditionally, he has been portrayed as a humanist whose enthusiasm for biblical scholarship prepared him for the adoption of Lutheran ideas, however, a study of his marginalia reveals an early antipathy to Martin Luther and an admiration for Erasmus
6. William Farel – William Farel, Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel, was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne, Geneva, and Vaud in Switzerland. He is most often remembered for having persuaded John Calvin to remain in Geneva in 1536 and they influenced the government of Geneva to the point that it became the Protestant Rome, where Protestants took refuge and non-Protestants were driven out. Together with Calvin, Farel worked to train missionary preachers who spread the Protestant cause to other countries, Farel was born in 1489 in Gap. He was a pupil of the pro-reform Catholic priesthood, at the University of Paris, there he met the scholar Jacques Lefevre dEtaples who helped Farel obtain a professorship to teach grammar and philosophy at the Collège Cardinal Lemoine in Paris. With Lefevre he became a member of the Cercle de Meaux gathered together from 1519 by the bishop of Meaux. Farel eventually became regent of the college, by 1522 he was appointed a diocesan preacher by the Reformist bishop of Meaux, Guillaume Briçonnet. Farel now could invite a number of evangelical Humanists to work in his diocese to implement his reform program within the Catholic Church. This group of Humanists also included Josse van Clichtove, Martial Mazurier, Gérard Roussel, the members of the Meaux circle were of different talents but they generally emphasized the study of the Bible and a return to the theology of the early Church. While working with Lefevre in Meaux, Farel came under the influence of Lutheran ideas, after condemnation by the Sorbonne, Farel evangelized fervently in the Dauphiné. Farel was forced to flee to Switzerland because of controversy that was aroused by his writings against the use of images in Christian worship and he spent time at Zurich with Huldrych Zwingli and at Strasbourg, with Martin Bucer. He convinced Neuchâtel to join the Reform in 1530, Farel established himself in Geneva in 1532, where he remained as minister, drawing Calvin to the city, but breaking with him over the Eucharist. He, along with Calvin, was banished from Geneva in 1538, in part for his rigorous positions, and retired to Neuchâtel, although Farel was a friend of Calvins, he was a promoter of Lutheran ideas in his youth
7. Bernardino Fasolo – Bernardino Fasolo was an Italian painter. He was the son of Lorenzo Fasolo, was living in the 16th century at Pavia and he is known to have been a member of the council of the Guild in Genoa in 1520. The following pictures are by him, A Holy Family, Berlin Gallery, portrait of a Venetian Lady, Dresden Gallery. Virgin and Child Santuario del Monte, Genoa
8. Francesco Ferruccio – Francesco Ferruccio was an Italian captain from Florence who fought in the Italian Wars. Early in 1530 Volterra had thrown off Florentine allegiance and had been occupied by an Imperial garrison, during his absence, however, the Imperials captured Empoli by treachery, thus cutting off one of the chief avenues of approach to Florence. Ferruccio then decided to attempt a diversion by attacking the Imperials in the rear, but at Pisa he was laid up for a month with a fever, which enabled the enemy to get wind of his plan and to prepare for his attack. At the end of July Ferruccio left Pisa at the head of about 4,000 men, left alone, Ferruccio encountered a much larger force of the enemy on August 3 at Gavinana. In the desperate battle ensued, the Imperials were at first driven back by Ferruccios onslaught. But when 2,000 Landsknecht reinforcements under Fabrizio Maramaldo arrived, the Florentines were almost annihilated, Maramaldo out of personal spite dispatched Ferruccio with his own hand, Vile, tu uccidi un uomo morto. Were, according to accounts, Ferruccios last words uttered to his murderer. This defeat sealed the fate of the Republic, and nine days later Florence surrendered, in an 1849 speech at Livorno, Garibaldi likened himself to him, I have touched with my sword the ashes of Ferruccio, and I will know how to die like Ferruccio. Under Fascism, the legend of his life and death was celebrated. That partially accounts for the popularity of naming male children in Tuscany born at that period Ferruccio, condottieri Italian Wars War of the League of Cognac
9. Gaston of Foix, Duke of Nemours – Born in Mazères, County of Foix, he was the second child but only son of John of Foix, Viscount of Narbonne and Marie dOrléans. His older sister was Germaine of Foix, Queen consort of Aragon as the wife of Ferdinand II. His paternal grandparents were Gaston IV of Foix-Grailly and Queen regnant Eleanor of Navarre and his maternal grandparents were Charles, Duke of Orléans and Marie of Cleves. His only maternal uncle was Louis XII of France, in 1511, Gaston arrived in Italy as a new commander at the age of 21. His presence and energy shifted the conflict into much higher levels of activity, French forces had captured Bologna on 13 May 1511 and were under siege from a combined Papal-Spanish army commanded by Ramón de Cardona, the Viceroy of Naples. Gaston marched his army to Bologna and scattered the armies of the Holy League and he then went north and defeated the Venetians at Brescia, which the French later captured after a furious assault. Gaston had established control over northern Italy by March 1512. He then force marched his troops south, intending to besiege Ravenna, Cardona led the Papal-Spanish forces cautiously near the French lines in order to form a strong defensive position. Gaston had about 23,000 soldiers,8,500 of which were German landsknechte, Cardona had roughly 16,000 troops and 30 artillery pieces, the garrison of Ravenna could count about 5,000 men. Gaston sent an invitation for battle to Cardona, who readily accepted. The decisive Battle of Ravenna would be fought on 11 April 1512, the Spanish had their backs to the Ronco River and maintained a relatively secure front thanks to the strong entrenchments and obstacles prepared by the famous engineer Pedro Navarro. Gaston left 2,000 men to watch Ravenna and moved the rest of his force against Cardona, the heavy bombardment did not trouble the well-protected Spanish infantry, but the cavalry could take no more and assaulted the French without orders. These charges were beaten back and the French counter-attacked. A bloody one-hour struggle ensued between the landsknechts and the Spanish in the entrenchments, at this moment, two cannons that Gaston had sent behind the Spanish lines opened fire and wrought havoc on the enemy rear. The Spanish withdrew and suffered tremendous casualties, during the pursuit, Gaston led a cavalry charge against a recalcitrant Spanish infantry unit. French casualties ran up to 9,000 while the Spanish lost nearly their entire army, as well as Pedro Navarro, the death of Gaston de Foix was a huge blow to the French. The young and impetuous warrior had displayed a talent for high command in the recent series of French victories. It is possible that the Italian Wars would have taken a different course had he lived
10. Uberto Gambara – Uberto Gambara was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal. Uberto Gambara was born in Brescia on January 23,1489, when he was 10 years old, he was destined for a career in the church. He was named provost of Verolanuova and chaplain of San Giacomo in 1502 and he briefly left the ecclesiastical state, fighting alongside his brother Brunoro in the French army of Gaston of Foix, Duke of Nemours then invading Brescia. He then reentered the ecclesiastical estate, traveling to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Leo X, the pope named him nuncio to the Kingdom of Portugal, a post he would continue to occupy during the papacies of Pope Adrian VI and Pope Clement VII. The latter pope then named him nuncio to the court of Francis I of France, in 1527, he became nuncio to the Kingdom of England. There, he coordinated with the legate to England, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. Pope Clement VII was imprisoned by imperial troops following the Sack of Rome, during this period, Gambara traveled to Paris to attempt to raise military assistance to free the pontiff. On May 8,1528, he was elected bishop of Tortona, coinciding with the pope naming him governor of Bologna and he was present at the imperial coronation of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Bologna on February 24,1530. At the end of his governship, he was consecrated as a bishop in February 1533 in Bologna by Gian Matteo Giberti. In 1539, Pope Paul III made him vicar of Rome and he then made him a cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19,1539. He received the red hat and the church of San Silvestro in Capite on January 28,1540. He opted for the church of San Martino ai Monti on March 23,1541. On January 9,1542, he was named administrator of the see of Policastro and he was the papal legate in Parma and Piacenza from January 27,1542 until March 5,1544. He opted for the church of SantApollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine on February 15,1542. He was the Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9,1545 to January 8,1546 and he was then sent to France, returning to Rome on December 16,1547. On March 22,1548, he resigned the government of the see of Tortona in favor of his nephew and he then traveled to Genoa, returning to Rome on January 5,1549. He died in Rome on February 14,1549 and his remains were returned to Brescia and he was buried in Santa Maria delle Grazie
11. Henry Guildford – Sir Henry Guildford, KG was an English courtier of the reign of Henry VIII, master of the horse and comptroller of the royal household. He was the son of Sir Richard Guildford by his second marriage and his mother was Joan, sister of Sir Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden. On the accession of Henry VIII, he was a man of twenty. On 18 January 1510 he and his half-brother, Sir Edward, eleven of them impersonated Robin Hood and his men, and with a woman representing Maid Marian surprised the queen in her chamber with their dancing and mummery. Next year, on Twelfth Night, he was the designer of the pageant with which the Christmas revelries concluded, a mountain which moved towards the king and opened, and out of which came morris-dancers. At the tournament next month, held in honour of the birth of a prince, early next year they had both returned, and received the same honour at the hands of their own king at the prorogation of the parliament on 30 March 1512. Hitherto he had been only squire of the body, a position he still to have retained along with the honour of knighthood. He was also a ‘spear’ in the service, and of as 29 March 1510 he had a grant of the wardship of Anne, daughter. In May 1512 he married Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Bryan, the kings sister, Mary, at that time called Princess of Castile, made an offering of six shillings and eightpence at his marriage. On 6 June the king granted to him and his wife the manors of Hampton-in-Arden in Warwickshire and Byker and he commanded a hundred men when he passed out of Calais on 30 June. He and Sir Charles Brandon had five shillings a day each as joint captains of the Sovereign, at the winning of Tournai he was created a knight-banneret, and as master of the revels he celebrated the victory by an interlude, in which he himself played before the king. On 6 November 1515 he was appointed Master of the Horse, with a salary of £40 a year, on the same day he had an annuity of fifty marks granted to him as squire of the body. In 1519 he received two letters from Erasmus in praise of the court of Henry VIII, next year he attended the king as Master of the Horse to the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and also to the meeting with the Emperor Charles V at Gravelines. On 12 February 1521 he had a grant of the custody of the manor of Leeds in Kent, in May following he was one of the justices both in Kent and in Surrey before whom indictments were found against Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham. Next year, on 24 April, the manor of Hadlow in Kent was granted to him. In May 1522 he went again in Wolseys train to meet the emperor at his landing at Dover, in 1522, after surrendering his post as master of the horse, he was appointed Comptroller of the Household. In 1523 he became, on the return of Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare to Ireland, one of the earls sureties that he would again on reasonable warning. On 1 September on the death of his uncle Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden, Guilford and he took on administrative duties, such as Chamberlain of the Exchequer from 1525 and in 1526 was invested as a Knight of the Garter
12. Georg Hartmann – Georg Hartmann was a German engineer, instrument maker, author, printer, humanist, churchman, and astronomer. Hartmann was born in Eggolsheim near Forchheim, present-day Bavaria, at the age of 17, he began studying theology and mathematics at the University of Cologne. After finishing his studies, he travelled through Italy and finally settled in Nuremberg in 1518, there he constructed astrolabes, globes, sundials, and quadrants. In addition to traditional scientific instruments Hartmann also made gunners levels. Hartmann was possibly the first to discover the inclination of Earths magnetic field and his two published works were Perspectiva Communis, a reprint of John Peckhams 1292 book on optics and Directorium, a book on astrology. He also left Collectanea mathematica praeprimis gnomonicam spectania,151 f, MS Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Quarto, Saec. 16, a work on sundials and astrolabes that was translated by John Lamprey. Constanze Lindner Haigis, Dieter Nievergelt, Der frühese Modellbaubogen, ein Sonnenuhr-Kruzifix von Georg Hartmann aus Nürnberg
13. Hosokawa Sumimoto – Hosokawa Sumimoto was a samurai commander in the Muromachi period during the 16th century of Japan. Sumimoto was one of the few sons of Hosokawa Yoshiharu and a son of Hosokawa Masamoto. His roots was the Hosokawa clan at Awa Province, Masamoto did not have his own child and originally had decided to let Hosokawa Sumiyuki, who was from Kujyō clan, succeed the house. However, he changed his mind later and decided to let Sumimoto and this naturally caused a rift between Sumimoto and Sumiyuki. In 1507, Masamoto was killed by an adherent of Sumiyuki, Sumimoto was attacked by a retainer of Sumiyuki, Kozai Motonaga, and escaped to Koga, Ōmi Province, taking refuge at Rokkaku Takayori. Following this, a vassal under the Hosokawa, known as Miyoshi Yukinaga, raised troops in Settsu. After repulsing Sumiyuki, Sumimoto succeeded the house in proper form and he and Hosokawa Takakuni, who was from a branch of Hosokawa clan and also another foster son of Masamoto, supported Ashikaga Yoshizumi, who was backed up to the 11th Shogun by Masamoto. In 1493, Masamoto had deposed the 10th Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiki, in 1508, Ōuchi Yoshioki, who then harbored Yoshiki, marched his armies into Kyoto and returned Yoshiki back to the seat of Shogun. The relationship between Sumimoto and Takakuni was no longer in harmony, and while Takakuni acted in concert with Yoshioki, Sumimoto intended to battle Yoshioki in the province of Settsu, but ended up fleeing to Awa after seeing the superior numbers of Yoshiokis army. In 1511, Sumitomo returned to Kyoto but was defeated by Takakuni, the death of Yoshizumi was another shock to the camp of Sumimoto. Ōuchi Yoshioki left the capital in 1518 to maintain his own dominion, however, Yukinaga was attacked and defeated by Hosokawa Takakuni and the clan of Rokkaku, who were then at the side of Ashikaga Yoshiki. Yukinaga was caught and forced to die by seppuku, Sumimoto was ill and had not advanced to Kyoto. After Yukinagas defeat, he escaped again to his province of Awa
14. Lorenzo Leonbruno – Lorenzo Leonbruno, also known as Lorenzo de Leombeni, was an Italian painter during the early Renaissance period. He was born in Mantua, an Italian commune in Lombardy, Leonbruno is most well known for being commissioned by the court of Federico Gonzanga. Leonbruno was trained as an artist in the workshop of Andrea Mantegna, during the period 1504-1506, he was sent to Florence to work as an apprentice under Pietro Perugino. During his stay in Florence, Leonbruno had access to the works of Emilian artists Antonio da Correggio, in 1511, Leonbruno travelled to Venice. In 1512, he returned to Mantua on the commission from Lorenzo Costa the Elder to paint the Apollo and the Nine Muses frescoes in the Palazzo di San Sebastiano and these works have since been destroyed. In 1511, he received a stipend from the duke Francesco IV Gonzaga and he was a pupil of the painter Lorenzo Costa. He painted a St Jerome found in the Ducal palace, in 1521, he briefly traveled to Rome. He also worked as an architect and engineer, giulio Romano is said to have painted over much of his fresco work for the duke of Mantua. Out from the Shadow of Isabella, The Artistic Patronage of Francesco II Gonzaga, the Palazzo di San Sebastiano and the Patronage of Francesco II Gonzaga, Fourth Marquis of Mantua. In Dossos Fate, Painting and Court Culture in Renaissance Italy, the Art of Mantua, Power and Patronage in the Renaissance. Rome, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, if So in Adversity, Mastering Fortune in Lorenzo Leonbrunos Calumny of Apelles. Journal of California Italian Studies 4, 1-45, creating the Court Lady, Isabella DEste as Patron and Subject. Saleroom Discoveries, A Nativity by Lorenzo Leonbruno, Lorenzo Leonbruno, Un Pittore a Corte nella Mantova di Primo Cinquecento. Ralph Nicholson Wornum, ed. Biographical catalogue of the principal Italian painters, woodfall & Kinder, Angel Court, Skinner Street, London, Digitized by Googlebooks from Oxford University copy on Jun 27,2006
15. Margaret Tudor – As queen dowager she married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus. Through her first and second marriages, respectively, Margaret was the grandmother of both Mary, Queen of Scots, and Marys second husband, Lord Darnley. Margarets marriage to James IV foreshadowed the Union of the Crowns – their great-grandson, James VI and she was also the niece of the Princes In The Tower Margaret was baptised in St. Margarets Church, Westminster. She was named after Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, daughters were important political assets in a world where diplomacy and marriage were closely linked. On 30 September 1497, James IVs commissioner, the Spaniard Pedro de Ayala concluded a truce with England. James was in his twenties and still unmarried. On 24 January 1502, Scotland and England concluded the Treaty of Perpetual Peace, the marriage treaty was concluded the same day and was viewed as a guarantee of the new peace. The marriage was completed by proxy on 25 January 1503 at Richmond Palace, Patrick, Earl of Bothwell, was proxy for the Scottish King and wore a gown of cloth-of-gold at the ceremony in the Queens great chamber. He was accompanied by the Archbishop of Glasgow and Andrew Forman, the herald, John Young, reported that right notable jousts followed the ceremony. Prizes were awarded the next morning and the tournament continued another day, Margaret was now regarded as Queen of Scots. The new queen was provided with a wardrobe of clothes. Clothes were also made for her companion, Lady Catherine Gordon, later in 1503, Margaret came to Scotland, her progress was a grand journey northward. She left Richmond Palace on the 27 June with Henry VII, at York a plaque commemorates the exact spot where the Queen of Scots entered its gates. After crossing the border at Berwick upon Tweed on 1 August 1503, at Dalkeith Palace, James came to kiss her goodnight. He came again to console her on 4 August after a fire had killed some of her favourite horses. Her riding gear was burnt and a new sumpter cloth or pallion of cloth-of-gold harvtxt £127, on the 7 August 1503, Margaret was carried from Dalkeith to Edinburgh on a litter. At a meadow a mile from Edinburgh, there was a pavilion where Sir Patrick Hamilton and Patrick Sinclair played, on 8 August 1503, the marriage was celebrated in person in Holyrood Abbey. The rites were performed by the Archbishop of Glasgow and the Archbishop of York, two days later, on St Lawrences day, Margaret went to mass at St Giles, the towns Kirk, as her first public appointment
16. Urbanus Rhegius – Urbanus Henricus Rhegius or Urban Rieger was a Protestant Reformer who was active both in Northern and Southern Germany in order to promote Lutheran unity in the Holy Roman Empire. The son of Konrad Rieger, a priest, was educated in Lindau and studied in Freiburg im Breisgau, Ingolstadt, Tübingen and Basel, in 1519, he was ordained a priest in Konstanz, and in 1520, he became preacher in Augsburg. Aschendorff´, Münster 1980 Hellmut Zschoch, Reformatorische Existenz und konfessionelle Identität, Urbanus Rhegius als evangelischer Theologe in den Jahren 1520 bis 1530 Tübingen 1995 Heinz Moser, Waldaufstiftung Hall in Tirol. Urkunden aus den Jahren 1490-1856 Innsbruck 2000, 42-46 Romedio Schmitz-Esser, die Lehren Luthers und ihr Niederschlag in Hall in Tirol, in, Tiroler Heimatblätter 82/1 12-18. Dietmar Lamprecht, Urbanus Rhegius, der vergessene Reformator der Lüneburger Heide, ISBN 3-87546-024-3 Prof. Eduard Hindelang, Walter König, Der Reformator Urbanus Rhegius - Chronik einer Familie zwischen Langenargen und Finkenwerder