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Pages in category "1489 births"
The following 57 pages are in this category, out of 57 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1489 births.|
The following 57 pages are in this category, out of 57 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Antonio da Correggio – In his use of dynamic composition, illusionistic perspective and dramatic foreshortening, Correggio prefigured the Rococo art of the 18th century. He is considered a master of chiaroscuro, antonio Allegri was born in Correggio, Italy, a small town near Reggio Emilia. His date of birth is uncertain, otherwise little is known about Correggios early life or training. It is, however, often assumed that he had his first artistic education from his fathers brother, after a trip to Mantua in 1506, he returned to Correggio, where he stayed until 1510. To this period is assigned the Adoration of the Child with St. Elizabeth and John, by 1516, Correggio was in Parma, where he spent most of the remainder of his career. Here, he befriended Michelangelo Anselmi, a prominent Mannerist painter, in 1519 he married Girolama Francesca di Braghetis, also of Correggio, who died in 1529. One of his sons, Pomponio Allegri, became an undistinguished painter, from this period are the Madonna and Child with the Young Saint John, Christ Leaving His Mother and the lost Madonna of Albinea. Correggios first major commission was the decoration of the private dining salon of the mother-superior of the convent of St Paul called the Camera di San Paolo at Parma. Here he painted an arbor pierced by oculi opening to glimpses of playful cherubs, below the oculi are lunettes with images of feigned monochromic marble. The fireplace is frescoed with an image of Diana, the iconography of the scheme is complex, combining images of classical marbles with whimsical colorful bambini. While it recalls the secular frescoes of the palace of the Villa Farnesina in Rome. He then painted the illusionistic Vision of St. John on Patmos for the dome of the church of San Giovanni Evangelista. Three years later he decorated the dome of the Cathedral of Parma with a startling Assumption of the Virgin, the recession and movement implied by the figures presage the dynamism that would characterize Baroque painting. Other masterpieces include The Lamentation and The Martyrdom of Four Saints, the Lamentation is haunted by a lambence rarely seen in Italian painting prior to this time. The Martyrdom is also remarkable for resembling later Baroque compositions such as Berninis Truth and Ercole Ferratas Death of Saint Agnes, aside from his religious output, Correggio conceived a now-famous set of paintings depicting the Loves of Jupiter as described in Ovids Metamorphoses. The voluptuous series was commissioned by Federico II Gonzaga of Mantua, however, they were given to the visiting Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and thus left Italy within years of their completion. Danaë, now in Romes Borghese Gallery, depicts the maiden as she is impregnated by a curtain of gilded divine rain. Her lower torso semi-obscured by sheets, Danae appears more demure and gleeful than Titians 1545 version of the same topic, the picture once called Antiope and the Satyr is now correctly identified as Venus and Cupid with a Satyr
2. Thomas Cranmer – Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henrys marriage to Catherine of Aragon, along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm. During Cranmers tenure as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was responsible for establishing the first doctrinal and liturgical structures of the reformed Church of England, under Henrys rule, Cranmer did not make many radical changes in the Church, due to power struggles between religious conservatives and reformers. However, he succeeded in publishing the first officially authorised vernacular service, when Edward came to the throne, Cranmer was able to promote major reforms. He wrote and compiled the first two editions of the Book of Common Prayer, a liturgy for the English Church. Cranmer promulgated the new doctrines through the Prayer Book, the Homilies, after the accession of the Roman Catholic Mary I, Cranmer was put on trial for treason and heresy. Imprisoned for over two years and under pressure from Church authorities, he made several recantations and apparently reconciled himself with the Roman Catholic Church. However, on the day of his execution, he withdrew his recantations, to die a heretic to Roman Catholics, Cranmer was born in 1489 in Aslockton in Nottinghamshire, England. His parents, Thomas and Agnes Cranmer, were of modest wealth and were not members of the aristocracy and their oldest son, John, inherited the family estate, whereas Thomas and his younger brother Edmund were placed on the path to a clerical career. Today historians know nothing definite about Cranmers early schooling and he probably attended a grammar school in his village. At the age of fourteen, two years after the death of his father, he was sent to the newly created Jesus College, Cambridge. It took him a surprisingly long eight years to reach his Bachelor of Arts degree following a curriculum of logic, classical literature, during this time, he began to collect medieval scholastic books, which he preserved faithfully throughout his life. For his masters degree he took a different course of study, concentrating on the humanists, Jacques Lefèvre dÉtaples and this time he progressed with no special delay, finishing the course in three years. Shortly after receiving his Master of Arts degree in 1515, he was elected to a Fellowship of Jesus College, sometime after Cranmer took his MA, he married a woman named Joan. Although he was not yet a priest, he was forced to forfeit his fellowship, to support himself and his wife, he took a job as a reader at Buckingham Hall. When Joan died during her first childbirth, Jesus College showed its regard for Cranmer by reinstating his fellowship and he began studying theology and by 1520 he had been ordained, the university already having named him as one of their preachers. He received his Doctor of Divinity degree in 1526, not much is known about Cranmers thoughts and experiences during his three decades at Cambridge. Traditionally, he has been portrayed as a humanist whose enthusiasm for biblical scholarship prepared him for the adoption of Lutheran ideas, however, a study of his marginalia reveals an early antipathy to Martin Luther and an admiration for Erasmus
3. Lorenzo Leonbruno – Lorenzo Leonbruno, also known as Lorenzo de Leombeni, was an Italian painter during the early Renaissance period. He was born in Mantua, an Italian commune in Lombardy, Leonbruno is most well known for being commissioned by the court of Federico Gonzanga. Leonbruno was trained as an artist in the workshop of Andrea Mantegna, during the period 1504-1506, he was sent to Florence to work as an apprentice under Pietro Perugino. During his stay in Florence, Leonbruno had access to the works of Emilian artists Antonio da Correggio, in 1511, Leonbruno travelled to Venice. In 1512, he returned to Mantua on the commission from Lorenzo Costa the Elder to paint the Apollo and the Nine Muses frescoes in the Palazzo di San Sebastiano and these works have since been destroyed. In 1511, he received a stipend from the duke Francesco IV Gonzaga and he was a pupil of the painter Lorenzo Costa. He painted a St Jerome found in the Ducal palace, in 1521, he briefly traveled to Rome. He also worked as an architect and engineer, giulio Romano is said to have painted over much of his fresco work for the duke of Mantua. Out from the Shadow of Isabella, The Artistic Patronage of Francesco II Gonzaga, the Palazzo di San Sebastiano and the Patronage of Francesco II Gonzaga, Fourth Marquis of Mantua. In Dossos Fate, Painting and Court Culture in Renaissance Italy, the Art of Mantua, Power and Patronage in the Renaissance. Rome, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, if So in Adversity, Mastering Fortune in Lorenzo Leonbrunos Calumny of Apelles. Journal of California Italian Studies 4, 1-45, creating the Court Lady, Isabella DEste as Patron and Subject. Saleroom Discoveries, A Nativity by Lorenzo Leonbruno, Lorenzo Leonbruno, Un Pittore a Corte nella Mantova di Primo Cinquecento. Ralph Nicholson Wornum, ed. Biographical catalogue of the principal Italian painters, woodfall & Kinder, Angel Court, Skinner Street, London, Digitized by Googlebooks from Oxford University copy on Jun 27,2006
4. Margaret Tudor – As queen dowager she married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus. Through her first and second marriages, respectively, Margaret was the grandmother of both Mary, Queen of Scots, and Marys second husband, Lord Darnley. Margarets marriage to James IV foreshadowed the Union of the Crowns – their great-grandson, James VI and she was also the niece of the Princes In The Tower Margaret was baptised in St. Margarets Church, Westminster. She was named after Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, daughters were important political assets in a world where diplomacy and marriage were closely linked. On 30 September 1497, James IVs commissioner, the Spaniard Pedro de Ayala concluded a truce with England. James was in his twenties and still unmarried. On 24 January 1502, Scotland and England concluded the Treaty of Perpetual Peace, the marriage treaty was concluded the same day and was viewed as a guarantee of the new peace. The marriage was completed by proxy on 25 January 1503 at Richmond Palace, Patrick, Earl of Bothwell, was proxy for the Scottish King and wore a gown of cloth-of-gold at the ceremony in the Queens great chamber. He was accompanied by the Archbishop of Glasgow and Andrew Forman, the herald, John Young, reported that right notable jousts followed the ceremony. Prizes were awarded the next morning and the tournament continued another day, Margaret was now regarded as Queen of Scots. The new queen was provided with a wardrobe of clothes. Clothes were also made for her companion, Lady Catherine Gordon, later in 1503, Margaret came to Scotland, her progress was a grand journey northward. She left Richmond Palace on the 27 June with Henry VII, at York a plaque commemorates the exact spot where the Queen of Scots entered its gates. After crossing the border at Berwick upon Tweed on 1 August 1503, at Dalkeith Palace, James came to kiss her goodnight. He came again to console her on 4 August after a fire had killed some of her favourite horses. Her riding gear was burnt and a new sumpter cloth or pallion of cloth-of-gold harvtxt £127, on the 7 August 1503, Margaret was carried from Dalkeith to Edinburgh on a litter. At a meadow a mile from Edinburgh, there was a pavilion where Sir Patrick Hamilton and Patrick Sinclair played, on 8 August 1503, the marriage was celebrated in person in Holyrood Abbey. The rites were performed by the Archbishop of Glasgow and the Archbishop of York, two days later, on St Lawrences day, Margaret went to mass at St Giles, the towns Kirk, as her first public appointment
5. Mimar Sinan – Koca Mimâr Sinân Âğâ was the chief Ottoman architect and civil engineer for sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He was responsible for the construction of more than 300 major structures and other more modest projects and his apprentices would later design the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Stari Most in Mostar, and help design the Taj Mahal in the Mughal Empire. The son of a stonemason, he received a technical education and he rose rapidly through the ranks to become first an officer and finally a Janissary commander, with the honorific title of ağa. He remained in this post for almost fifty years and his masterpiece is the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, although his most famous work is the Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul. He headed an extensive governmental department and trained many assistants who, in turn, distinguished themselves, including Sedefkar Mehmed Agha and he is considered the greatest architect of the classical period of Ottoman architecture and has been compared to Michelangelo, his contemporary in the West. Michelangelo and his plans for St. Mimar Sinans works are among the most influential buildings in history, according to contemporary biographer, Mustafa Sâi Çelebi, Sinan was born in 1489 with the name Joseph. He was born either an Armenian, Cappadocian Greek, Albanian, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Sinan had either Armenian or Greek origin. According to some scholars, this means that his family was Cappadocian Greek because the only Orthodox Christians of the region were Greeks, also, some of them have identified his father as a stonemason and carpenter by the name of Christos, a common Greek name. According to Herbert J. Muller though, he seems to have been an Armenian, lucy Der Manuelian of Tufts University suggests that he can be identified as an Armenian through a document in the imperial archives and other evidence. Several scholars have cited Sinans possible Albanian origin, Sinan grew up helping his father in his work, and by the time that he was conscripted would have had a good grounding in the practicalities of building work. There are three records in the library of Topkapı Palace, dictated by Sinan to his friend. In these manuscripts, Sinan divulges some details of his youth and his father is referred to as Abdülmennan, a title which was commonly used in the Ottoman period to define the non-Muslim father of a Muslim convert. In 1512, Sinan was conscripted into Ottoman service under the devshirme system and he was sent to Constantinople to be trained as an officer of the Janissary Corps and converted to Islam. He was too old to be admitted to the imperial Enderun School in the Topkapı Palace but was sent instead to an auxiliary school, some records claim that he might have served the Grand Vizier Pargalı İbrahim Pasha as a novice of the Ibrahim Pasha School. Possibly, he was given the Islamic name Sinan there and he initially learned carpentry and mathematics but through his intellectual qualities and ambitions, he soon assisted the leading architects and got his training as an architect. During the next six years, he trained to be a Janissary officer. He possibly joined Selim I in his last military campaign, Rhodes according to sources, but when the Sultan died. Two years later he witnessed the conquest of Belgrade, under the new sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, he was present, as a member of the Household Cavalry, at the Battle of Mohács
6. William Farel – William Farel, Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel, was a French evangelist, and a founder of the Reformed Church in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Berne, Geneva, and Vaud in Switzerland. He is most often remembered for having persuaded John Calvin to remain in Geneva in 1536 and they influenced the government of Geneva to the point that it became the Protestant Rome, where Protestants took refuge and non-Protestants were driven out. Together with Calvin, Farel worked to train missionary preachers who spread the Protestant cause to other countries, Farel was born in 1489 in Gap. He was a pupil of the pro-reform Catholic priesthood, at the University of Paris, there he met the scholar Jacques Lefevre dEtaples who helped Farel obtain a professorship to teach grammar and philosophy at the Collège Cardinal Lemoine in Paris. With Lefevre he became a member of the Cercle de Meaux gathered together from 1519 by the bishop of Meaux. Farel eventually became regent of the college, by 1522 he was appointed a diocesan preacher by the Reformist bishop of Meaux, Guillaume Briçonnet. Farel now could invite a number of evangelical Humanists to work in his diocese to implement his reform program within the Catholic Church. This group of Humanists also included Josse van Clichtove, Martial Mazurier, Gérard Roussel, the members of the Meaux circle were of different talents but they generally emphasized the study of the Bible and a return to the theology of the early Church. While working with Lefevre in Meaux, Farel came under the influence of Lutheran ideas, after condemnation by the Sorbonne, Farel evangelized fervently in the Dauphiné. Farel was forced to flee to Switzerland because of controversy that was aroused by his writings against the use of images in Christian worship and he spent time at Zurich with Huldrych Zwingli and at Strasbourg, with Martin Bucer. He convinced Neuchâtel to join the Reform in 1530, Farel established himself in Geneva in 1532, where he remained as minister, drawing Calvin to the city, but breaking with him over the Eucharist. He, along with Calvin, was banished from Geneva in 1538, in part for his rigorous positions, and retired to Neuchâtel, although Farel was a friend of Calvins, he was a promoter of Lutheran ideas in his youth
7. Gaston of Foix, Duke of Nemours – Born in Mazères, County of Foix, he was the second child but only son of John of Foix, Viscount of Narbonne and Marie dOrléans. His older sister was Germaine of Foix, Queen consort of Aragon as the wife of Ferdinand II. His paternal grandparents were Gaston IV of Foix-Grailly and Queen regnant Eleanor of Navarre and his maternal grandparents were Charles, Duke of Orléans and Marie of Cleves. His only maternal uncle was Louis XII of France, in 1511, Gaston arrived in Italy as a new commander at the age of 21. His presence and energy shifted the conflict into much higher levels of activity, French forces had captured Bologna on 13 May 1511 and were under siege from a combined Papal-Spanish army commanded by Ramón de Cardona, the Viceroy of Naples. Gaston marched his army to Bologna and scattered the armies of the Holy League and he then went north and defeated the Venetians at Brescia, which the French later captured after a furious assault. Gaston had established control over northern Italy by March 1512. He then force marched his troops south, intending to besiege Ravenna, Cardona led the Papal-Spanish forces cautiously near the French lines in order to form a strong defensive position. Gaston had about 23,000 soldiers,8,500 of which were German landsknechte, Cardona had roughly 16,000 troops and 30 artillery pieces, the garrison of Ravenna could count about 5,000 men. Gaston sent an invitation for battle to Cardona, who readily accepted. The decisive Battle of Ravenna would be fought on 11 April 1512, the Spanish had their backs to the Ronco River and maintained a relatively secure front thanks to the strong entrenchments and obstacles prepared by the famous engineer Pedro Navarro. Gaston left 2,000 men to watch Ravenna and moved the rest of his force against Cardona, the heavy bombardment did not trouble the well-protected Spanish infantry, but the cavalry could take no more and assaulted the French without orders. These charges were beaten back and the French counter-attacked. A bloody one-hour struggle ensued between the landsknechts and the Spanish in the entrenchments, at this moment, two cannons that Gaston had sent behind the Spanish lines opened fire and wrought havoc on the enemy rear. The Spanish withdrew and suffered tremendous casualties, during the pursuit, Gaston led a cavalry charge against a recalcitrant Spanish infantry unit. French casualties ran up to 9,000 while the Spanish lost nearly their entire army, as well as Pedro Navarro, the death of Gaston de Foix was a huge blow to the French. The young and impetuous warrior had displayed a talent for high command in the recent series of French victories. It is possible that the Italian Wars would have taken a different course had he lived
8. Henry Guildford – Sir Henry Guildford, KG was an English courtier of the reign of Henry VIII, master of the horse and comptroller of the royal household. He was the son of Sir Richard Guildford by his second marriage and his mother was Joan, sister of Sir Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden. On the accession of Henry VIII, he was a man of twenty. On 18 January 1510 he and his half-brother, Sir Edward, eleven of them impersonated Robin Hood and his men, and with a woman representing Maid Marian surprised the queen in her chamber with their dancing and mummery. Next year, on Twelfth Night, he was the designer of the pageant with which the Christmas revelries concluded, a mountain which moved towards the king and opened, and out of which came morris-dancers. At the tournament next month, held in honour of the birth of a prince, early next year they had both returned, and received the same honour at the hands of their own king at the prorogation of the parliament on 30 March 1512. Hitherto he had been only squire of the body, a position he still to have retained along with the honour of knighthood. He was also a ‘spear’ in the service, and of as 29 March 1510 he had a grant of the wardship of Anne, daughter. In May 1512 he married Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Bryan, the kings sister, Mary, at that time called Princess of Castile, made an offering of six shillings and eightpence at his marriage. On 6 June the king granted to him and his wife the manors of Hampton-in-Arden in Warwickshire and Byker and he commanded a hundred men when he passed out of Calais on 30 June. He and Sir Charles Brandon had five shillings a day each as joint captains of the Sovereign, at the winning of Tournai he was created a knight-banneret, and as master of the revels he celebrated the victory by an interlude, in which he himself played before the king. On 6 November 1515 he was appointed Master of the Horse, with a salary of £40 a year, on the same day he had an annuity of fifty marks granted to him as squire of the body. In 1519 he received two letters from Erasmus in praise of the court of Henry VIII, next year he attended the king as Master of the Horse to the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and also to the meeting with the Emperor Charles V at Gravelines. On 12 February 1521 he had a grant of the custody of the manor of Leeds in Kent, in May following he was one of the justices both in Kent and in Surrey before whom indictments were found against Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham. Next year, on 24 April, the manor of Hadlow in Kent was granted to him. In May 1522 he went again in Wolseys train to meet the emperor at his landing at Dover, in 1522, after surrendering his post as master of the horse, he was appointed Comptroller of the Household. In 1523 he became, on the return of Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare to Ireland, one of the earls sureties that he would again on reasonable warning. On 1 September on the death of his uncle Nicholas Vaux, 1st Baron Vaux of Harrowden, Guilford and he took on administrative duties, such as Chamberlain of the Exchequer from 1525 and in 1526 was invested as a Knight of the Garter