Category:14th-century Christian saints
Pages in category "14th-century Christian saints"
The following 83 pages are in this category, out of 83 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 83 pages are in this category, out of 83 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Catherine of Siena – Saint Catherine of Siena, T. O. S. D. was a tertiary of the Dominican Order and a Scholastic philosopher and theologian. She also worked to bring the papacy of Gregory XI back to Rome from its displacement in France, since 18 June 1939, Catherine of Siena has been one of the two patron saints of Italy, together with St. Francis of Assisi. The house where Catherine grew up is still in existence, Lapa was about forty years old when she gave premature birth to twin daughters Catherine and Giovanna. She had already borne 22 children, but half of them had died, Giovanna was handed over to a wet-nurse and died soon after. Catherine was nursed by her mother and developed into a healthy child and she was two years old when Lapa had her 25th child, another daughter named Giovanna. As a child Catherine was so merry that the family gave her the pet name of Euphrosyne, which is Greek for joy and the name of an early Christian saint. Catherine is said by her confessor and biographer Raymond of Capua O. P. Raymond continues that at age seven, Catherine vowed to give her whole life to God. When Catherine was sixteen, her older sister Bonaventura died in childbirth, already anguished by this and she was absolutely opposed and started a massive fast. She had learned this from Bonaventura, her husband had been far from considerate, besides fasting, Catherine further disappointed her mother by cutting off her long hair as a protest against being overly encouraged to improve her appearance to attract a husband. Catherine would later advise Raymond of Capua to do during times of trouble what she did now as a teenager, Build a cell inside your mind, from which you can never flee. In this inner cell she made her father into a representation of Christ, her mother into the Blessed Virgin Mary, serving them humbly became an opportunity for spiritual growth. Catherine resisted the accepted course of marriage and motherhood on the one hand and she chose to live an active and prayerful life outside a convent’s walls following the model of the Dominicans. Eventually her father gave up and permitted her to live as she pleased. A vision of St. Dominic gave strength to Catherine, but her wish to join his Order was no comfort to Lapa, who took her daughter with her to the baths in Bagno Vignoni to improve her health. Catherine fell seriously ill with a violent rash, fever and pain, which made her mother accept her wish to join the Mantellate. Lapa went to the Sisters of the Order and persuaded them to take in her daughter, within days, Catherine seemed entirely restored, rose from bed and donned the black and white habit of the Third Order of St. Dominic. Catherine received the habit of a Dominican tertiary from the friars of the Order after vigorous protests from the tertiaries themselves, as a tertiary, she lived outside the convent, at home with her family like before. The Mantellate taught Catherine how to read, and she lived in almost total silence and her custom of giving away clothing and food without asking anyones permission cost her family significantly, but she demanded nothing for herself
2. Dmitry Donskoy – He was the first prince of Moscow to openly challenge Mongol authority in Russia. His nickname, Donskoy, alludes to his victory against the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo. He is venerated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church with his feast day on 19 May, Dmitry ascended the throne of the Principality of Moscow at the age of 9. During his minority, Russias Metropolitan Aleksey ran the government, in 1360 Khizr-khan, Khan of the Golden Horde, transferred the title most prized among Russian princes, that of Grand Prince of Vladimir, to Dmitry Konstantinovich of Nizhniy Novgorod. In 1363, after that prince was deposed, Dmitry Ivanovich was crowned at Vladimir, three years later, he made peace with Dmitriy Konstantinovich and married his daughter Eudoxia. In 1376 their joint armies ravaged Volga Bulgaria, the most important event during Dmitrys early reign was start of building the Moscow Kremlin, it was completed in 1367. Thanks to the new fortress, the city withstood two sieges by Algirdas of Lithuania during the Lithuanian–Muscovite War, the war ended with the Treaty of Lyubutsk. In 1375, Dmitry settled, in his own favor, a conflict with Mikhail II of Tver over Vladimir, other princes of Northern Russia acknowledged his authority and contributed troops to the impending struggle against the Horde. By the end of his reign, Dmitry had more than doubled the territory of the Principality of Moscow, Mongol domination of parts of what is now Russia began to crumble during Dmitrys thirty-year reign. The Golden Horde was severely weakened by war and dynastic rivalries. Dmitry took advantage of this lapse in Mongol authority to challenge the Tatars. While he kept the Khans patent to collect taxes for all of Russia, Mamai, a Mongol general and claimant to the throne, tried to punish Dmitry for attempting to increase his power. In 1378 Mamai sent a Mongol army, but it was defeated by Dmitrys forces in the Battle of Vozha River, two years later Mamai personally led a large force against Moscow. Dmitry met and defeated it at the Battle of Kulikovo, the defeated Mamai was presently dethroned by a rival Mongol general, Tokhtamysh. That khan reasserted Mongol rule over parts of now is Russia. Dimitry, however, pledged his loyalty to Tokhtamysh and to the Golden Horde and was reinstated as Mongol principal tax collector, upon his death in 1389, Dimitry was the first Grand Duke to bequeath his titles to his son Vasiliy without consulting the Khan. He was married to Eudoxia of Nizhniy Novgorod and she was a daughter of Dmitry of Suzdal and Vasilisa of Rostov. They had at least twelve children, Daniil Dmitriyevich, married Fyodor Olegovich, Prince of Ryazan
3. Vincent Ferrer – Vincent Ferrer, O. P. was a Valencian Dominican friar, who gained acclaim as a missionary and a logician. He is honored as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, Vincent was the fourth child of the nobleman Guillem Ferrer, a notary who came from Palamós, and wife, Constança Miquel, apparently from Valencia itself or Girona. It was said that his father was told in a dream by a Dominican friar that his son would be throughout the world. His mother is never to have experienced pain when she gave birth to him. He was named after St. Vincent Martyr, the saint of Valencia. He would fast on Wednesdays and Fridays and he loved the Passion of Christ very much and he would help the poor and distribute alms to them. He began his studies at the age of eight, his study of theology. Four years later, at the age of nineteen, Ferrer entered the Order of Preachers, commonly called the Dominican Order, as soon as he had entered the novitiate of the Order, though, he experienced temptations urging him to leave. Even his parents pleaded with him to do so and become a secular priest and he prayed and practiced penance to overcome these trials. Thus he succeeded in completing the year of probation and advancing to his profession, for a period of three years, he read solely Sacred Scripture and eventually committed it to memory. He published a treatise on Dialectic Suppositions after his solemn profession and he eventually became a Master of Sacred Theology and was commissioned by the Order to deliver lectures on philosophy. He was then sent to Barcelona and eventually to the University of Lleida, Vincent Ferrer is described as a man of medium height, with a lofty forehead and very distinct features. His hair was fair in color and tonsured and his eyes were very dark and expressive, his manner gentle. His voice was strong and powerful, at times gentle, resonant, the Western Schism divided Roman Catholicism between two, then eventually three, claimants to the papacy. Clement VII lived at Avignon in France, and Urban VI in Rome, Vincent was convinced that the election of Urban was invalid, although Catherine of Siena was just as devoted a supporter of the Roman pope. In the service of Cardinal Pedro de Luna, Vincent worked to persuade Spaniards to follow Clement, when Clement died in 1394, Cardinal de Luna was elected to the Avignon papacy and took the name Benedict XIII. Vincent was loyal to Benedict XIII, commonly known as Papa Luna in Castile and he worked for Benedict XIII as apostolic penitentiary and Master of the Sacred Palace. Nonetheless Vincent labored to have Benedict XIII end the schism, Vincent encouraged King Ferdinand I of Aragon to withdraw his support from Benedict XIII
4. Ivo of Kermartin – Also known Yvo or Ives, was a parish priest among the poor of Louannec, the only one of his station to be canonized in the Middle Ages. He is the patron of Brittany, lawyers and abandoned children, poetically, he is referred to as Advocate of the Poor. Born at Kermartin, a manor near Tréguier in Brittany, on 17 October 1253, Ivo was the son of Helori, lord of Kermartin, in 1267 Ivo was sent to the University of Paris, where he graduated in civil law. While other students partied, Ivo studied, prayed and visited the sick and he also refused to eat meat or drink wine. Among his fellow-students were the scholars Duns Scotus and Roger Bacon and he went to Orléans in 1277 to study canon law under Peter de la Chapelle, a famous jurist who later became bishop of Toulouse and a cardinal. On his return to Brittany, having received minor orders he was appointed an official and he protected orphans and widows, defended the poor, and rendered fair and impartial verdicts. It’s said that even those on the losing side respected his decisions, Ivo also represented the helpless in other courts, paid their expenses and visited them in prison. He earned the title “Advocate of the Poor. ”Although it was common to give judges “gifts and he often helped disputing parties settle out of court so they could save money. Meanwhile, he studied Scripture, and there are reasons for believing the tradition held among Franciscans that he joined the Third Order of St. Francis sometime later at Guingamp. Ivo was ordained to the priesthood in 1284 and he continued to practice law and once, when a mother and son couldn’t resolve their differences, he offered a Mass for them. Ivo was soon invited by the Bishop of Tréguier to become his official and he displayed great zeal and rectitude in the discharge of his duty and did not hesitate to resist taxation by the king, which he considered an encroachment on the rights of the Church. Due to his charity he gained the title of advocate and patron of the poor, having been ordained he was appointed to the parish of Tredrez in 1285 and eight years later to Louannec, where he died of natural causes after a life of hard work and repeated fasting. Tours was near Orleans, the bishop held his court there, one day he found his widow-landlady in tears. Her tale was that day she must go to court to answer to the suit of a traveling merchant who had tricked her. That day, Doe had come back, and called for the casket, saying that his partner Roe was detained elsewhere, and she in good faith in his story had delivered the casket to Doe. But then later came Roe demanding it, charging his partner with wronging him, and if she had to pay for those valuables it would ruin her. Have no fear, said young Ivo, I will go to court tomorrow, for you. When the case was called before the Judge, and the merchant Roe charged the widow with breach of faith, Not so, pleaded Ivo, the plaintiff has not proved his case
5. Jadwiga of Poland – Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig, reigned as the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland from 16 October 1384 until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Louis the Great, also known in Poland as Louis the Hungarian, King of Hungary and Poland, Jadwiga was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, but had more close ancestors among the Polish Piasts. She was canonized in the Roman Catholic Church in 1997 and her marriage to William of Austria was planned in 1375 and she lived in Vienna between 1378 and 1380. However, Louis died and Mary was crowned King of Hungary on the demand of her mother in 1382, Sigismund of Luxemburg tried to seize Poland, but the Polish noblemen countered that they would only obey a daughter of King Louis if she settled in their country. Queen Elizabeth then nominated Jadwiga to reign in Poland, but did not send her to Kraków to be crowned, during the interregnum, Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, became a candidate for the Polish throne. The nobles of Greater Poland especially favoured him, proposing he marry Jadwiga, however, the noblemen of Lesser Poland opposed his election and persuaded Queen Elizabeth to send Jadwiga to Poland. Jadwiga was crowned king in Kraków on 16 October 1384 and her crowning either reflected the Polish lords opposition to her intended future husband, William, adopting the royal title without a further Act or only emphasized that she was a queen regnant. With her mothers consent, Jadwigas advisors opened negotiations with Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Jogaila signed the Union of Krewo, promising to convert to Roman Catholicism and to promote his pagan subjects conversion. Meanwhile, William of Habsburg hurried to Kraków to demand the consummation of his marriage with Jadwiga. Jogaila, who received the baptismal name Władysław, married Jadwiga on 15 February 1386, legend says that she had only agreed to marry him after long prayers, seeking divine inspiration. Władysław-Jogaila was crowned king on 4 March, as her co-ruler, Władysław closely cooperated with his wife. She acted as mediator between her husbands quarreling kinsmen, and between Poland and the Teutonic Knights, after her sister, Mary died in 1395, Jadwiga and Władysław-Jogaila laid claim to Hungary against the widowed Sigismund of Luxemburg, but the Hungarian lords did not support them. Jadwiga was the third and youngest daughter of Louis I, King of Hungary and Poland, both her grandmothers were Polish princesses, connecting her to the native Piast dynasty of Poland. Historian Oscar Halecki concluded that Jadwigas genealogical tree shows that had more Polish blood than any other. The date of her birth is unknown and she was probably born after 3 October 1373, on this day, her father issued a charter which listed her two older sisters, Catherine and Mary, without mentioning Jadwiga. Her name was first recorded in her fathers instructions to his envoys to France on 17 April 1384, if by then, Jadwiga had reached twelve years, she must have been born before 18 February 1374. She was named after her distant ancestor, Saint Hedwig of Silesia, King Louis who had not fathered any sons, wanted to ensure his daughters right to inherit his realms. Therefore, European royals regarded his three daughters as especially attractive brides, Leopold III, Duke of Austria, proposed his eldest son, William, to Jadwiga already on 18 August 1374
6. John of Nepomuk – John of Nepomuk is the saint of Bohemia, who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia. Later accounts state that he was the confessor of the queen of Bohemia, Jan z Pomuku came from the small market town of Pomuk in Bohemia, now in the Czech Republic, which belonged to the nearby Cistercian abbey. Born in the 1340s, his father was a certain Velflín, the fathers name is probably diminutive of the German name Wolfgang. Jan first studied at the University of Prague, then furthered his studies in law at the University of Padua from 1383 to 1387. In 1393 he was made the vicar-general of Saint Giles Cathedral by Jan of Jenštejn, in the same year, on March 20, he was tortured and thrown into the river Vltava from Charles Bridge in Prague at the behest of King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia. Wenceslaus at the time was backing the Avignon papacy, whereas the Archbishop of Prague followed its rival. Contrary to the wishes of Wenceslaus, John confirmed the candidate for Abbot of Kladruby. This account is based on four contemporary documents, the first is the accusation of the king, presented to Pope Boniface IX on April 23,1393, by Archbishop John of Jenštejn, who immediately went to Rome together with the new abbot of Kladruby. A few years later Abbott Ladolf of Sagan listed John of Nepomuk in the catalog of Sagan abbots, completed in 1398, as well as in the treatise De longævo schismate, lib. A further document is the Chronik des Deutschordens/Chronik des Landes Preussen, a chronicle of the Teutonic Order compiled by John of Posilge, in the above accusation, John of Jenštejn already calls John of Nepomuk a saint martyr. The biography of the bishop describes John of Nepomuk as gloriosum Christi martyrem miraculisque coruscum, thus, the vicar put to death for defending the laws and the autonomy of the Catholic Church became revered as a saint directly after his death. Much additional biographical information comes from Bohemian annalists who wrote 60 or more years after the events they recount, although they may have taken advantage of sources not available today, their contribution is considered legendary by many historians, particularly by the Protestant ones. This is the first source to mention this refusal as the motivation of the condemnation of John of Nepomuk. In his Instructions for the King, completed in 1471, Paul Zidek provides further details, King Venceslaus was afraid that his wife had a lover. As she was used to confessing to Magister Jan, he ordered him to tell the name of the lover, therefore, the king ordered John to be drowned. Note that in these chronicles neither the date of the events, in 1483 John of Krumlov, dean of St. Vitus cathedral, states that the Saint died in 1383. As the first wife of Venceslaus died in 1386, this change of date also causes uncertainty about the name of the queen, the mistake of John of Krumlov crept into the Annales Bohemorum of Wenceslaus Hajek of Liboczan, the Bohemian Livy. He suggested that two Jan di Nepomuks may have existed and have killed by King Wenceslaus