15 cm L/40 Feldkanone i.R.
The 15 cm Feldkanone L/40 in Räderlafette was a heavy field gun used by Germany in World War I. It was an ex-naval gun hastily adapted for service by rigidly mounting it in a field carriage. The Germans were desperate for long-range artillery by 1915 and were forced to adapt a number of guns for Army use. The 15-cm SK L/40 was a gun that was used as the secondary armament by pre-dreadnought battleships. It seems that there were two versions of this gun, one with an L/40 and the other with an L/45 barrel. It is not known if the designation changed depending on the barrel, the gun could not traverse on the mount and had to be fixed on a firing platform that weighed 7,450 kilograms to give it 60° of traverse. For transport purposes, it was broken down into three loads, barrel, carriage and firing platform, while details are unclear, it seems that this gun was also adapted for land use, complete with its armored gunhouse, as the 15 cm KiSL. It was mounted on a pivot, which was in turn mounted on a firing platform. It was transported by rail or by road to its location in one piece. It retained the Navys semi-fixed ammunition, where one bag of powder was loaded before the brass cartridge containing the rest of the propellant, at the final stages of the World War I at least 6 guns were ceded to Bulgaria. BL6 inch Mk VII naval gun The British equivalent World War I naval gun modified for field use, new York, Barnes & Noble Books,2000 ISBN 0-7607-1994-2 Jäger, Herbert. German Artillery of World War One, ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, Crowood Press,2001 ISBN 1-86126-403-815 cm FK L/40 i. R. L. on Landships List and pictures of World War I surviving 15cm L/40 and L/45 i. R. guns
15 cm Nebelwerfer 41
The 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 was a German multiple rocket launcher used in the Second World War. It served with units of the Nebeltruppen, the German equivalent of the U. S. Armys Chemical Corps, just as the Chemical Corps had responsibility for poison gas and smoke weapons that were used instead to deliver high-explosives during the war, so did the Nebeltruppen. The name Nebelwerfer is best translated as smoke thrower, allied troops nicknamed it Screaming Mimi and Moaning Minnie due to its distinctive sound. Rocket development had begun during the 1920s and reached fruition in the late-1930s and these offered the opportunity for the Nebeltruppen to deliver large quantities of poison gas or smoke simultaneously. The first weapon to be delivered to the troops was the 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 in 1940, after the Battle of France and it, like virtually all German rocket designs, was spin-stabilized to increase accuracy. This proved to greatly complicate manufacture for not much extra effect and it was fired from a six-tube launcher mounted on a towed carriage adapted from that used by the 3.7 cm PaK36 to a range of 6,900 metres. Almost five and a half million 15 cm rockets and six thousand launchers were manufactured over the course of the war, schiffer Publishing,1990 ISBN 0-88740-240-2 Bull, Stephen. Encyclopedia of military technology and innovation, germanys Rocket and Recoilless Weapons from the U. S. Intelligence Bulletin, March 194515 cm Nebelwerfer 41, Catalog of Enemy Ordnance,1945
15 cm sFH 18
It was based on the earlier, First World War-era design of the 15 cm sFH13, and while improved over that weapon, it was generally outdated compared to the weapons it faced. It was, however, the first artillery weapon equipped with rocket-assisted ammunition to increase range, the sFH18 was also used in the self-propelled artillery piece schwere Panzerhaubitze 18/1. The sFH18 was one of Germanys three main 15 cm calibre weapons, the others being the 15 cm Kanone 18, a heavy gun, and the 15 cm sIG33. Development work on the sFH18 began in 1926 and was ready by 1933, the model year was an attempt at camouflage. The gun originated with a contest between Rheinmetall and Krupp, both of whom entered several designs that were all considered unsatisfactory for one reason or another. In the end the army decided the solution was to combine the best features of both designs, using the Rheinmetall gun on a Krupp carriage, the carriage was a relatively standard split-trail design with box legs. Spades were carried on the sides of the legs that could be mounted onto the ends for added stability, the carriage also saw use on the 10 cm schwere Kanone 18 gun. As the howitzer was designed for towing, it used an unsprung axle. A two-wheel bogie was introduced to allow it to be towed, the gun was officially introduced into service on 23 May 1935, and by the outbreak of war the Wehrmacht had about 1,353 of these guns in service. Production continued throughout the war, reaching a peak of 2,295 guns in 1944, in 1944, the howitzer cost 40,400 RM,9 months and 5,500 man-hours to make. Several other versions of the basic 15 cm were produced, however this version was even heavier than the sFH18 and was found to be too difficult to use in the field. Some of these barrels were fitted to existing sFH18 carriages. A further modification was the FH 18/43, which changed to a breech that allowed for the use of bagged charges instead of requiring the gunners to first put the charges into shells. Two further attempts to introduce a newer 15 cm piece followed, the first field combat for the 15 cm sFH18 was with the Chinese National Revolutionary Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. It is interesting that some pieces of sFH18 in China were designed specially with a 32/L barrel. The maximum range was increased to 15 km, but most of the sFH18 in China were lost to attrition. Only two pieces can be seen in the museums today and this led to numerous efforts to introduce new guns with even better performance than the ML-20, while various experiments were also carried out on the sFH18 to improve its range. These led to the 15 cm sFH 18M version with a removable barrel liner, the 18M increased range to 15,100 metres, but it was found that the liners suffered increased wear and the recoil system could not handle the increased loads in spite of the brake
Hummel was a self-propelled artillery gun based on the Geschützwagen III/IV chassis and armed with a 15 cm howitzer. It was used by the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War from early 1943 until the end of the war, the full name was Panzerfeldhaubitze 18M auf Geschützwagen III/IV Hummel, Sd. Kfz. On February 27,1944, Hitler ordered the name Hummel to be dropped as it was deemed inappropriate for a fighting vehicle. The Hummel was designed in 1942 out of a need for artillery support for the tank forces. There were some self-propelled artillery vehicles already in service with the Wehrmacht at the time, but most were of limited value. The first option looked at was mounting a 10.5 cm leFH18 howitzer on a Panzer III chassis, one prototype was built of this design. The same chassis was used for the Nashorn tank destroyer. The Hummel had a lightly armoured fighting compartment at the back of the vehicle, which housed the howitzer. The engine was moved to the centre of the vehicle to make room for this compartment, late model Hummels had a slightly redesigned driver compartment and front superstructure, to offer more room to the radio operator and driver. Because the basic Hummel could carry only an amount of ammunition. This was basically a standard production Hummel without the howitzer and with racks fitted to hold the ammunition, when necessary, these could still be fitted with the 15 cm howitzer of the normal Hummel, this could even be done as a field conversion. By the end of the war,714 Hummel had been together with 150 ammunition carriers using the same design. The Hummel first participated in large scale combat at the Battle of Kursk and they served in armored artillery battalions of the Panzer divisions, forming separate heavy self-propelled artillery batteries, each with six Hummel and one ammunition carrier. Romania received one unit from the Red Army after the war ended and this was assigned to the 2nd Armoured Regiment with the registration number U069009. It was officially known as the Hummel TAs self-propelled gun in the army inventory, the gun couldnt be used because it was missing the lock. It was shown to the public on the 10th of May Bucharest parade in 1946 with Romanian markings, all German armour units in Romania had been scrapped by 1954
The V-3 was a German World War II supergun working on the multi-charge principle whereby secondary propellant charges are fired to add velocity to a projectile. The weapon was planned to be used to bombard London from two large bunkers in the Pas-de-Calais region of northern France, but they were rendered unusable by Allied bombing raids before completion, two similar guns were used to bombard Luxembourg from December 1944 to February 1945. The V-3 was also known as the Hochdruckpumpe, which was a name intended to hide the real purpose of the project. It was also known as Fleißiges Lieschen, the gun used multiple propellant charges placed along the barrels length and timed to fire as soon as the projectile passed them in order to provide an additional boost. Solid-fuel rocket boosters were used instead of explosive charges because of their greater suitability and these were arranged in symmetrical pairs along the length of the barrel, angled to project their thrust against the base of the projectile as it passed. This layout spawned the German codename Tausendfüßler, the barrel and side chambers were designed as identical sections to simplify production and allow damaged sections to be replaced. The entire gun would use multiple such sections bolted together, the smoothbore gun fired a fin-stabilized shell that depended upon aerodynamic forces rather than gyroscopic forces to prevent tumbling, this resulted in a lower drag coefficient. The origin of the multi-chamber gun dates back to the 19th century, in 1857, U. S. arms expert Azel Storrs Lyman was granted a patent on Improvement in accelerating fire-arms, and he built a prototype in 1860 which proved to be unsuccessful. Lyman then modified the design in collaboration with James Richard Haskell, the Lyman-Haskell multi-charge gun was constructed on the instructions of the U. S. Armys Chief of Ordnance, but it did not resemble a conventional artillery piece. The barrel was so long that it had to be placed on an inclined ramp and it was test fired at the Frankford Arsenal at Philadelphia in 1880 and was unsuccessful. The flash from the propellant charge bypassed the projectile due to faulty obturation and prematurely ignited the subsidiary charges before the shell passed them. The best velocity that could be obtained from it was 335 metres per second, new prototypes of multi-charge guns were built and tested, but Lyman and Haskell abandoned the idea. During the same period, French engineer Louis-Guillaume Perreaux, one of the pioneers of the motorcycle, had working on a similar project since before 1860. Perreaux was granted a patent in 1864 for a multi-chamber gun, in 1878, Perreaux presented his invention at the World Exhibition of Paris. In 1918, the French Army made plans for a long range multi-chamber gun in response to the German Paris Gun. The Paris Gun was built by Friedrich Krupp AG and could bombard Paris from German lines over a distance of no less than 125 kilometres. However, the French initiative did not reach the stage, as it was discontinued when the retreat of the German armies. The plans for the gun were archived, as they had been envisioned to counter the German fire