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The following 97 pages are in this category, out of 97 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1553 births.|
The following 97 pages are in this category, out of 97 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1553 – Year 1553 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. May – The first Royal Charter is granted to St Albans in England, june 26 – Christs Hospital and King Edwards School, Witley, England, are created by Royal Charter. July 9 – Battle of Sievershausen, Prince-elector Maurice of Saxony defeats the Catholic forces of Margrave Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. July 10 – Four days after the death of her cousin King Edward VI of England, July 18 – The Lord Mayor of London proclaims Mary I the rightful Queen, Lady Jane Grey voluntarily abdicates. July 19 – Queen Mary I of England begins her reign, august 3 – Queen Mary I of England arrives in London from East Anglia. August 22 – John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, a supporter of Lady Jane Grey, is executed. August – English explorer Richard Chancellor enters the White Sea and reaches Arkhangelsk, going on to the court of Ivan IV of Russia, September – Anglican bishops in England are arrested and Roman Catholic bishops are restored. October 6, Şehzade Mustafa, oldest son of Suleiman the Magnificent is executed in Konya by order of his father, September 23 – The Sadians consolidate their power in Morocco by defeating the last of their enemies. October 27 – Genevas governing council burns Michael Servetus at the stake as a heretic, december 25 – Battle of Tucapel, Mapuche rebels under Lautaro defeat the Spanish conquistadors and execute Pedro de Valdivia, the first Royal Governor of Chile. Tonbridge School founded by Sir Andrew Judde under letters patent of Edward VI of England, publication in London of The xiii Bukes of Eneados of the famose Poete Virgill, the first published complete translation of any major work of classical antiquity into one of the English languages. In Ming dynasty China, The addition of a new section of the Outer City fortifications is completed in southern Beijing, bringing the size of Beijing to 18 square miles. Shanghai is fortified for the first time, July 1 – Peter Street, English carpenter July 15 – Archduke Ernest of Austria September 26 – Nicolò Contarini, Doge of Venice October 8 – Jacques Auguste de Thou, French historian October 181553 – July 18: Queen Mary of England.
2. Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia – Albert Frederick was Duke of Prussia from 1568 until his death. He was a son of Albert of Prussia and Anna Marie of Brunswick-Lüneburg and he was the second and last Prussian duke of the Ansbach branch of the Hohenzollern family. Albert became Duke of Prussia after paying homage to the King of Poland, Zygmunt August. The homage was described by the Polish chronicler Jan Kochanowski in his work Proporzec, Albert Frederick initially refused to recognize the election of Stefan Bathory and supported the candidacy of Maximilian of Habsburg. However, at the Toruń sejm of October 1576 he gave his support to the new monarch and he particularly enjoyed the support of Polish Lutherans. In 1572 he began to exhibit signs of mental disorder, in early 1578, the regency was taken over by his cousin, George Frederick of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. After George Fredericks death in 1603, the Polish king Sigismund III Vasa appointed Joachim Frederick as regent in 1605, the latter became Duke of Prussia after Albert Fredericks death in 1618. Albert Frederick was married in 1573 to Marie Eleonore of Cleves, Maria was a daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. Albert Frederick and Marie were parents to seven children, Anna of Prussia, married John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg. Married Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, married John George I, Elector of Saxony. At his death, the passed to his son-in-law John Sigismund, Margrave of BrandenburgAlbert Frederick, Duke of Prussia – Albert Frederick
3. Cherubino Alberti – Cherubino Alberti, also called Borghegiano, was an Italian engraver and painter. He is most often remembered for the Roman frescoes completed with his brother Giovanni Alberti during the papacy of Clement VIII and he was most prolific as an engraver of copper plates. Alberti was born in 1553 in Borgo San Sepolcro, Tuscany and he was the second son of Alberto Alberti, a carver and sculptor, and his brothers Alessandro Alberti and Giovanni Alberti were artists as well. Alberti studied in Rome under Cornelius Cort and worked as an engraver and his early influences included Raphael and contemporary Mannerist art. Between 1571 and 1575 he made engravings after works of Federico, over the next ten years his engravings included works after Raphael, Michelangelo, Polidoro da Caravaggio, Andrea del Sarto, Rosso Fiorentino, Marco Pino, Pellegrino Tibaldi, and Cristofano Gherardi. He also produced based on ancient statues. Later in life Alberti decorated palaces and churches with paintings in fresco and his most famous work was the fresco decoration of Sala Clementina in the Vatican, which he completed with his brother Giovanni. He painted for the church of Santa Maria in Via Lata and he may have been first a pupil of Cornelis Cort, and afterwards by studying the works of Agostino Carracci and Francesco Villamena. At his death in Rome Alberti was Director of the Academy of Saint Luke, over 180 engravings are attributed to Alberti, including, Portrait of Pope Gregory XIII. St. Susannah resting against a pedestal, with a sword St. Jerome, meditating on the Crucifix The Crucifixion, after Michelangelo St. The Death of the Children of Niobe, in five sheets Rape of the Sabines, after another frieze from Polidoro da Caravaggio The Triumph of Camillus, the Presentation at the Temple, The Resurrection, and the The Holy Family after Raphael. A piece of architecture, after the same, in two prints, the Baptism of our Saviour, by St. John and The Miracle of St. Philip Benizzo after Andrea del Sarto. Tobit and the Angel, after Pellegrino Tibaldi Christ praying in the Garden, the Adoration of the Shepherds, The Holy Family, The Scourging of Christ, Conversion of St. Paul, and Assumption of the Virgin, after Taddeo Zuccari. Assumption and The Coronation of the Virgin, after Federico Zuccari, Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, Biographical and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London, Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18,2007, George Bell, Painters and their Works, A Dictionary of Great Artists who are Not Now Alive. Notices of Engravers and their Works, London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green. Firenze, Grafica European Center of Fine ArtsCherubino Alberti – Portrait of Cherubini Alberti by Carlo Lasinio (1759-1838)
4. Prospero Alpini – Prospero Alpini, was an Italian physician and botanist from the Republic of Venice. Born at Marostica, a town near Vicenza, in his youth he served for a time in the Milanese army, after taking his doctors degree in 1578, he settled as a physician in Campo San Pietro, a small town in the Paduan territory. But his tastes were botanical, and to extend his knowledge of plants he travelled to Egypt in 1580 as physician to George Emo or Hemi. On his return, he resided for some time at Genoa as physician to Andrea Doria, and in 1593 he was appointed professor of botany at Padua and he was succeeded in the botanical chair by his son Alpino Alpini. His best-known work is De Plantis Aegypti liber and this work introduced a number of plant species previously unknown to European botanists. The new species included Abrus, Abelmoschus, Lablab, and Melochia, another was Sesban meaning Sesbania sesban. Early adopters of Alpinis new botanical names included the botanists Carolus Clusius, Johann Bauhin, Caspar Bauhin, Prospero Alpinis De Plantis Exoticis was published in 1629 after his death. It has an expansion of the material in De Plantis Aegypti plus some other material and his De Medicina Egyptiorum is said to contain the first account of the coffee plant published in Europe. The genus Alpinia, belonging to the order Zingiberaceae, was named after him by Linnaeus, franciscus de Franciscis, Venitiis 1592 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf De Plantis Exoticis, by Prosperi Alpini, year 1629, in Latin. De Plantis Aegypti liber, by Prosperi Alpini with comments by Johann Vesling, published year 1640, online Galleries, History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries High resolution images of works by and/or portraits of Prospero Alpini in. jpg and. tiff format. Includes some pages from the 1592 edition of De Plantis Aegypti liberProspero Alpini – Prospero Alpini (1553-1617)
5. Ralph Brooke – Ralph Brooke was an English Officer of Arms in the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. Brooke was educated at the Merchant Taylors School and he was appointed Rouge Croix Pursuivant in 1580 and York Herald in 1593. As York Herald, he bore the helm and crest in the procession of Elizabeth I. Such bitter infighting among the heralds was common, Sir William Segar also objected that Cooke made numberless grants to base, in December 1616 Brooke tricked Segar into confirming foreign royal arms to Gregory Brandon, a common hangman of London who was masquerading as a gentleman. Brooke then reported Segar to James I, who imprisoned both Brooke and Segar in Marshalsea and they were released a few days later and the Lord Chamberlain hoped that the experience would make Brooke more honest and Segar more wise. Brookes Catalogue and Succession of the Kings, Princes, Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, as Catalogue and Succession of the Kings, Princes, Dukes, Marquesses, Earles and Viscounts of this Realme of England since the Norman Conquest, to this present year 1622. Dictionary of National Biography, index and epitome, oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Ralph Brooke. Britannia, Ralph Brooke, and the Representation of Privilege in Elizabethan England, heralds of England, A History of the Office and College of Arms. A Discoverie of Certaine Errours Published in Print in the Much Commended Britannia 1594, printed for James Woodman and David LyonRalph Brooke – Ralph Brooke in the funeral procession of Elizabeth I.
6. John Chamberlain (letter writer) – John Chamberlain was the author of a series of letters written in England from 1597 to 1626, notable for their historical value and their literary qualities. In the view of historian Wallace Notestein, Chamberlains letters constitute the first considerable body of letters in English history and they are an essential source for scholars who study the period. Chamberlains father was an ironmonger, who left him enough money to live on for the rest of his life without needing to earn a living. Carleton preserved the long correspondence between himself and Chamberlain, which contains the majority of Chamberlains surviving letters, Chamberlain maintained a similar correspondence with Sir Ralph Winwood, for many years ambassador at The Hague, and he presumably sent many other letters to his friends. Chamberlain wrote at least one letter a week. Chamberlain is valued not just as a commentator but as a writer, historian A. L. Rowse has called him the best letter writer of his time. Chamberlain takes care to observe without intruding his own opinions, though his disapproval of the laxity of the day is apparent and he entertains his correspondents by leavening factual information with humour and vivid details, and includes lighter topics and anecdotes to keep the readers interest. In the view of scholar Maurice Lee, Jr. the letters that passed between John Chamberlain and Dudley Carleton are the most interesting private correspondence of Jacobean England. Chamberlains letters provide a portrait of a typical London gentleman of late Elizabethan and Jacobean times, moderate in politics, Chamberlain emerges from his letters as a kind man and a considerate friend, who preferred a peaceful life and commented on the contemporary world as an onlooker. Though he willingly sought career openings for his friends, he was uninterested in office or financial gain for himself and lived the life of a quiet, even timid bachelor. As he once wrote, I am past all ambition, and wish nor seek nothing but how to live suaviter and this detached approach lends an objective quality to Chamberlains letters. As a conscientious correspondent, he took pains to get his facts right and he saw through pretence and delusions but was never cynical or indignant. His generosity as a man is reflected in the fairness of outlook that pervades his letters, just as his friends confided and trusted in him, often with important secrets, historians have trusted his information and insights into the Jacobean scene. Historian Alan Stewart calls Chamberlain, a barometer of public opinion. Chamberlain certainly had personal shortcomings, of which he was fully aware and he was naturally inquisitive and a gossip, qualities that served as an asset to him as a letter writer. He had been a sickly and delicate child, and although he attended both Cambridge University and the Inns of Court, he never took his degree or qualified as a lawyer. Wallace Notestein, who included an essay on Chamberlain in his Four Worthies. He always lived in the households of friends and relatives, on the one occasion he attempted to run his own establishment and he was also timid in love, and though hints that he considered marriage creep into his letters now and then, nothing came of these opportunitiesJohn Chamberlain (letter writer) – William Gilbert, natural philosopher, in whose house Chamberlain lodged
7. William Courtenay (died 1630) – Sir William Courtenay, Knight, of Powderham in Devon was a prominent member of the Devonshire gentry. He was Sheriff of Devon in 1579–80 and received the honour of having been three times elected MP for the prestigious county seat in 1584,1589 and 1601. He was the son and heir of Sir William Courtenay of Powderham, MP for Plympton Erle in 1555, by his wife Elizabeth Paulet, daughter of John Paulet, in 1557 at the age of 4 he succeeded his father. He trained as a lawyer in the Middle Temple, Sir William was knighted on 25 March 1576, served as Sheriff of Devon for 1579–80 and was also involved in the Munster Plantation in Ireland in the 1580s. Sir William was elected Member of Parliament for Devon in 1584,1589 and 1601, in 1831 he was recognised by a retrospective decision of the House of Lords as having been de jure 3rd Earl of Devon. Some time between 18 January 1572 and 1573, he married as his first wife, Elizabeth Manners, daughter of Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland and his eldest son, William, died childless in 1605, predeceasing his father. His second son and heir was Francis Courtenay and his third daughter, Elizabeth, married Sir William Wrey, 1st Baronet of Tawstock in Devon. Her fathers arms survive, impaled by Wrey, on the monument of her father-in-law John Wrey in Tawstock Church, the other children were Thomas, George, John, Alexander, Edward, Margaret and Bridget. On 25 Aug 1595 he married as his wife, Elizabeth Sydenham, daughter of Sir George Sydenham of Combe Sydenham in Somerset. His third wife was Jane Hill, daughter of Robert Hill of Taunton and he died in London on 24 June 1630 and was buried in Powderham Church, Devon. The Visitations of the County of Devon, Comprising the Heralds Visitations of 1531,1564, to 1620, the Courtenay family in Ireland compiled by Philip Crossle, et al. with transcriptions of notes, letters, and other genealogical material added by St. John Courtenay IIIWilliam Courtenay (died 1630) – Arms of Sir William Wrey, 1st Baronet (d.1636), impaling Courtenay of Powderham. His wife was Elizabeth Courtenay, 3rd daughter of Sir William Courtenay (1553-1630) of Powderham. Detail from monument of his father John Wrey (d.1597) in Tawstock Church, Devon
8. John Croke – Sir John Croke was Speaker of the English House of Commons between October–December 1601. He was a lawyer and judge by profession, and was Recorder of London, Croke won the City of London constituency in his election to the 1601 parliament, and was the last Speaker before the death of Elizabeth I, in 1603. Croke spent the part of his career as a lawyer. He entered the Inner Temple in 1570, and received a call to the bar shortly after and he was rewarded for his service as a lawyer with a silver gilt from the Lord Chancellor, Sir Christopher Hatton. Upon his fathers death in 1584, he was deeded the Chilton manor house his grandfather had built, and Studley Priory, Croke built his own manor house at Studley, though he moved his family to Chilton after his fathers death. Croke sat in the Windsor constituency in 1585, and was first elected for the City of London in 1597 and he was made Lent Reader of the Inner Temple in 1596. He became Treasurer in 1598, and was subsequently appointed Recorder, Croke, in an era when intimidation of counsel was frequent, was noted for his discretion in court. The evidence obtained was used in trial, though Sir Edmund Anderson was principal judge, Jackson was convicted to one years imprisonment and he was elected Speaker unanimously in 1601. Manning, in his work on the Commons speakers, repeats the recommendation given by William Knolles, Comptroller of the Household, for Croke to hold the office, the House was almost wholly in favour the proposals, although they were referred to a committee. The committee of the House was adopted, and a motion was passed asking for an address by the Speaker expressing their gratitude, which Croke duly delivered. On a bill for resorting to Church which received 105 ayes and 106 nays, Sir Edward Hobbie and it was debated whether he had a voice, and Croke, after hearing the arguments of Sir Walter Raleigh amongst others, decided that he did not. Other events of note in this parliament included The Golden Speech by Elizabeth, and the passing of a number of grants, after Elizabeths promise to revoke the subsidies. He was knighted in the first year of James Is reign, Croke was also made deputy to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir George Hume, in 1604. As serjeant, one of his functions was to bring messages, downe came grave auntient Sir John Crooke And redd his message in his booke. Fearie well, Quoth Sir William Morris, Soe, But Henry Ludlowes Tayle cryd Noe, after also serving as a Welsh judge, he was made one of the justices of the Court of Kings Bench in 1607. He performed judicial duties for nearly thirteen years, and died on 23 January 1620, crokes father, also Sir John Croke, was born in 1531, and was a knight of Chilton. His father was an MP in the Commons for the borough of Southampton in 1571, and the county of Buckinghamshire the following year and his paternal lineage included most of the royal families in Europe. Crokes mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of Sir Alexander Unton and his brother, Henry, was barrister-at-law and had several children by his wife BennetJohn Croke – Sir John Croke
9. Anne Knollys, Baroness De La Warr – Anne West, Lady De La Warr was a lady at the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Anne Knollys was the daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, Treasurer of the Royal Household to Queen Elizabeth I. Her maternal grandparents were Sir William Carey and Mary Boleyn, Mary was a sister of Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII of England. Anne Knollys mother was thus a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, Mary Boleyn had preceded her more famous sister in the Kings affections, and had affairs with both Francis I of France and Henry VIII. Both Catherine Carey and Henry Carey may have been Henrys children, if true, this would make Anne the granddaughter of Henry VIII. Annes eldest sister was Lettice Knollys, chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth and the mother of the queens favourite, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. Anne Knollys married, on 19 November 1571, Thomas West, 2nd Baron De La Warr, by whom she had six sons and eight daughters, Sir Robert West, who married Elizabeth Coks and predeceased his father. Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, who married Cecily Shirley, youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Shirley and Anne Kempe, daughter of Sir Thomas Kempe of Olantigh, Kent. John West, Governor of Virginia, who emigrated to Virginia, lieutenant Colonel Nathaniel West, who emigrated to Virginia, where in 1621 he married Frances Greville, by whom he had a son, Nathaniel West. His widow married secondly Abraham Peirsey, esquire, and thirdly Captain Samuel Mathews, Lettice West, who married Henry Ludlow. Katherine West, who married Nickolas Strelby, helen West, who married Sir William Savage of Winchester, Hampshire, by whom she had a son, John Savage, and two daughters, Cecily and Anne. Elizabeth West, who married Sir Richard Saltonstall of Huntwick, Yorkshire, the US state of Delaware is named after Annes son, Thomas West, Baron De La Warre. A History of the House of Percy, from the Earliest Times Down to the Present, everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. The William and Mary Quarterly, 2nd Ser,1, pp. 137–138 Southside VA Families by John Bennett Boddie Vol 1, Genealogical Pub. 1955, pages 398–402 De La Warr, Thomas West, 12th BaronAnne Knollys, Baroness De La Warr – Portrait of Anne West by Robert Peake, 1582
10. Johannes Eccard – Johannes Eccard was a German composer and kapellmeister. He was a principal conductor at the Berlin court chapel. Eccard was born at Mühlhausen, in present-day Thuringia, Germany, at the age of eighteen he went to Munich, where he became the pupil of Orlando Lasso. In his company, Eccard is said to have visited Paris, but in 1574, he was again at Mühlhausen, there he, together with Joachim a Burck, edited his first master, a collection of sacred songs, called Crepundia sacra Helmboldi. Soon afterwards he obtained an appointment as musician in the house of Jacob Fugger, in 1583 he became assistant conductor, and in 1599 conductor at Königsberg to Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach, the administrator of the Duchy of Prussia. In 1608 he was called by Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg as principal conductor in Berlin, Eccards works consist exclusively of vocal compositions, such as songs, sacred cantatas and chorales for four or five, and sometimes for seven, eight, or even nine voices. Their polyphonic structure is a marvel of art and still garners the admiration of musicians, at the same time his works are instinct with a spirit of true religious feeling. Before the First World War, his setting of Martin Luthers words Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott was regarded by the Germans as their representative national hymn, Eccard and his school are inseparably connected with the history of the Protestant Reformation. Of Eccards songs a great many collections are extant such as published in Der Evangelische Kirchengesang by Baron Karl Georg August Vivigens von Winterfeld. Nun schürz dich, Gretlein, schürz dich Übers Gebirg Maria geht Christ ist erstanden Es rühmt die Heilige Schrift Nachdem die Sonn beschlossen Maria wallt zum Heiligtum Johannes Eccard, archived from the original on 2007-08-07. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Eccard. Free scores by Johannes Eccard at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Johannes Eccard in the Choral Public Domain LibraryJohannes Eccard – Johannes Eccard
11. Archduke Ernest of Austria – Archduke Ernest of Austria was an Austrian prince, the son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain. Born in Vienna, he was educated with his brother Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1573 and 1587, he was a candidate for the throne of Poland. From 1576 onwards, he was governor in the Archduchy of Austria, in 1590, he became governor of Inner Austria as regent for his young cousin Ferdinand, and from 1594 to 1595 he served as governor of the Spanish Netherlands. He died in Brussels in 1595Archduke Ernest of Austria – Portrait of Archduke Ernest of Austria by Alonso Sánchez Coello c. 1580
12. Patriarch Philaret of Moscow – The second son of a prominent boyar Nikita Romanovich Feodor was born in Moscow and was the first to bear the Romanov surname. He was made a Boyar in 1583, in 1609 Filaret fell into the hands of False Dmitriy II, who named him Patriarch of all Russia, though his jurisdiction only extended over the very limited area which acknowledged the impostor. From 1610 to 1618 he was a prisoner in the hands of the Polish king, Sigismund III Vasa and he was released on the conclusion of the truce of Deulino, and on 2 June of the same year was canonically enthroned Patriarch of Moscow and all of Russia. Thenceforth, until his death, the government of Muscovy was a diarchy. From 1619 to 1633 there were two actual sovereigns, Tsar Michael and his father, the most holy Patriarch Filaret, theoretically they were co-regents, but Filaret frequently transacted affairs of state without consulting the tsar. He replenished the treasury by a more equable and rational system of assessing and collecting the taxes, the taxation of the tsars military tenants was a first step towards the proportional taxation of the hitherto privileged classes. Another great service rendered by Filaret to his country was the reorganization of the Muscovite army with the help of foreign officers. His death in October 1633 put an end to the Russo-Polish War, thus, formed as a state within a state. His policy streamlined the management, but also created more complex structure. Church department - was in charge of the affairs of the church decorum, treasury department - was responsible for collecting taxes from the clergy. Palace department- managed the patriarchal estates, every order sat patriarchal nobleman with the clerks and clerks. Filaret also conducted an inventory of the church and monastery property. In 1620 he created a new, Diocese of Tobolsk, in 1625, the patriarch got a gift from the Persian king was transferred part of the Lords robe, which was placed in the ark in the Assumption Cathedral. This orthodox relic is kept in the Cathedral of Christ the SaviorPatriarch Philaret of Moscow – Patriarch Filaret
13. John Florio – John Florio, known in Italian as Giovanni Florio, was a linguist and lexicographer, a royal language tutor at the Court of James I, and a possible friend and influence on William Shakespeare. He was also the first translator of Montaigne into English and he was born in London, and in 1580 he married Aline, the sister of poet Samuel Daniel. The couple had three children, Joane Florio, baptised in Oxford in 1585, Edward, in 1588 and Elizabeth and he died in Fulham, London in 1625 Born in London, John Florio was of Anglo-Italian origin. He referred to himself as an Englishman in Italiane, johns father, Michelangelo Florio, born in Tuscany, had been a Franciscan friar before converting to the Protestant faith. He got into trouble with the Inquisition in Italy, after preaching in Naples, Padua, seeking refuge in England during the reign of Edward VI, he was appointed pastor of the Italian Protestant congregation in London in 1550. He was also a member of the household of William Cecil and he was dismissed from both on a charge of immorality, but William Cecil later fully forgave him. Little is known of Florios mother, she may have been English and he dedicated a book to Henry Herbert and Jane Grey, his highest-ranking pupils, Regole de la lingua thoscana. Lady Jane Greys youth, faith, and death affected him deeply and later, in seclusion, in Soglio in Switzerland and it was only published in 1607 but written around 1561/1562. He describes her as a martyr and innocent saint and it is possible that he had witnessed some of the events surrounding her or had told her about the persecutions in Italy. Anthony à Wood says that the Florio family, which now included infant John Florio, in Strasburg, Florio met members of the aristocratic de Salis family of Bregaglia, in the Alpine canton of the Grisons. Count de Salis offered Michelangelo the post of pastor at Soglio, which offered him the manse on the edge of a precipice, the post of school teacher. Soglio was remote from the Inquisition and was situated near Chiavenna, John Florio grew up speaking Italian with his father. His father would have taught him French and German, John returned to England, possibly with his mother, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the early 1570s, in possession of a formidable Christian Reformed and humanist education. John Florio considered the English uncouth and barbaric and set about teaching the Protestant aristocrats European manners, linguistic skills and polished expressions. This mission was in ways similar to that of reformer Philip Sidney who sought to educate the English to write. Florio introduced the English to Italian proverbs, Florio was a friend of Giordano Bruno, while he worked as tutor and spy in the home of the French Ambassador. John Florio resided for a time at Oxford, and was appointed, about 1576, as tutor to the son of Richard Barnes, Bishop of Durham, then studying at Magdalen College. In 1578 Florio published a work entitled First Fruits, which yield Familiar Speech, Merry Proverbs, Witty Sentences and this was accompanied by A Perfect Induction to the Italian and English TonguesJohn Florio – Giovanni Florio, 1611. Engraving by William Hole from the 2nd edition of Florio's dictionary
14. Gortzius Geldorp – Gortzius Geldorp was a Flemish Renaissance artist who was active in Germany where he distinguished himself through his portrait paintings. The early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander reported that Geldorp first learned to paint from Frans Francken I, Frans Pourbus the Elder was a prominent portrait painter in Flanders. Frans Francken I and Frans Pourbus the Elder were both pupils of Frans Floris, the leading Renaissance painter in Antwerp, Geldorp became court painter to the Duke of Terra Nova, Carlo dAragona Tagliavia, whom he accompanied on his trips. He travelled to Cologne with the Duke who was participating in negotiations with the Dutch Republic. Geldorp stayed in the city while remaining a companion of the Duke on his travels, in 1610 Geldorp took over the seat of Barthel Bruyn the Younger on the city council of Cologne. Geldorp was a portrait painter working for the aristocracy and other prominent patrons. Geldorp died in Cologne, aged about 65, the painter Georg Geldorp who was mainly active in England was his son. The painter Melchior Geldorp who worked in Cologne was probably his son or nephew, Geldorp was mainly a painter of individual and group portraits. Van Mander also mentions some history paintings such as a Diana, a Susanna, an Evangelist, there are 70 known works by him which are mostly painted on panel. A series of nine family portraits are part of the collection of the Rijksmuseum and he had a brilliant and powerful palette in which the browns dominate. His later works are characterised by soft transitions and a tone in the wrists. Some of his paintings were engraved by Crispijn van de PasseGortzius Geldorp – Portrait of Hortensia del Prado, Wife of Jean Fourmenois
15. Henry IV of France – Henry IV, also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne dAlbret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, and later led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct descendant of Louis IX of France. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589 and he initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear Frances crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants and he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, an unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henrys popularity greatly improved after his death, in light of repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The Good King Henry was remembered for his geniality and his concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri, Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion, on 9 June 1572, upon his mothers death, he became King of Navarre. At Queen Joans death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II, the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre began in Paris, several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henrys wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and he was made to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and he named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years, Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choiceHenry IV of France – Henry IV
16. Robert Hues – Robert Hues was an English mathematician and geographer. He attended St. Mary Hall at Oxford, and graduated in 1578, Hues became interested in geography and mathematics, and studied navigation at a school set up by Walter Raleigh. During a trip to Newfoundland, he made observations which caused him to doubt the accepted published values for variations of the compass. Between 1586 and 1588, Hues travelled with Thomas Cavendish on a circumnavigation of the globe, performing astronomical observations, beginning in August 1591, Hues and Cavendish again set out on another circumnavigation of the globe. During the voyage, Hues made astronomical observations in the South Atlantic, Cavendish died on the journey in 1592, and Hues returned to England the following year. Hues work subsequently went into at least 12 other printings in Dutch, English, French, Hues continued to have dealings with Raleigh in the 1590s, and later became a servant of Thomas Grey, 15th Baron Grey de Wilton. While Grey was imprisoned in the Tower of London for participating in the Bye Plot, Hues tutored Northumberlands son Algernon Percy at Oxford, and subsequently Algernons younger brother Henry. In later years, Hues lived in Oxford where he was a fellow of the University and he died on 24 May 1632 in the city and was buried in Christ Church Cathedral. Robert Hues was born in 1553 at Little Hereford in Herefordshire, in 1571, at the age of 18 years, he entered Brasenose College, University of Oxford. English antiquarian Anthony à Wood wrote that when Hues arrived at Oxford he was only a scholar or servitor. He continued for some time a very sober and serious servant, but being sensible of the loss of time which he sustained there by constant attendance, he transferred himself to St Marys Hall. Hues graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree on 12 July 1578 and he later gave advice to the dramatist and poet George Chapman for his 1616 English translation of Homer, and Chapman referred to him as his learned and valuable friend. It is possible he travelled to Continental Europe, Hues was a friend of the geographer Richard Hakluyt, who was then regent master of Christ Church. In the 1580s, Hakluyt introduced him to Walter Raleigh and explorers and navigators whom Raleigh knew, in addition, it is likely that Hues came to know astronomer and mathematician Thomas Harriot and Walter Warner at Thomas Allens lectures in mathematics. The four men were associated with Henry Percy, the 9th Earl of Northumberland. Hues became interested in geography and mathematics – an undated source indicates that he disputed accepted values of variations of the compass after making observations off the Newfoundland coast. He either went there on a trip, or may have joined a 1585 voyage to Virginia arranged by Raleigh and led by Richard Grenville. Hues perhaps become acquainted with the sailor Thomas Cavendish at this time, in the year that book appeared, Hues was with Edward Wright on the Earl of Cumberlands raiding expedition to the Azores to capture Spanish galleonsRobert Hues – The title page of a 1634 version of Hues' Tractatus de globis in the collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal
17. Jeong Bal – Navy captain Jeong Bal was a Joseon dynasty navy captain who commanded a garrison at Busan port. He was killed in action in 1592, during the Siege of Busan, while defending the garrison from elements of the Japanese vanguard, eventually, his entire battalion was overrun and massacred by Japanese forces. He was the first high-ranking officer to be killed in combat during the Japanese invasions of Korea, some Korean accounts of the war say that Jeong fled the battle rather than fight, but the accepted version is that he stayed and died fighting the invaders. Nanjungjaprok contains the witness reports of survivors of the Siege of Busan, there is a statue of him defending the city in the centre of Busan. He was enshrined in the Chungnyeolsa in 1624Jeong Bal – General Jeong Bal