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Pages in category "1577 births"
The following 129 pages are in this category, out of 129 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1577 births.|
The following 129 pages are in this category, out of 129 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1577 – Year 1577 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. March 17 – The Cathay Company is formed to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold, may 28 – The Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings, is published. The earlier version, known as the Torgau Book, had been condensed into an Epitome, september 17 – The Treaty of Bergerac is signed between Henry III of France and the Huguenots. November – The Great Comet of 1577 is observed from Earth, supposed massacre of the MacDonald inhabitants of the Scottish island of Eigg by the Clan MacLeod. The church in San Pedro de Atacama is built in the Atacama Desert in Chile
2. Cristofano Allori – Cristofano Allori was an Italian portrait painter of the late Florentine Mannerist school. Allori also appears to have worked under Cigoli and his pictures are distinguished by their close adherence to nature and the delicacy and technical perfection of their execution. His technical skill is shown by the fact that several copies he made of Correggios works were thought to be duplicates by Correggio himself and his extreme fastidiousness limited the number of his works. Several examples are to be seen at Florence and elsewhere and his most famous work, in his own day and now, is Judith with the Head of Holofernes. It exists in at least two versions by Allori, of which the version is perhaps that in the British Royal Collection, dated 1613. A version of 1620 in the Palazzo Pitti in Florence is the best known and there are copies by studio. Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, a digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries
3. Christopher Besoldus – Christopher Besoldus was a German jurist and publicist whose writing is seen as important for the history of the causes of the Thirty Years War. He was born of Protestant parents in 1577 at Tübingen, Württemberg and he studied jurisprudence, and in the early 1590s was a close friend of Johannes Kepler. Besold asked permission of the classical scholar Vitus Müller to defend theses based on Keplers dissertation, later, when Katharina Kepler, Johannes Keplers mother, was prosecuted on witchcraft charges, Besold was one of the jurists dealing with the case, which was dropped. He graduated as Doctor of Law in 1598, and in 1610 became professor of law at Tübingen, among his pupils was Johannes Valentinus Andreae. Besold was one of the influences on Andreaes later Rosicrucian writings and his advice was frequently sought in juridical questions by the civil administration. He read the Scriptures, the writings of the Church Fathers and he was publicly converted to Catholicism at Heilbronn in 1635. Two years later, he accepted the chair of Roman Law at the University of Ingolstadt and he was considering the offer of a professorship at the University of Bologna, tendered him by Pope Urban VIII, when he died at Ingolstadt. He knew 9 languages including Arabic and Hebrew and his works are numerous, with 102 scholarly writings known. His theory of federalism was influential in explaining the workings of the Holy Roman Empire and he was one of the earliest writers on public finance, with Eberhard von Weyhe, Georg Obrecht, and Jacob Bornitz. The Thesaurus Practicus, an alphabetical and encyclopedic work defining legal and other terms, ran to many editions, being taken up by his student Johann Jacob Speidel and his publication of three volumes of documents from the Stuttgart archives was tendentious. Their contents suggested that the dependency of the Württemberg monasteries on the Empire implied for the local dukes the obligation of restoring the confiscated religious property. He translated the satirical Ragguagli di Parnaso of Trajano Boccalini, de verae philosophiae fundamento discursus, Tübingen 1619. WorldCat for Christophorus Besoldus Open Library page de, s, ADB, Besold, Christoph https, //books. google. com/books
4. Scipione Borghese – Scipione Borghese was an Italian Cardinal, art collector and patron of the arts. A member of the Borghese family, he was the patron of the painter Caravaggio and his legacy is the establishment of the art collection at the Villa Borghese in Rome. Originally named Scipione Caffarelli, he was born in Artena, the son of Francisco Caffarelli and his father ran into financial difficulties, so Scipiones education was paid for by his maternal uncle Camillo Borghese. Upon Camillos election to the papacy as Pope Paul V in 1605, he conferred a cardinalship on Scipione and gave him the right to use the Borghese name. In the classic pattern of papal nepotism, Cardinal Borghese wielded enormous power as the Popes secretary, on his own and the Popes behalf he amassed an enormous fortune through papal fees and taxes, and acquired vast land holdings for the Borghese family. Scipione received many honours from his uncle, in each of these offices the cardinal received stipends. His income in 1609 was about 90,000 scudi, with his enormous wealth, he bought the villages of Montefortino and Olevano Romano from Pier Francesco Colonna, Duke of Zagarolo for 280,000 scudi. As Cardinal Nephew, Borghese was placed in charge of both the internal and external affairs of the Papal States. In addition, Paul V entrusted his nephew with the management of the finances of both the papacy and the Borghese family, Borghese aroused a great deal of controversy and resentment by utilizing numerous gifts from the papal government to fund Borghese family investments. Exploiting his authority as Cardinal Nephew, he often compelled owners to sell their holdings to him at substantial discounts, Borghese thus ensured that the fortunes of the family were not permanently dependent on ecclesiastical office. Cardinal Scipione Borghese died in Rome in 1633 and is buried in the Borghese chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore, contemporaries commented on the near-public scandals that resulted on occasions from Scipiones possible homosexuality, reflected in his taste for collecting art with strong homoerotic overtones. In 1605, Scipione allegedly angered his uncle the pope by bringing Stefano Pignatelli, to whom Scipione was closely attached, Scipione subsequently fell into a long and serious sickness, and only recovered when Pignatelli was allowed to come. The pope decided to keep a check on Pignatelli and had him ordained, indeed, the Italian historian Lorenzo Cardella notes that Pignatelli was cleared twice by the Roman Inquisition of having improper influence on Cardinal Borghese. Borghese took special interest in the development of the extensive gardens undertaken by artists at his Roman residences, the Palazzo Borghese on the Quirinal. Both these influential gardens featured innovative elements such as waterfalls, and they incorporated dense groves of trees, during the Ludovisi papacy the major focus of Borghese’s ecclesiastical patronage was on commemorative projects. The first was the embellishment of the Caffarelli chapel in Santa Maria sopra Minerva, the second was the massive timber catafalque decorated with life-size plaster figures designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, erected in Santa Maria Maggiore. Borghese’s first work after entering the Sacred College where he studied was the building and decoration of the chapels of St. Andrew. For Borghese to complete such a project declared his devotion to the city’s Christian heritage, the restoration of San Sebastiano fuori le mura, a church built under Constantine housing the greatest collection of relics known at the time
5. John Bramston the Elder – Sir John Bramston the elder was an English judge and Chief Justice of the King’s Bench. On leaving the university he went into residence at the Middle Temple and his ability was recognised early by his university, which made him one of its counsel in 1607, with an annual fee of forty shillings. Shortly after his reading was concluded he was called to the degree of serjeant-at-law, in 1626 he defended the Earl of Bristol on his impeachment. A dissolution of parliament, however, soon relieved Bramston from this duty, in the following year he was chosen one of the counsel for the city of London on the motion of Sir Heneage Finch, then recorder, who was a close friend and connection by marriage. In 1629 he was one of the counsel for seven of the nine members of the House of Commons who were indicted for making seditious speeches in parliament. Next year the Bishop of Ely appointed him justice of his diocese. In 1632 he was made queens Serjeant, and two years later Kings Serjeant, being knighted 24 November in the same year, in 1635 he was created Chief Justice of the Kings Bench. In July of the same year Bramston was a member of the Star Chamber tribunal which tried the Bishop of Lincoln on the charge of tampering with witnesses, and committing other misdemeanors. The bishop was found guilty by a verdict, and sentenced to be deprived of his office, to pay a fine of £10,000. A similar sentence was passed on him at a date, Bramston being again a member of the court, on a charge of libelling the Archbishop of Canterbury. In the celebrated Ship money case, decided in the year, Bramston gave his judgment against the king, though on a purely technical ground. On 16 April 1640, during the indisposition of the lord keeper Finch, next day it was resolved that the message usual in such cases should be sent to the House of Lords. The lord keeper was bound to the effect the following day. From this time forward until Bramstons death persistent attempts were made to him to declare definitely in favour of the parliament. In the same year a resolution was come to that he should be appointed one of the judges of the Common Pleas. Even in the last year of his life Cromwell, then protector, sent for him privately, Bramston, however, excused himself on the ground of his advanced age. He was buried in Roxwell church, in person he is described as of middle height, in youth slight and active, in later years stout without being corpulent. Even the learned lawyers learned of him, as I have heard Twisden, Wild, Windham, and the admired Hales, and others acknowledge often
6. Robert Burton (scholar) – Robert Burton was an English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy. He was also the incumbent of St Thomas the Martyr, Oxford and he was born at Lindley, Leicestershire, Robert Burton was the son of Ralph and Dorothy Burton and the brother of William Burton the antiquary. Burton spent most of his life at Oxford, first as a pupil at Brasenose College and he studied a large number of diverse subjects, many of which informed the study of melancholia, for which he is chiefly famous. He was appointed vicar of St Thomas Church in Oxford in 1616, Burton was a mathematician and dabbled in astrology. When not depressed he was a companion, very merry, facete, and juvenile, and a person of great honesty, plain dealing. Merry, indeed, Burton had favourite sources for laughter, there was a rumour that Burton hanged himself in his chambers at Christ Church, supposedly so that his death would match his prediction. Burton was buried at Christ Church Cathedral in Oxford, Burtons Melancholy focuses sharply on the self, unlike Bacon, Burton assumes that knowledge of psychology, not natural science, is humankinds greatest need. He wrote The Anatomy of Melancholy largely to himself out of being a lifelong sufferer from depression. As he described his condition in the preface Democritus Junior to the Reader, for I had gravidum cor, foetum caput, a kind of imposthume in my head, therefore, the treatise itself was intended as treatment. Again, from the preface, I write of melancholy, by being busy to avoid melancholy, there is no greater cause of melancholy than idleness, no better cure than business. However, this sentence may also be interpreted ironically, as Burton is citing a well-known adage of the time, the parenthetical aside is meant to be tongue-in-cheek. The work, published under the pseudonym Democritus Junior in 1621, was quite popular, in the words of Thomas Warton, the authors variety of learning, his quotations from rare and curious books, his pedantry sparkling with rude wit and shapeless elegance. Have rendered it a repertory of amusement and information, many later writers were deeply influenced by the books odd mix of pan-scholarship, humour, linguistic skill, and creative insights. This influence was so strong that later writers sometimes drew from the work without acknowledgment, samuel Johnson considered it one of his favourite books, being the only book that ever took him out of bed two hours sooner than he wished to rise. The book has continued as a favourite among many twentieth and twenty-first-century authors, such as Anthony Burgess, William H. Gass, apart from The Anatomy of Melancholy Burtons only other published work is Philosophaster, a satirical Latin comedy. Faulkner, Nicolas K. Kiessling, and Rhonda L. Blair and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Cousin, John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, london, J. M. Dent & Sons. The Gilded Pill, The Reader-Writer Relationship in Robert Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy, review and quotes at complete review Entry at the Columbia Encyclopedia The BBCs In Our Time discusses The Anatomy of Melancholy
7. Jacob Cats – Jacob Cats was a Dutch poet, humorist, jurist and politician. He is most famous for his emblem books, having lost his mother at an early age, and being adopted with his three brothers by an uncle, Cats was sent to school at Breda. He then studied law at Rotterdam and at Paris, and, returning to Holland, he settled at the Hague and his pleading in defence of a person accused of witchcraft brought him many clients and some reputation. He had a love affair about this time, which was broken off on the very eve of marriage by his catching a tertian fever which defied all attempts at cure for some two years. For medical advice and change of air Cats went to England and he returned to Zeeland to die, but was cured mysteriously with the powder of a travelling doctor. He married in 1602 a lady of property, Elisabeth van Valkenburg, and thenceforward lived at Grijpskerke in Zeeland. In 1621, on the expiration of the truce with Spain. He was made pensionary of Middelburg, and two years afterwards of Dordrecht, in 1627 Cats came to England on a mission to Charles I, who made him a knight. Here he lived from this time till his death, occupied in the composition of his autobiography and he became famous in his own lifetime from his moralistic Emblem books, most notably Sinne en Minnebeelden, for which Adrian van der Venne cut the plates. He died on 12 September 1660, and was buried by torchlight and he is still spoken of as Father Cats by his countrymen. He was, however, intimate with Constantijn Huygens, whose opinions were more nearly in agreement with his own. His diffuseness and the character of his matter and diction, have, however, come to be regarded as difficulties in the way of study. A statue to him was erected at Brouwershaven in 1829, see Jacob Cats, Alle de wercken, so ouden als nieuwe, published by Jan Jacobsz. Schipper, Amsterdam 1655, or, Jacob Cats, Complete works, later editions by van Vloten, Pigott, Moral Emblems, with Aphorisms, etc. from Jacob Cats, witsen Geijsbeek, Het Leven en de Verdiensten van Jacob Cats. Southey has a complimentary reference to Cats in his Epistle to Allan Cunningham. Emblemata or Minnebeelden with Maegdenplicht Selfstryt Houwelick Proteus Ofte Minne-Beelden Verandert In Sinne-Beelden, even today many of his coined phrases are still colloquialisms in everyday Dutch. Many of Cats moral poems were set to music, a selection of these, Klagende Maeghden en andere liederen, was recorded in 2008 by the Utrecht ensemble Camerata Trajectina. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Cats
8. Giacomo Cavedone – Giacomo Cavedone was an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School. He belonged to the generation of Carracci-inspired or trained painters that included Giovanni Andrea Donducci, Alessandro Tiarini, Lucio Massari, Leonello Spada and he was born in Sassuolo, near Modena, and was able to obtain a three-year stipend to apprentice with Bernardino Baldi and Annibale Carracci. In the autumn of 1609, he sojourned in Rome for a year to work under Guido Reni and he became one of Ludovico Carraccis primary assistants, and upon Ludovicos death in 1619 became Caposindaco of the Accademia degli Incamminati. His career as a painter was cut short by a set of misfortunes, these included a 1623 fall from a scaffold and, in 1630. The 1911 Britannica claims his wife was accused of witchcraft and he lived until 1660, and died in poverty. His paintings have a traditional Ludovico Carracci-inspired structure, with a Madonna and her wafting robes hovering above donors, among his pupils were Giovanni Andrea Sirani, Giovanni Battista Cavazza, Ottavio Corradi, and Flaminio Torre. Paul, Fogg Art Museum) The Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes Judith of Holofernes & Complaint of Job Attribution Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Cavedone, the Art of Corregio and the Carracci
9. Beatrice Cenci – Beatrice Cenci was an Italian noblewoman. She is famous as the protagonist in events leading to a murder trial in Rome that gave rise to an enduring legend about her. Beatrice was the daughter of an aristocrat, Francesco Cenci, who, due to his violent temper and immoral behaviour, found himself in trouble with papal justice more than once. The family lived in Rome at the Palazzo Cenci in the rione Regola, the members of the extended family living together included Beatrices elder brother, Giacomo, Francescos second wife, Lucrezia Petroni, and Bernardo, Francescos son from his second marriage. A castle also was among their possessions, La Rocca of Petrella Salto, according to historical details leading to the legend, Francesco Cenci abused his first wife Ersilia Santa Croce and his sons and raped Beatrice multiple times, thus being guilty of incest. He was jailed for crimes, but due to the leniency with which the nobles were treated he was freed early. Beatrice tried to inform the authorities about the frequent mistreatment, when he found out that his daughter had reported him, he sent Beatrice and Lucrezia away from Rome to live in the familys country castle at La Petrella del Salto in the Abruzzi mountains. The four Cencis decided they had no alternative but to try to get rid of Francesco, in 1598, during one of Francescos stays at the castle, two vassals helped them to drug him, but this failed to kill Francesco. Following this Beatrice, her siblings, and their stepmother bludgeoned Francesco to death with a hammer, No one believed the death to be accidental, however. Eventually his absence was noticed and the police tried to find out what happened. Beatrices lover was tortured and died without revealing the truth, meanwhile, a family friend who was aware of the murder ordered the killing of the second vassal to avoid any risk. Nonetheless, the plot was discovered and the four members of the Cenci family were arrested, found guilty, the common people of Rome, knowing the reasons for the murder, protested against the tribunals decision, obtaining a short postponement of the execution. Pope Clement VIII, however, fearing a spate of familial murders, on 11 September 1599, at dawn, they were taken to SantAngelo Bridge, where the scaffold was usually built. In the cart to the scaffold, Giacomo was subjected to continual torture, on reaching the scaffold his head was smashed with a mallet. The public spectacle continued with the executions of first Lucrezia and finally Beatrice, both took their turns on the block to be beheaded with a small axe. Only the 12-year-old, Bernardo, was spared, yet he, too, was led to the scaffold and forced to witness the execution of his relatives before returning to prison and it was decreed that Bernardo should then become a galley slave for the remainder of his life. However, he was released a year later, Beatrice was buried in the church of San Pietro in Montorio. Beatrice has become a symbol to the people of Rome of resistance against the arrogant aristocracy, and it is related that every year on the night before the anniversary of her death, she comes back to the bridge where she was executed, carrying her severed head
10. Christian IV of Denmark – Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies, a member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious, Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. He engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy and he renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway. He was descended, through his mothers side, from king John of Denmark, at the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne. However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect, at the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old. He succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and his mother Queen Dowager Sophie,30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council, Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy and received a good education with a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, twelve days later, on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup. He was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia which had made for him by Dirich Fyring. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers, the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christians own designs. The formation of a national army proved more difficult, up until the early 1620s, Denmarks economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe. This inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmarks overseas trade and he founded a number of merchant cities, and supported the building of factories. He also built a number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style
11. Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr – De La Warr is pronounced Delaware. There have been two creations of Baron De La Warr, and West came from the second. He was the son of Thomas West, 2nd Baron De La Warr, of Wherwell Abbey in Hampshire and Anne Knollys, daughter of Catherine Carey and he was born at Wherwell, Hampshire, England, and died at sea while travelling from England to the Colony of Virginia. Thomas West received his education at Queens College, Oxford and he served in the army under Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and, in 1601, was charged with supporting Essexs ill-fated insurrection against Queen Elizabeth, but he was acquitted of those charges. He succeeded his father as Baron De La Warr in 1602, Lord De La Warr was appointed governor-for-life and captain-general of the Colony of Virginia, to replace the governing council of the colony under the presidency of Captain John Smith. As part of Englands response, De La Warr recruited and equipped a contingent of 150 men, the supply fleet arrived in Jamestown in June, just in time to persuade the original settlers not to give up and go home to England. These tactics, identical to those practiced by the Powhatan themselves, Lord De La Warr returned to England due to illness in the spring of 1611, leaving his deputy, Sir Samuel Argall, in charge of the colony. Later that year, De La Warr wrote and published a book titled The Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord De-La-Warre, Lord Governour and Captaine Generall of the Colonie and he died at sea en route to Virginia. It was thought for years that Lord De La Warr had been buried in the Azores or at sea. By 2006, researchers had concluded that his body was brought to Jamestown for burial, a grave site thought to contain the remains of Captain Bartholomew Gosnold may instead contain those of Lord De La Warr. Lord De La Warrs brother, John West, later governor of Virginia. On 25 November 1596, De La Warr married Cecily, the daughter of Sir Thomas Shirley of Wiston, Sussex and Anne and they had children, Cecily or Cecilia, who married firstly Sir Francis Bindlosse and secondly after 1629 John Byron, 1st Baron Byron. She was buried at Hucknall-Torkard in Nottinghamshire, lucy, who married Sir Robert Byron, Governor of Liverpool and a Colonel in the service of the Royalist Infantry Forces who fought in the English Civil War. Henry, who succeeded his father as the 4th Baron De La Warr, married Isabella, daughter of Sir Thomas Edmunds and he died at the age of 24 and was succeed by his son Charles West, 5th Baron De La Warr. Lundy, Darryl Roger, ed. Thomas West, 3rd Baron Delaware, pp.14230 at §142296,13955 at §139543,14230 at §142295–§142296,20756 at §207553, §207556, §207558,24497 at §244965. Cokayne, George Edward, et al. eds, the Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant. Mosley, Charles, ed. Burkes Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, the Complete Peerage or a History of the House of Lords and All its Members From the Earliest Times, Volume XIV, Addenda & Corrigenda. Biography at Encyclopedia Virginia De la Warr, Thomas West, Lord
12. Countess Elisabeth of Nassau – Countess Elisabeth of Nassau was the second daughter of prince William of Orange and his third spouse Charlotte of Bourbon. She was Duchess of Bouillon by marriage, after her father was murdered in 1584, there was a shortage of money for Elisabeth, her siblings and her stepmother Louise de Coligny. In 1594 Louise took Elisabeth with her to France, where met with several Protestant nobles. One of them, Henri de La Tour dAuvergne, of the Duchy of Bouillon, Henri tried to keep his Duchy Sedan Protestant, but had to deal with hostility emanating from his catholic French neighbors. During his absences Louise acted as regent, and after his death in 1623 she became regent for their son Frédéric Maurice de la Marck and she kept in close contact with her stepmother and five sisters, two of whom also acted as regents at some point. Elisabeth van Nassau, Hertogin van Bouillon last accessed April 1,2007
13. Ferdinand of Bavaria (bishop) – This article covers the life and career of the archbishop, the Prince-elector of Cologne, Ferdinand of Bavaria. For the life and career of his uncle, Ferdinand of Bavaria, for the article on Ferdinand of Bavaria 1884-1958, Infante of Spain, see Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria. Ferdinand of Bavaria was Prince-elector archbishop of the Archbishopric of Cologne from 1612 to 1650 and he was also prince-bishop of Hildesheim, Liège, Münster, and Paderborn. Ferdinand was born in Munich, one of the sons of William V and his parents decided early that he would have church life, and they sent him to the Jesuit College of Ingolstadt for education in early 1587. He quickly became a canon in Mainz, Cologne, Würzburg, Trier, Salzburg, in 1595 he became Prince-Provost of Berchtesgaden and the coadjutor of his uncle Ernest of Bavaria. His uncle retired from most duties associated with his office, leaving Ferdinand to run the many lands he ruled, when Ernest died in 1612, Ferdinand was elected the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and the Prince-Bishop of Liège, Hildesheim, Münster, and, from 1618, Paderborn. Ferdinand never received ordination in his lifetime, though, Ferdinand is responsible for numerous executions due to fanatic witch-hunts in his dioceses. Ferdinand worked hard throughout his reign to promote Catholicism in his lands and he pushed reforms and adoption of the Council of Trents objectives, and improved the position of the Wittelsbachs in Germany. In 1612 he attempted to get his brother Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria elected the Holy Roman Emperor, in 1618 the Thirty Years War broke out. Ferdinand had initial success in supporting the Catholic leaders and keeping his dioceses safe from war with Spanish aid, by the end of the war, Swedish, Spanish, French and Imperial armies had all fought in and raided the bishoprics. In 1642 Ferdinand appointed his nephew Maximilian Henry coadjutor and he retired from most of the affairs of the dioceses. In the period of the persecution of witches 37 people were executed in Cologne, the most famous victim of his witch-hunt was Katharina Henot. Ferdinand died in 1650 in the ducal Westphalian capital Arnsberg and was buried in Cologne Cathedral and he was succeeded by Maximilian Henry of Bavaria
14. Fidelis of Sigmaringen – Cap. was a Capuchin friar who was a major figure in the Counter-Reformation, and was murdered by his opponents at Seewis im Prättigau, now part of Switzerland. He was born Mark Roy or Rey in 1577, in Sigmaringen and his fathers name was John Rey. He studied law and philosophy at the University of Freiburg, Roy subsequently taught philosophy at this university, ultimately earning the degree of Doctor of Law. During his time as a student he did not drink wine and he was known for his modesty, meekness and chastity. In 1604, Roy accompanied, as preceptor, three young Swabian gentlemen on their travels through the parts of Europe. During six years of travel, he attended Mass very frequently, upon his return, he practiced law as a counselor or advocate, at Colmar, in Alsace where he came to be known as the poor mans lawyer. He scrupulously forbore all invectives, detractions, and whatever might affect the reputation of any adversary, disenchanted with the evils associated with his profession, he was determined to enter the religious life as a member of the Capuchin friars. He finished his novitiate and studies for the priesthood, presiding over his first Mass at the Capuchin friary in Fribourg, as soon as Fidelis finished his course of theology, he was immediately employed in preaching and in hearing confessions. After becoming guardian of the Capuchin friary in Weltkirchen, Feldkirch, many residents of the town and neighboring places were reformed by his zealous labors, the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith commissioned Fidelis to preach in the Graubünden region of eastern Switzerland. Eight other Capuchin friars were to be his assistants, and they labored in this mission under his direction, the Calvinists of that territory, being incensed at his success in converting their brethren, loudly threatened Fidelis life, and he prepared himself for martyrdom. Ralph de Salis and another Calvinist gentleman were both converted by his missionary efforts, Fidelis and his companions entered into Prättigau, a small district of Graubünden, in 1622, on the Feast of the Epiphany, January 6. The effects of his ardent zeal, where the Bishop of Coire sent a lengthy and full account to the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, on April 24,1622, Fidelis made his confession, celebrated Mass and then preached at Grüsch. At the end of his sermon, which he had delivered more than ordinary zeal, he stood silent all of a sudden, with his eyes fixed upon Heaven. He foretold his death to persons in the clearest terms. After the service at Grüsch he and several companions traveled to Seewis and his companions noted that he was particularly cheerful. During the sermon, his listeners were called to arms by the Calvinist agitators outside, some of the people went to face the Austrian troops outside the church. Fidelis had been persuaded by the remaining Catholics to immediately flee with the Austrian troops out of Seewis, which he did, but then returned alone to Grüsch. On his way back he was confronted by 20 Calvinist soldiers who demanded unsuccessfully that he renounce the Catholic faith, a local account, From Grüsch he went to preach at Seewis, where, with great energy, he exhorted the Catholics to constancy in the faith
15. Francis, Duke of Pomerania – Francis of Pomerania was Duke of Pomerania-Stettin and Bishop of Cammin. Francis was the son of Duke Bogislaw XIII and his wife, at the instigation of his father, he received the best possible education. He indicated at an age that his interests tended towards knighthood. His plans to go to the Saxon court, however were thwarted by John Frederick, who brought him into the Bishopric of Cammin, in 1592, he was appointed Coadjutor of the diocese, in 1593, he participated in the national synod. In 1594, he made a trip to Vienna and Hungary and he took part in the siege of Esztergom fortress under Matthias, the later Archduke Matthias of Austria. He went to Italy in 1596 and then returned to Pomerania, after his uncle Casimir had resigned from his post as Bishop of Cammin in 1602, Francis was elected as the next bishop in a carefully predetermined election. His residence was Köslin, where he had the castle equipped accordingly, when in 1604 the King of Sweden offered him the command of 3000 men infantry and 1000 cavalry in the Polish-Swedish war, he had to refuse, in view of the neutrality of Pomerania. In 1607, he made another journey and this brought him first to Prague and from there via Switzerland and France to the Spanish border. He returned via England, Scotland and the Netherlands, to secure the borders of his bishopric, he established a small military force in 1614. After his brother Philip II had died without heirs in 1618, the Bishopric of Cammin went to his brother Ulrich. His efforts to strengthen the capabilities of Pomerania were largely unsuccessful. They rejected his demand to provide the Stettin arsenal with weapons and equipment and he did not share the scientific interests of his predecessor Philip II. Projects on geography or national history such as Valentin von Winthers Pomeranographia and he devoted himself intensively to the affairs of government and the city of Stettin. Documents requiring his signature were always checked thoroughly, because of his kindness and affability in dealing with his subjects, he was very popular among the population. During Duke Franciss time in office, the 80-year-old nun Sidonia von Borcke from the Marienfließ Convent was tried for witchcraft. She was accused of having caused the death of the Dukes Philip II and George II. She was found guilty, and executed, three month later, Duke Francis fell ill. He was still healthy in the morning, felt ill after lunch, in 1610, Duke Francis was married to Sophie of Saxony, a daughter of Elector Christian I of Saxony
16. Cornelis van der Geest – Cornelis van der Geest was a spice merchant from Antwerp, who used his wealth to support the Antwerp artists and to establish his art collection. He was also the dean of the haberdashers guild and he is best known today for his art collection. He owned two paintings by Quentin Matsys, one of which, a Madonna, can be seen in the Van Haecht painting, the painting also shows some of Van der Geests sculptures, with copies of the Venus de Medici, the Farnese Hercules, and the Apollo Belvedere. Paintings by Willem van Haecht of his art gallery, Paintings hanging in his art gallery followed by the numbers of the five gallery paintings above, Van der Geest also functioned as a maecenas. He arranged for Rubens to get the order for a triptych for the Saint Walpurga church in Antwerp, Van der Geest also financed a new memorial for Quentin Metsys against the tower of the Antwerp Cathedral
17. Paul Guldin – Paul Guldin was a Swiss Jesuit mathematician and astronomer. He discovered the Guldinus theorem to determine the surface and the volume of a solid of revolution, Guldin was noted for his association with the German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler. Guldin composed a critique of Cavalieris method of Indivisibles and he was born in Mels, Switzerland, and was a professor of mathematics in Graz and Vienna
18. Piet Pieterszoon Hein – Pieter Pietersen Heyn was a Dutch admiral and privateer for the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years War between the United Provinces and Spain. Hein was the first and the last to capture such a part of a Spanish silver fleet from America. Hein was born in Delfshaven, the son of a sea captain, during his first journeys he suffered from extreme Motion sickness. In his twenties, he was captured by the Spanish, and served as a slave for about four years. Between 1603 and 1607 he was held captive by the Spanish. In 1607, he joined the Dutch East India Company and left for Asia and he married Anneke Claesdochter de Reus and settled in Rotterdam. In 1618, when he was captain of the Neptunus, both he and his ship were pressed into service by Venice, in 1621 he left his vessel behind and traveled overland to the Netherlands. For a year in 1622 he was a member of the government of Rotterdam, although he did not have citizenship of this city. In 1623, he became vice-admiral of the new Dutch West India Company, in Brazil, he briefly captured the Portuguese settlement of Salvador, personally leading the assault on the sea fortress of that town. In August with a small and undermanned fleet he sailed for the African west coast and attacked a Portuguese fleet in the strongly defended bay of Luanda, after finding that Salvador had been recaptured by a large Spanish-Portuguese fleet Hein returned home. The Dutch West India Company, pleased with Heins leadership qualities, in subsequent raids during 1627 at Salvador, he attacked and captured over thirty richly laden Portuguese merchant ships before returning to the United Provinces. Also, he never was an individual privateer but rather commanded entire fleets of warships, in 1628, Admiral Hein, with Witte de With as his flag captain, sailed out to capture a Spanish treasure fleet loaded with silver from their American colonies and the Philippines. With him was Admiral Hendrick Lonck and he was joined by a squadron of Vice-Admiral Joost Banckert. The Dutch did not take prisoners, they gave the Spanish crews ample supplies for a march to Havana, the capture of the treasure fleet was the Dutch West India Companys greatest victory in the Caribbean. As a result, the money funded the Dutch army for eight months, Hein returned to the Netherlands in 1629, where he was hailed as a hero. Hein was the first and the last to capture such a part of a Spanish silver fleet from America. He died the year, in a campaign against the Dunkirkers. As it happened his flotilla intercepted three privateers from Ostend and he deliberately moved his flagship in between two enemy ships to give them both simultaneous broadsides
19. Otto Heurnius – Otto Heurnius was a Dutch physician, theologian and philosopher. He succeeded his father Johannes Heurnius as professor of medicine at the University of Leiden, alongside his practical anatomy teaching, he had the care of a very various collection of zoological and botanical specimens. The aims of the collection included reconstruction of the life of the Israelites in Egypt and he was also a historian of philosophy, stressing the period before the philosophers of the Ancient Greeks. He based his ideas on the Corpus Hermeticum, Otto Heurnius at the Mathematics Genealogy Project WorldCat page Genealogy if Otto van Heurn