Category:15th-century music genres
This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.
This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.
1. 15th century – The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1400 to 1500. In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the European miracle of the following centuries, in religious history, the Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades, until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. The event forced Western Europeans to find a new route, adding further momentum to what was the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Explorations by the Spanish and Portuguese led to European sightings of the Americas and these expeditions ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires. The fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy and these two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance. The Spanish Reconquista leads to the fall of the Emirate of Granada by the end of the century, ending over seven centuries of Muslim rule. The Hundred Years War end with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon, financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts ends with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century. In Asia, under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, tamerlane established a major empire in the Middle East and Central Asia, in order to revive the Mongol Empire. In Africa, the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, the formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire. In the Americas, both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence, 1400s 1401, Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day central India 1402, Ottoman and Timurid Empires fight at the Battle of Ankara resulting in Timurs capture of Bayezid I. 1402, Sultanate of Malacca founded by Parameshwara,1403, The Yongle Emperor moves the capital of China from Nanjing to Beijing. 1403, The settlement of the Canary Islands signals the beginning of the Spanish Empire, 1405–1433, Zheng He of China sails through the Indian Ocean to India, Arabia, and East Africa to spread Chinas influence and sovereignty. 1405, Paregreg war, Majapahit civil war of succession between Wikramawardhana against Wirabhumi, 1405–1407, The first voyage of Zheng He, a massive Ming dynasty naval expedition visited Java, Palembang, Malacca, Aru, Samudera and Lambri. 1410s 1410, The Battle of Grunwald is the battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights. 1410–1413, Foundation of St Andrews University in Scotland,1414, Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan, takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty
2. Aak – Aak Korean pronunciation, is a genre of Korean court music. It is a form of the Chinese court music yayue. Aak was performed almost exclusively in state sacrificial rites, and in the present day it is performed at certain Confucian ceremonies and it remained very popular for a time before dying out. It was revived in 1430, based on a reconstruction of older melodies, and preserved in Treatise on Ceremonial Music, aak is one of three types of Korean court music, the other two are dangak and hyangak. Aak is similar to dangak in that both have Chinese origins, all the instruments used in aak are derived from Chinese original, and very few of these are used in other kinds of traditional Korean music. Aak was first performed at the Royal Ancestral Shrine in the Goryeo period as ritual music of the court, the music is now performed by members of the Kungnip Kugagwŏn National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts in Seoul. It may also be performed at special concerts, there are two instrumental ensembles – a terrace ensemble located on the porch of the main shrine, and a courtyard ensemble located near the main entrance in front of the main shrine building. The music performances or munmyo jeryeak may be accompanied by dances called munmyo ilmu, there are two forms of dances, one a civil dance, the other a military dance, performed by 64 dancers in an 8x8 formation. The modern repertoire of aak consists of just two different surviving melodies, both the two surviving pieces have 32 notes that last around 4 minutes when performed, and one of the two is performed in a number of transpositions. The music is played very slowly, each note is drawn out for around four seconds, with the wind instruments rising in pitch at the end of the note, giving it a distinctive character
3. Antiphon – An antiphon in Christian music and ritual is a responsory by a choir or congregation, usually in the form of a Gregorian chant, to a psalm or other text in a religious service or musical work. Antiphony is now used for any call and response style of singing, such as the kirtan. Antiphonal music is music that is performed by two semi-independent choirs in interaction, often singing alternate musical phrases, antiphonal psalmody is the singing or musical playing of psalms by alternating groups of performers. An antiphony is also a choir-book containing antiphons, the mirror structure of Hebrew psalms renders it probable that the antiphonal method was present in the services of the ancient Israelites. According to the historian Socrates of Constantinople, antiphony was introduced into Christian worship by Ignatius of Antioch, Antiphons have remained an integral part of the worship in the Byzantine and Armenian Rite. The practice was not found in the Latin Church until more than two centuries later, Polyphonic Marian antiphons emerged in England in the 14th century as settings of texts honouring the Virgin Mary separately from the mass and office, often after Compline. Towards the end of the 15th century, English composers produced expanded settings up to nine parts, with increasing complexity, the largest collection of such antiphons is the late 15th century Eton Choirbook. As a result, antiphony remains particularly common in the Anglican musical tradition, the Greater Advent or O Antiphons are antiphons used at daily prayer in the evenings of the last days of Advent in various liturgical Christian traditions. Each antiphon is a name of Christ, one of his attributes mentioned in Scripture, in the Roman Catholic tradition, they are sung or recited at Vespers from December 17 to December 23. In the Church of England they have traditionally used as antiphons to the Magnificat at Evening Prayer. More recently they have found a place in liturgical documents throughout the Anglican Communion. Use of the O Antiphons was preserved in Lutheranism at the German Reformation, when two or more groups of singers sing in alternation, the style of music can also be called polychoral. Specifically, this term is applied to music of the late Renaissance. Polychoral techniques are a characteristic of the music of the Venetian school, exemplified by the works of Giovanni Gabrieli. Polychoral music was not limited to Italy in the Renaissance and it was popular in Spain and Germany and there are examples from the 19th and 20th centuries, from composers as diverse as Hector Berlioz, Igor Stravinsky and Karlheinz Stockhausen. Marian antiphon Polyphony Polyphonic form Polyphonic singing Polychoral compositions Latin church music by George Frideric Handel — includes three antiphons, Antiphon O Sapientia quae ex ore Altissimi. Antiphon O Adonai II Great Advent Antiphon File, Schola Gregoriana-Antiphona et Magnificat. ogg
4. Ballade (forme fixe) – The ballade is a form of medieval and Renaissance French poetry as well as the corresponding musical chanson form. It was one of the three formes fixes and one of the forms in France most commonly set to music between the late 13th and the 15th centuries. The formes fixes were standard forms in French-texted song of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the ballade is usually in three stanzas, each ending with a refrain. The ballade as a form typically consists of three eight-line stanzas, each with a consistent metre and a particular rhyme scheme. The last line in the stanza is a refrain, the stanzas are often followed by a four-line concluding stanza usually addressed to a prince. The rhyme scheme is therefore usually ababbcbC ababbcbC ababbcbC bcbC, where the capital C is a refrain, the many different rhyming words that are needed makes the form more difficult for English than for French poets. Geoffrey Chaucer wrote in the form and it was revived in the 19th century by English-language poets including Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Algernon Charles Swinburne. Other notable English-language ballade writers are Andrew Lang, Hilaire Belloc, a humorous example is Wendy Copes Proverbial Ballade. In many ballades, the part of the B section may reintroduce melodic material referring back to the end of the A part. An alternative form employed by Machaut, known as duplex or balladelle, has the B part also divided into two repetitions, with the refrain line sung as part of the repetition. A famous exception to the form is Se la face ay pale by Guillaume Dufay. Guillaume de Machaut wrote 42 ballades set to music, a few of them set two or even three poems to music simultaneously, with different texts sung in different voices. Most of the others have a single texted voice with either one or two untexted accompanying voices, one of the most notable writers of ballades in the 15th century was François Villon. There are many variations to the ballade. It is in ways similar to the ode and chant royal. A seven-line ballade, or ballade royal, consists of four stanzas of rhyme royal, a ballade supreme has ten-line stanzas rhyming ababbccdcD, with the envoi ccdcD or ccdccD. An example is Ballade des Pendus by François Villon, there are instances of a double ballade and double-refrain ballade
5. Cerdd Dant – Cerdd Dant is the art of vocal improvisation over a given melody in Welsh musical tradition. It is an important competition in eisteddfodau, the singer or choir sings a counter melody over a harp melody. Cerdd Dant is a tradition of singing lyrics over a harp accompaniment. Traditional singers who sang in stately homes tended to sing in a Welsh language that had strict rules about metre, rhyme, Cerdd Dant is usually a soloist singer with a harp accompaniment, however, you can also have choirs with several harps. A common form is have a melody written down or a well known tune. When sung in a competition, there are rules about rhythm. When finishing a piece, the verse has to end on a perfect cadence that is close to the home key so that the ending of the song is clear. In Wales, during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, the poets and musicians were part of an all-embracing bardic system. The poets wrote verse of a nature, praising the exploits and virtues of their patrons. They also provided elegies, devotional poetry, commemorated the generous acts of their patrons, the art of poetry was learnt orally, i. e. examples were learnt by heart and exercises given as spoken instruction. Part of the poet or musicians craft was the ability to remember the important work of previous generations, one of the spurs to the active and generous patronage of poets must have been the prospect that ones name and deeds would live forever. In descending social order came, poet, harper, crwth player and it is a major element of the National Eisteddfod and an annual festival celebrating Cerdd Dant is held each year
6. Chanson – A chanson is in general any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular. A singer specializing in chansons is known as a chanteur or chanteuse, the earliest chansons were the epic poems performed to simple monophonic melodies by a professional class of jongleurs or ménestrels. These usually recounted the deeds of past heroes, legendary. The Song of Roland is the most famous of these, the chanson courtoise or grand chant was an early form of monophonic chanson, the chief lyric poetic genre of the trouvères. It was an adaptation to Old French of the Occitan canso and it was practised in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Thematically, as its name implies, it was a song of courtly love, some later chansons were polyphonic and some had refrains and were called chansons avec des refrains. A Crusade song was known as a chanson de croisade, in its typical specialized usage, the word chanson refers to a polyphonic French song of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Early chansons tended to be in one of the formes fixes—ballade, the earliest chansons were for two, three or four voices, with first three becoming the norm, expanding to four voices by the sixteenth century. Sometimes, the singers were accompanied by instruments, the first important composer of chansons was Guillaume de Machaut, who composed three-voice works in the formes fixes during the 14th century. Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois, who wrote so-called Burgundian chansons, were the most important chanson composers of the next generation and their chansons, while somewhat simple in style, are also generally in three voices with a structural tenor. Musicologist David Fallows includes the Burgundian repertoire in A Catalogue of Polyphonic Songs 1415-1480 and these works are typically still 3 voices, with an active upper voice pitched above two lower voices usually sharing the same range. The first book of music printed from movable type was Harmonice Musices Odhecaton and this genre sometimes featured music that was meant to be evocative of certain imagery such as birds or the marketplace. Many of these Parisian works were published by Pierre Attaingnant, composers of their generation, as well as later composers, such as Orlando de Lassus, were influenced by the Italian madrigal. Many early instrumental works were ornamented variations on chansons, with this becoming the canzone. French solo song developed in the late 16th century, probably from the aforementioned Parisian works, louis Niedermeyer, under the particular spell of Schubert, was a pivotal figure in this movement, followed by Édouard Lalo, Felicien David and many others. Another offshoot of chanson, called chanson réaliste, was a musical genre in France. Among the better-known performers of the genre are Damia, Fréhel, chanson can be distinguished from the rest of French pop music by following the rhythms of French language, rather than those of English, and a higher standard for lyrics. Canzone Russian chanson French historical chanson panorama Brown, Howard Mayer, in The Oxford Companion to Music, edited by Alison Latham