Category:16th-century English composers
Pages in category "16th-century English composers"
The following 88 pages are in this category, out of 88 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 88 pages are in this category, out of 88 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. John Bull (composer) – John Bull was an English composer, musician and organ builder. He was a keyboard performer of the virginalist school and most of his compositions were written for this medium. Bulls place of birth is shrouded in uncertainty, in an article published in 1952, Thurston Dart presumed that Bulls family originated in Somerset, where it is possible the composer was born. Then, in the edition of his Calendar of the Life of John Bull. More recent research by Susi Jeans suggests that Bull was born in the Radnorshire parish of Old Radnor within the diocese of Hereford, although no birth records have yet been discovered. After being appointed to the Merchant Taylors Company in 1577–78, Bull received his first appointment as organist of Hereford Cathedral in 1582, in 1586 he received his degree from Oxford, and he became a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal that same year. On the death of Elizabeth, he entered into the service of King James, establishing a reputation as a skilled composer, however, in addition to his virtuosity as a keyboard performer and composer, Bull was also skilled at getting into trouble. The outcome of this case is not known, even though he filed a petition for a marriage licence two days after he lost his job, he never returned to the college. He married Elizabeth Walter in 1607, by whom he had a daughter. William Trumbull, the English envoy in the Low Countries, after first attempting to cover for him – but later fearing for his own position if he continued to do so – wrote to the King in early 1614. The Archbishop of Canterbury had said of him the previous year, Bull remained in Flanders, where it seems he stayed out of trouble. In 1615 Antwerp Cathedral appointed him as assistant organist, and as principal organist in 1617, Bull wrote a series of letters while in Flanders, including one to the mayor of Antwerp, claiming that the reason he left England was to escape religious persecution. Which is a capital offence there and he seems to have been believed, for he was never extradited back to England in spite of Trumbulls complaining to the Archduke. While in Antwerp he most probably met Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, the most influential composer of the age. In the 1620s he continued his career as an organist, organ builder and he died in Antwerp on 15 March 1628 and was buried in the cemetery next to the cathedral. He left many compositions for keyboard, some of which were collected in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, the other contributors to Parthenia were Bulls contemporaries William Byrd and Orlando Gibbons, among the most famous composers of the age. Bull also wrote an anthem, God the father, God the son, for the wedding in 1613 of the princess, in addition to his keyboard compositions, he wrote verse anthems, canons and other works. One of the most unusual collections of music from the period is his book of 120 canons, of the 120 canons,116 are based on the Miserere
2. William Byrd – William Byrd (/bɜːrd/, birth date variously given as c. 1539/40 or 1543 –4 July 1623, was an English composer of the Renaissance. He wrote in many of the current in England at the time, including various types of sacred and secular polyphony, keyboard. He produced sacred music for use in Anglican services, although he became a Roman Catholic in later life. Thanks largely to the research of John Harley, knowledge of Byrds biography has expanded in recent years, according to Harley, Thomas Byrd, the grandson of Richard Byrd of Ingatestone, Essex, probably moved to London in the 15th century. Thereafter succeeding generations of the family are described as gentlemen, William Byrd was born in London, the son of another Thomas Byrd about whom nothing further is known, and his wife, Margery. The specific year of Byrds birth is uncertain, in his will, dated 15 November 1622, he describes himself as in the 80th year of my age, suggesting a birthdate of 1542 or 1543. However a document dated 2 October 1598 written in his own hand states that he is 58 yeares or ther abouts, Byrd had two brothers, Symond and John, who became London merchants, and four sisters, Alice, Barbara, Mary, and Martha. There is no evidence concerning Byrds early musical training. His two brothers were choristers at St. Pauls Cathedral, and Byrd may have been a chorister there as well under Simon Westcote, although it is possible that he was a chorister with the Chapel Royal. A reference in the material to the Cantiones sacrae published by Byrd. According to Anthony Wood, Byrd was bred up to musick under Tho and it was probably composed near the end of the reign of Queen Mary Tudor, who revived Sarum liturgical practices. A few other compositions by Byrd also probably date from his teenage years, Byrds first known professional employment was his appointment in 1563 as organist and master of the choristers at Lincoln Cathedral. Residing at what is now 6 Minster Yard Lincoln, he remained in post until 1572. His period at Lincoln was not entirely trouble-free, for on 19 November 1569 the Dean, since Puritanism was influential at Lincoln, it is possible that the allegations were connected with over-elaborate choral polyphony or organ playing. A second directive, dated 29 November, issued detailed instructions regarding Byrds use of the organ in the liturgy, on 14 September 1568, Byrd married Julian Birley, it was a long-lasting and fruitful union which produced at least seven children. The 1560s were also important formative years for Byrd the composer, Byrd had also taken serious strides with instrumental music. The seven In Nomine settings for consort, at least one of the consort fantasias, all these show Byrd gradually emerging as a major figure on the Elizabethan musical landscape. Some sets of variations, such as The Hunts Up
3. Orlando Gibbons – Orlando Gibbons was an English composer, virginalist and organist of the late Tudor and early Jacobean periods. He was a composer in England in the early 17th century. Gibbons was born in 1583 and baptised on Christmas Day at Oxford, between 1596 and 1598 he sang in the Choir of Kings College, Cambridge, where his brother Edward Gibbons, eldest of the four sons of William Gibbons, was master of the choristers. The second brother Ellis Gibbons was also a composer. Orlando entered the university as a sizar in 1598 and achieved the degree of Bachelor of Music in 1606 and that same year he married Elizabeth Patten, daughter of a Yeoman of the Vestry, and they went on to have seven children. King James I appointed him a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, in 1623 he became senior organist at the Chapel Royal, with Thomas Tomkins as junior organist. He also held positions as keyboard player in the chamber of the court of Prince Charles. He died at age 41 in Canterbury of apoplexy, and buried in Canterbury Cathedral. His death was a shock to his peers and brought about a post mortem, though the cause of death aroused less comment than the haste of his burial and his body not being returned to London. His wife, Elizabeth, died a little over a year later, in her mid-30s, leaving Orlandos eldest brother, Edward, of these children only the eldest son, Christopher Gibbons, was to become a musician. A suspicion immediately arose that Gibbons had died of the plague, in the brain we found the whole & sole cause of his sickness namely a great admirable blackness & syderation in the outside of the brain. Within the brain there did issue out abundance of water intermixed with blood & this we affirm to be the cause of his sudden death. Perhaps his most well-known verse anthem is This is the record of John, the soloist is required to demonstrate considerable technical facility at points, and the work expresses the rhetorical force of the text, whilst never being demonstrative or bombastic. He also produced two major settings of Evensong, the Short Service and the Second Service, a composition combining verse. Gibbonss full anthems include the expressive O Lord, in thy wrath, and he contributed six pieces to the first printed collection of keyboard music in England, Parthenia, published in about 1611. Gibbonss surviving keyboard output comprises some 45 pieces, the polyphonic fantasia and dance forms are the best represented genres. Gibbonss writing exhibits a command of three- and four-part counterpoint, most of the fantasias are complex, multi-sectional pieces, treating multiple subjects imitatively. Gibbonss approach to melody, in both his fantasias and his dances, features extensive development of musical ideas, as for example in Pavane in D minor and Lord Salisburys Pavan
4. Richard Farrant – Richard Farrant was an English composer. Like many composers of his day, the years of Farrants life are not well documented. The first acknowledgment of him is in a list of the Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 1552 and it is assumed from that list that his birth was around 1525. Although, that cannot be accurately determined, during his life he was able to establish himself as a successful composer, develop the English drama considerably, founded the first Blackfriars Theatre, and be the first to write verse-anthems. He married Anne Bower, daughter of Richard Bower who was Master of the Chapel Royal choristers at the time, with Anne he conceived ten children, one of whom was also named Richard. As a member of the Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, Farrant was active in ceremonies surrounding the royal family and he began his work with the Chapel Royal around 1550 under the reign of Edward VI. Fortunately, for Farrant, this is a time that saw huge developments in Latin Church Music, composers like William Byrd and Christopher Tye were busy expanding and elaborating on the Church Music of the day. In Farrants twelve years with the Chapel Royal, he was able to participate in funerals for Edward VI and Mary I, after his work there, he took up a post as organist at St. George’s Chapel at Windsor. For Farrant, the post at Windsor became a permanent one that he retained for the rest of his life, along with this, he also acquired the position of Master of the Chapel Royal choristers in November of 1569. Having the choirs of both of these institutions at his disposal gave him an outlet to showcase all of his compositions, in fact, every winter he was able to produce a play for the Queen herself. These positions also allowed him to back to London in 1576. It was soon after, in 1580, that he died, unlike many composers of his day that stuck to only music composition, Farrant also wrote many plays. One of his most important contributions to drama in England is of course the creation of the first Blackfriars Theatre and this eventually became one of the most important places in London for drama to develop during the Renaissance. Farrant is also one of the earliest and most well known composers that began to mix the two mediums of music and drama and it was this uncommon mixture that allowed him to begin to develop the composition style of verse. This becomes prominent in a lot of his pieces including the anthems When as we sat in Babylon, Call to remembrance, because of the time gap, many of Farrants works are only known because of careful documentation or brief mention from other documents
5. Thomas Morley – Thomas Morley was an English composer, theorist, singer and organist of the Renaissance. He was one of the foremost members of the English Madrigal School and he was also involved in music publishing, and from 1598 up to his death he held a printing patent. He used the monopoly in partnership with professional music printers such as Thomas East, living in London at the same time as Shakespeare, he became organist at St Pauls Cathedral. He was the most famous composer of music in Elizabethan England. He and Robert Johnson are the composers of the surviving contemporary settings of verse by Shakespeare. Morley was born in Norwich, in East England, the son of a brewer, most likely he was a singer in the local cathedral from his boyhood, and he became master of choristers there in 1583. However, it is assumed that Morley moved from Norwich Cathedral sometime before 1574 to be a chorister at St Pauls Cathedral. He was working as a singer in London in the 1570s and appears to have studied with William Byrd at that time, while the dates he studied with Byrd are not known, they were most likely in the early 1570s. In his 1597 publication A Plain and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke, in 1588 he received his bachelors degree from the University of Oxford, and shortly thereafter was employed as organist at St. Pauls in London. His young son died the year in 1589. Morley obviously found his direction at this time, and shortly afterwards began publishing his own collections of madrigals. Morley lived for a time in the parish as Shakespeare. While Morley attempted to imitate the spirit of Byrd in some of his sacred works. His work in the genre has remained in the repertory to the present day, other composers of the English Madrigal School, for instance Thomas Weelkes and John Wilbye, were to write madrigals in a more serious or sombre vein. Thomas Morleys compositions include, April is in my mistress face Arise, get up my deere, when loe by break of morning Where art thou wanton. The First Service How long wilt thou forget me, the Burial Service De profundis clamavi Eheu sustulerunt domine Domine, non est exultarem cor meum Domine, dominus noster O amica mea The Triumphs of Oriana edited by Morley, published in 1601. Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance, ISBN 0-393-09530-4 Article Thomas Morley in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. ISBN 1-56159-174-2 The University of Reading Library featuring, Thomas Morley, A Plaine, London,1597 Philip Ledger The Oxford Book of English Madrigals OUP1978 The Madrigal, Jerome Roche,1972
6. Martin Peerson – Martin Peerson was an English composer, organist and virginalist. His output included both sacred and secular music in such as consort music, keyboard pieces, madrigals. From Peersons will and the March marriage registers, it appears that he was the son of Thomas and Margaret Peerson of March, Cambridgeshire, in England. It is believed that Martin Peerson was born in the town of March between 1571 and 1573, as records show that his parents married in 1570, but a Margaret Peersonn was married in 1573. It therefore seems that Thomas Peerson died a few years after 1570, in the 1580s, Peerson was a choirboy of St. Pauls Cathedral in London under organist Thomas Mulliner. Subsequently, he came under the patronage of the poet Fulke Greville, a letter dated 7 December 1609 states that at the time Peerson was living at Newington and had composed several lessons for the virginals, which was his principal instrument. Peerson then took up studies at the University of Oxford. In order to do so, he would have had to subscribe to Protestantism, in 1613, he was conferred a Bachelor of Music and was appointed Master of the Boys of Canterbury Cathedral. It is possible that he was the Martin Pearson who was sacrist at Westminster Abbey from 1623 to 1630. Between June 1624 and June 1625 he returned to St. Pauls Cathedral as almoner and Master of the Choristers, Peerson is known to have been buried on 16 January 1651 in St. Faiths Chapel under St. Pauls. He therefore died in either December 1650 or, more likely, Peersons powerful patrons enabled him to print and publish a considerable quantity of his music, although little remains today. He also set to some of William Leightons verses, written by the latter while in prison for debt. Together with works by composers, these were published as The Teares. This was followed two years later by Tristiae Remedium, with texts assembled by the Reverend Thomas Myriell mainly using psalm texts in the English language, in 1620 Peersons collection Private Musicke was published. It contained secular music, including madrigals and consort songs, for one or two voices accompanied by viols or virginals, thereafter, despite changing musical trends, Peersons music showed significant roots in Renaissance polyphony. However, he was adept in the use of then-modern compositional procedures, some of his finest music is contained in his set of 15 Latin motets, which was probably composed around the turn of the century. Existing only in a copy, it originally consisted of five part-books. Richard Rastall, professor of musicology at the University of Leeds
7. Daniel Bacheler – Daniel Bacheler, also variously spelt Bachiler, Batchiler or Batchelar, was an English lutenist and composer. Of all the English lutenist-composers, he is now credited as probably being the most successful in his own lifetime, Bacheler was born at Aston Clinton, Buckinghamshire, a son of Richard Bachelor and his wife Elizabeth. He served an apprenticeship with his uncle, Thomas Cardell, who was a lutenist and he worked for Sir Francis Walsingham, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and finally as a groom of the privy chamber for Queen Anne of Denmark, consort of James I. At the royal court he composed some fifty lute pieces and these included a number of pavans, galliards, almaines and fantasies, including a set of variations on the popular tune Monsieurs Almaine. The Heralds Visitation records show that Bacheler received a grant of arms in 1606 and he was buried on 29 January 1618/1619 in St Margarets churchyard, Lee, Kent. Bacheler, Daniel, Selected works for lute / Daniel Bacheler, edited and transcribed by Martin Long, London, the music of Daniel Bacheler, a critical study, University of Sydney,1969. Batchelor, A, Daniel Bacheler, The Right Perfect Musician, The Lute,28, 3–12 Free scores by Daniel Bacheler at the International Music Score Library Project classicguitare, scores and Bio
8. Thomas Campion – Thomas Campion was an English composer, poet, and physician. He wrote over a hundred songs, masques for dancing. Campion was born in London, the son of John Campion, a clerk of the Court of Chancery, upon the death of Campions father in 1576, his mother married Augustine Steward, dying soon afterwards. His stepfather assumed charge of the boy and sent him, in 1581, to study at Peterhouse, Cambridge as a gentleman pensioner and he later entered Grays Inn to study law in 1586. However, he left in 1595 without having called to the bar. On 10 February 1605, he received his degree from the University of Caen. Campion is thought to have lived in London, practising as a physician and he was apparently unmarried and had no children. He was buried the day at St Dunstan-in-the-West in Fleet Street. He was implicated in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, but was eventually exonerated, in 1595, Poemata, a collection of Latin panegyrics, elegies and epigrams was published, winning him a considerable reputation. This was followed, in 1601, by a songbook, A Booke of Ayres, with words by himself and music composed by himself, Campions theories on poetry were criticized by Samuel Daniel in Defence of Rhyme. If, moreover, as appears quite likely, his Two Bookes of Ayres belongs also to this year and it was included, with annotations by Christopher Sympson, in Playfords Brief Introduction to the Skill of Musick, and two editions appear to have been published by 1660. Some time in or after 1617 appeared his Third and Fourth Booke of Ayres, in 1619, he published his Epigrammatum Libri II. Umbra Elegiarum liber unus, a reprint of his 1595 collection with considerable omissions, additions and corrections, while Campion had attained a considerable reputation in his own day, in the years that followed his death his works sank into complete oblivion. No doubt this was due to the nature of the media in which he worked, the masque. The masque was an amusement at any time too costly to be popular, and during the commonwealth period it was practically extinguished. The vogue of the song-books was even more ephemeral, and, as in the case of the masque, the Puritan ascendancy, with its distaste for all secular music, effectively put an end to the madrigal. His rhymeless experiments are certainly better conceived than many others, but they lack the grace and freshness of his other poetry, while the whole scheme was, of course. Rarely are his rhythms uniform, while they frequently shift from line to line, in some of his sacred pieces, he is particularly successful, combining real poetry with genuine religious fervour
9. Anthony Holborne – Anthony Holborne was a composer of English consort music during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. An Anthony Holburne entered Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1562, a Londoner of the same name was admitted to the Inner Temple Court in 1565, and again this may have been the same person. It is certain, however, that the composer was the brother of William Holborne, on the title page of both his books he claims to be in the service of Queen Elizabeth. He died of a cold in November 1602 and he was held in the highest regard as a composer by contemporaries. John Dowland dedicated the first song I saw my lady weepe in his Second Booke to Holborne and his patron was the Countess of Pembroke, Mary Sidney. In the 1590s he entered the service of Sir Robert Cecil, six of Williams madrigals were included in the Cittarn Schoole. His first known book was the Cittarn Schoole of 1597, consisting of compositions for the cittern, the preface indicates the pieces were composed over a number of years. He writes that the compositions are untimely fruits of my youth, begotten in the cradle. It is the largest surviving collection of its kind, most are of the pavan-galliard combination. Other pieces are of the allemande style, elizabethan Music and Musical Criticism, second edition, revised. Instrumentation in the Work of Antony Holborne, the Lute Music of Antony Holborne. Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 93, 25–31, a Comparative Study of Versions for Lute, Cittern, Bandora and Instrumental Ensemble of Compositions by Anthony Holborne. In Le luth et sa musique, Tours, Centre détudes supérieures de la Renaissance, 15-18 septembre 1980, II, edited by John Vaccaro, paris, Editions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Anthony Holborne’s Letter to an Unnamed Patron, journal of the Lute Society of America 10, 117–18. The Lute Pavans and Galliards of John Johnson, Anthony Holborne, Francis Cutting, John Dowland, - Alia Vox 9813 Edwards, Warwick. Oxford University Press, accessed 7 November 2012, Music Collection in Cambridge Digital Library which contains early copies/examples of Holbornes compositions
10. George Kirbye – George Kirbye was an English composer of the late Tudor period and early Jacobean era. He was one of the members of the English Madrigal School, little is known of the details of his life, though some of his contacts can be inferred. He worked at Rushbrooke Hall near Bury St Edmunds, evidently as a tutor to the daughters of Sir Robert Jermyn, in 1598 he married Anne Saxye, afterwards moving to Bury St Edmunds. Around this time he made the acquaintance of John Wilbye, a much more famous madrigalist, who lived and worked only a few miles away. In 1626 his wife died, and he is known to have been a churchwarden during the several years until his death. Kirbye avoided the light style of Morley, which was hugely popular and he is not as often sung as Morley, Weelkes or Wilbye, but neither was he as prolific, still, some of his madrigals appear in modern collections. Free scores by George Kirbye in the Choral Public Domain Library Free scores by George Kirbye at the International Music Score Library Project