Category:16th century in Haiti
- 16th century in the area of present-day Haiti — then called the Colony of Santo Domingo or the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, in the Spanish West Indies.
1. 16th century – The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1500 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600. It is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of the West occurred, during the 16th century, Spain and Portugal explored the worlds seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. In Europe, the Protestant Reformation gave a blow to the authority of the papacy. European politics became dominated by conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years War being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy, Luca Pacioli published the first work ever on accounting, in United Kingdom, the Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a civil war at the time. Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the South Asian sub continent and his rule significantly influenced arts, and culture in the region. These events directly challenged the notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle. Polybius The Histories translated into Italian, English, German and French, medallion rug, variant Star Ushak style, Anatolia, is made. It is now kept at The Saint Louis Art Museum,1500, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain was born. 1500, Guru Nanak the beginning and spreading of the 5th largest Religion in the World Sikhism,1500, Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters Brazil but is prevented from claiming it by the Treaty of Tordesillas. 1500, Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal,1500, The Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the Venetians at the Second Battle of Lepanto. 1501, Michelangelo returns to his native Florence to begin work on the statue David,1501, Safavid dynasty reunified Iran and ruled over it until 1736. Safavids adopt a Shia branch of Islam,1502, First reported African slaves in The New World 1503, Foundation of the Sultanate of Sennar by Amara Dunqas, in what is modern Sudan 1503, Spain defeats France at the Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms,1503, Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa and completes it three years later. 1503, Nostradamus was born on either December 14, or December 21,1504, A period of drought, with famine in all of Spain. 1504, Death of Isabella I of Castile, Joanna of Castille became the Queen,1505, Zhengde Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty
2. Captaincy General of Santo Domingo – The Captaincy General of Santo Domingo was the first colony in the New World and was claimed for Spain. The island was originally named La Española by Christopher Columbus, from 1511, the courts of the colony were placed under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo. In the 17th century, after years of struggles with the French, the Spanish remained in control of the eastern two-thirds of the island, which later became the Dominican Republic. Columbus reached the island on his first voyage, on December 5,1492, believing that the Europeans were in some way supernatural, the Taínos welcomed them with all the honors available. This was a different society from the one the Europeans came from. Guacanagarí, the chief who hosted Christopher Columbus and his men, treated them kindly, yet the Taínos allegedly egalitarian system clashed with the Europeans feudalist system, with more rigid class structures. This led the Europeans to believe the Taínos to be weak or misleading. Columbus tried to temper this when he and his men departed from Ayiti—as the Taínos called the island—and they left on a good note, Columbus had cemented a firm alliance with Guacanagarix, who was a powerful chief on the island. After the shipwrecking of the Santa María, Columbus decided to establish a fort with a garrison of men that could help him lay claim to this possession. The fort was called La Navidad, since the events of the shipwrecking, the garrison, in spite of all the wealth and beauty on the island, was wracked by divisions that evolved into conflict amongst these first Europeans. The more rapacious ones began to terrorize the Taíno, Ciguayo, viewed as weak by the Spaniards and even some of his own people, Guacanagarix tried to come to an accommodation with the Spaniards, who saw his appeasement as the actions of someone who submitted. They treated him with contempt and even some of his wives. The powerful cacique of the Maguana, Caonabo, could brook no further affronts and attacked the Europeans, Guacanagarix was dismayed by this turn of events but did not try too hard to aid these guamikena, probably hoping that the troublesome outsiders would never return. In 1493, Christopher Columbus came back to the island on his voyage and founded the first Spanish colony in the New World. In 1496, his brother Bartholomew Columbus established the settlement of Santo Domingo de Guzmán on the southern coast, an estimated 400,000 Tainos living on the island were soon enslaved to work in gold mines. As a consequence of oppression, forced labor, hunger, disease, by 1535, only a few dozen were still alive. During this period, the Spanish leadership changed several times. When Columbus departed on another exploration, Francisco de Bobadilla became governor, settlers charges against Columbus of mismanagement added to the tumultuous political situation