Category:1789 events of the French Revolution
Pages in category "1789 events of the French Revolution"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. August Decrees – The August Decrees were nineteen decrees made in August 1789 by the National Constituent Assembly during the French Revolution. The fall of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 was followed by a mass uproar spreading from Paris to the countryside, noble families were attacked and many aristocratic manors were burned. Abbeys and castles were also attacked and destroyed, the peers started to emigrate to the cities of France, and incidents of brigandage multiplied by the moment. The season of La Grande Peur – the Great Fear – was characterised by social hysteria, in many cases, the violence was begun not by homeless people or hunger-driven peasants but by settled countrymen who took this opportunity to further their own cause. The Great Fear opened up the vulnerability of the French government – there was a lack of authority at the center of it. The prolonged riots and massacres led to an anxiety that things might get out of control. It was an experience that the country had never undergone before, the August decrees were finally completed a week later. See, Abolition of feudalism in France#The debates in the Assembly There were nineteen decrees in all, article One The Assembly declared the feudal system abolished thereafter. Within the “existing rights and dues, both feudal and censuel, all originating in or representing real or personal serfdom shall be abolished without indemnification. ”All other dues were redeemable. Those dues that were not removed by this decree were to be collected as usual until indemnification took place, article Two The exclusive right of fuies and dovecotes is abolished. The pigeons will be locked up during times determined by the communities, during these periods, they will be considered prey, and anyone will be allowed to kill them on their properties. Article Three The exclusive rights of keeping unenclosed warrens were abolished as well, every landowner shall have the rights to destroy all kinds of game in their own land. However, public safety regulations must be maintained by them, All hunting spaces, including the royal forest, and all hunting rights were similarly abolished as well. There were provisions made for the hunting, however, for his personal pleasure in it. The president of the Assembly was commissioned to ask of the king the release of people who were sent to prison or exiled for the violation of the previously existing hunting rights. Article Four All the Manorial Courts were suppressed, but the judges, article Five Any kind of tithes, as well as any substitution for them were abolished. ”Until these provisions were made, the Assembly allowed the priests to collect the tithes. All the other tithes, which were not abolished under this law, were to be collected as usual, article Six All sorts of ground rents were redeemable at a price the Assembly fixed. No dues were to be created in the future that was irredeemable, article Seven The sale of judicial and municipal offices was abolished
2. Estates General of 1789 – The estates general, a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm, the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. It was brought to an end when the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly and this signals the outbreak of the French Revolution. The suggestion to summon the Estates General came from the Assembly of Notables installed by the King on 22 February 1787 and it had not met since 1614. The usual business of registering the Kings edicts as law was performed by the Parlement of Paris, in this year it was refusing to cooperate with Charles Alexandre de Calonnes programme of badly needed financial reform, due to the special interests of its noble members. Calonne was the Controller-General of Finances, appointed by the King to address the state deficit, as a last measure, Calonne was hoping to bypass them by reviving an archaic institution. The initial roster of Notables included 137 nobles, among them many revolutionaries, such as the Comte de Mirabeau. Lafayette had served in George Washingtons army, much of the debt had been incurred on behalf of the Americans. The final defeat of Lord Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown was due in part to the participation of the French army. If Calonne thought he would find more cooperation by changing the assembly and he proposed a land tax, Subvention Territoriale, to be imposed on all land-holders, rich or poor. Calonne was dismissed on 8 April 1787, and then was exiled and he commented on the French political scene from London. Calonnes replacement was Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne, President of the Assembly of Notables and he was offered the post of Prime Minister, which was to include being Controller. They made a number of proposals but they would not grant the King money, Lafayette suggested that the problem required a national assembly. Brienne asked him if he meant the Estates General, on receiving an affirmative answer, Brienne recorded it as a proposal. Frustrated by his inability to obtain money, the King staged a day-long harangue and their proposals reverted to the Parlement. Turning again to the Parliament, the King found that they were inclined to continue the issues that had raised in the Assembly of Notables. Unless registered, the edicts were not lawful, on 6 July 1787, Loménie forwarded the Subvention Territoriale and another tax, the Edit du Timbre, or Stamp Act, based on the American model, for registration. Parlement refused, an act, demanding accounting statements, or States. It was the Kings turn to refuse, the members of the Parlement began to jest that they required either the accounting States or the Estates General
3. National Assembly (French Revolution) – The Estates-General had been called on Dec 4,1789 to deal with Frances financial crisis, but promptly fell to squabbling over its own structure. Its members had elected to represent the estates of the realm, the 1st Estate, the 2nd Estate. They refused this and proceeded to meet separately, on June 13, this group began to call itself the National Assembly. This newly created assembly immediately attached itself onto the capitalists — the sources of the credit needed to fund the national debt — and to the common people. They consolidated the public debt and declared all existing taxes to have been illegally imposed and this restored the confidence of the capitalists and gave them a strong interest in keeping the Assembly in session. As for the people, the Assembly established a committee of subsistence to deal with food shortages. Jacques Necker, finance minister to Louis XVI, had proposed that the king hold a Séance Royale in an attempt to reconcile the divided Estates. The king agreed, but none of the three orders were formally notified of the decision to hold a Royal Session, all debates were to be put on hold until the séance royale took place. Events soon overtook Neckers complex scheme of giving in to the Communes on some points while holding firm on others. On June 19, he ordered the Salle des États, the hall where the National Assembly met, closed, when, on June 23, in accord with his plan, the king finally addressed the representatives of all three estates, he encountered a stony silence. He concluded by ordering all to disperse, the nobles and clergy obeyed, the deputies of the common people remained seated in a silence finally broken by Mirabeau, whose short speech culminated, A military force surrounds the assembly. Where are the enemies of the nation, I demand, investing yourselves with your dignity, with your legislative power, you inclose yourselves within the religion of your oath. It does not permit you to separate till you have formed a constitution, Necker, conspicuous by his absence from the royal party on that day, found himself in disgrace with Louis, but back in the good graces of the National Assembly. The French military began to arrive in numbers around Paris. This move failed, soon part of the deputies of the nobles who still stood apart joined the National Assembly at the request of the king. Louis offered to move the assembly to Noyon or Soissons, that is to say, public outrage over this troop presence precipitated the Storming of the Bastille, beginning the Revolution. This article incorporates text from the public domain History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814, by François Mignet and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. French Revolution. Http, //www. assemblee-nationale. fr/english/8am. asp History of the National Assembly http, //www. saylor. org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/National-Assembly-French-Revolution. pdf National Assembly
4. Paris Commune (French Revolution) – The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille, the Paris Commune became insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders from the central French government. It took charge of routine civic functions but is best known for mobilizing extreme views and actions among the people and for its campaign to dechristianize the churches and it lost much power in 1794 and was replaced in 1795. In 1792, the Commune was dominated by those Jacobins who were not in the Legislative Assembly due to the Self-Denying Ordinance, the all-powerful Commune demanded custody of the royal family, imprisoning them in the Temple fortress. A list of opponents of the Revolution was drawn up, the gates to the city were sealed, the government of the republic was succeeded by the French Directory in November 1795
5. Revolution Controversy – The Revolution Controversy was a British debate over the French Revolution, lasting from 1789 through 1795. A pamphlet war began in earnest after the publication of Edmund Burkes Reflections on the Revolution in France, because he had supported the American colonists in their rebellion against England, his views sent a shock-wave through the country. Many writers responded, defending the revolution in France, among them Thomas Paine, Mary Wollstonecraft, alfred Cobban calls the debate that erupted perhaps the last real discussion of the fundamentals of politics in Britain. The themes articulated by those responding to Burke would become a feature of the radical working-class movement in Britain in the nineteenth century. Most Britons celebrated the storming of the Bastille in 1789, believing that Frances monarchy should be curtailed by a democratic form of government. However, by December 1795, after the Reign of Terror and war with France, when he failed to do so, it shocked the populace and angered his friends and supporters. Burkes book sold 30,000 copies in two years, the Reflections defended the aristocratic concepts of paternalism, loyalty, chivalry, the hereditary principle and property. Burke criticized the view of many British thinkers and writers who had welcomed the early stages of the French Revolution and he viewed the French Revolution as the violent overthrow of a legitimate government, contending that citizens do not have the right to overthrow their government. Civilizations and governments, he maintained, are the result of social and political consensus, liberals such as William Godwin, Thomas Paine, and Mary Wollstonecraft argued for republicanism, agrarian socialism, and anarchism. Many of their works were published by Joseph Johnson, who was jailed for his seditious activities. Wollstonecraft had been influenced by the ideas she ingested from Prices sermons at Newington Green Unitarian Church. These seeds germinated into A Vindication of the Rights of Men, wollstonecrafts most famous work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was written in 1792, in the spirit of rationalism extending Prices arguments about equality to women. Butler, Marilyn, ed. Burke, Paine, Godwin, Vindication, A Life of Mary Wollstonecraft
6. Society of the Friends of the Blacks – The Society of the Friends of the Blacks was a group of French men and women, mostly white, who were abolitionists. The Society was created in Paris in 1788, and remained in existence until 1793 and it was led by Jacques Pierre Brissot, with advice from Thomas Clarkson, who headed the abolitionist movement in the Kingdom of Great Britain. At the beginning of 1789, it had 141 members, during the five-year period of its existence, it published anti-slavery literature and addressed its concerns on a substantive political level in the National Assembly of France. Ironically, however, any real, practical legislative mitigation of the slaves plight would emerge only after the demise of the Society in 1793, in February 1794, the National Assembly legislated the Universal Emancipation decree, which effectively freed all colonial slaves. The economy of France was dependent upon revenues from the colonies, figures indicate that slave-trade activity during the years leading up to the French Revolution resulted in some profit percentages exceeding 100 percent. In 1784, for example, the outfitter Chaurands realized a profit of 110 percent through the use of a single ship, in 1789, one outfitter reached 120 per cent. The initial formation of La Société des Amis des Noirs was undertaken by Jacques Pierre Brissot, a follower of the Philosophes, Brissots anti-slavery efforts were also due to his exposure to humanitarian activities on both sides of the Atlantic. In the United States, where he visited Philadelphias constitutional convention, in England, Thomas Clarkson invited Brissot to attend a meeting of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade. So enthused was Brissot that shortly thereafter he would create his own abolitionist society in Paris and its objectives would be to suppress the slave trade and, at a later date, to attain equal rights for free men of color. The Amis advocated freedom in the French colonies, arguing that the ideas of the Revolution should extend to the colonies. The French concept of liberté, égalité, fraternité did not include the liberation of slaves, the Societys founder, Brissot, decided at the outset that the method of spreading the societys message would be through literature, and this he did in profusion. The Society emitted not only French translation of the English literature, but also written by Brissot. Addresses were delivered to other societies as well, such as the Amis de lhumanité, and it was a reflection of not only the Philosophe upbringing of the Society members, but also of their efforts to be active participants in the moulding of the revolutionary government. La Société des Amis des Noirs was most active dispersing its anti-slavery literature in and around Paris, the Society, nevertheless, did make attempts to convey its message to those living outside Paris. The political activities of the Friends of the Blacks also included addresses to the National Assembly, addresses promoting the abolition of the slave trade were made in February and April 1790. Another address was delivered a few months later, four months later, a discourse was presented concerning the violence in Saint Domingue. In July 1791, Clavière addressed the National Assemblys commercial interests, the Society also addressed government individuals such as Barnave, who was a member of the Committee on Colonies, and Jacques Necker, Frances Controller-General Of Finance. Although Necker was a believer in the in-humaneness of slavery, he could not sanction emancipation unless the practice of slavery, in this manner, the existing economic balance between nations would be maintained
7. Storming of the Bastille – The Storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress, armory, and political prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the center of Paris. The prison contained just seven inmates at the time of its storming but was a symbol of abuses by the monarchy, in France, Le quatorze juillet is a public holiday, usually called Bastille Day in English. During the reign of Louis XVI, France faced an economic crisis, partially initiated by the cost of intervening in the American Revolution. The king initially opposed this development, but was forced to acknowledge the authority of the assembly, which subsequently renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly on 9 July. The commoners had formed the National Guard, sporting tricolour cockades of blue, white and red, formed by combining the red and blue cockade of Paris and the white cockade of the king. These cockades, and soon simply their colour scheme, became the symbol of the revolution and, later, Paris, close to insurrection and, in François Mignets words, intoxicated with liberty and enthusiasm, showed wide support for the Assembly. The press published the Assemblys debates, political debate spread beyond the Assembly itself into the public squares, the Palais-Royal and its grounds became the site of an ongoing meeting. The Assembly recommended the imprisoned guardsmen to the clemency of the king, they returned to prison, the rank and file of the regiment, previously considered reliable, now leaned toward the popular cause. News of Neckers dismissal reached Paris in the afternoon of Sunday,12 July, the Parisians generally presumed that the dismissal marked the start of a coup by conservative elements. Crowds gathered throughout Paris, including more than ten thousand at the Palais-Royal and this very night all the Swiss and German battalions will leave the Champ de Mars to massacre us all, one resource is left, to take arms. By early July, approximately half of the 25,000 regular troops in Paris, the crowd clashed with the Royal German Cavalry Regiment between the Place Vendôme and the Tuileries Palace. From atop the Champs-Élysées, the Prince de Lambesc unleashed a cavalry charge that dispersed the protesters at Place Louis XV—now Place de la Concorde. The Royal commander, Baron de Besenval, fearing the results of a blood bath amongst the poorly armed crowds or defections among his own men, then withdrew the cavalry towards Sèvres. Meanwhile, unrest was growing among the people of Paris who expressed their hostility against state authorities by attacking customs posts blamed for causing increased food, the people of Paris started to plunder any place where food, guns and supplies could be hoarded. That night, rumors spread that supplies were being hoarded at Saint-Lazare, a property of the clergy. An angry mob broke in and plundered the property, seizing 52 wagons of wheat and that same day multitudes of people plundered many other places including weapon arsenals. The Royal troops did nothing to stop the spreading of chaos in Paris during those days
8. Tennis Court Oath – It was a pivotal event in the early days of the French Revolution. On 17 June, the Third Estate, led by the comte de Mirabeau, on the morning of 20 June, the deputies were shocked to discover that the chamber door was locked and guarded by soldiers. There,576 of the 577 members from the Third Estate took an oath not to separate. The only person who did not join was Joseph Martin-Dauch from Castelnaudary and this oath would come to have major significance in the revolution as the Third Estate would constantly continue to protest to have more representation. The oath was both an act, and an assertion that political authority derived from the people and their representatives rather than from the monarch himself. Their solidarity forced Louis XVI to order the clergy and the nobility to join with the Third Estate in the National Assembly in order to give the illusion that he controlled the National Assembly. This oath would prove vital to the Third Estate as a step of protest that would lead to more power in the Estates General. The Oath signified for the first time that French citizens formally stood in opposition to Louis XVI, and it was foreshadowed by, and drew considerably from, the 1776 United States Declaration of Independence, especially the preamble. The Oath also inspired a variety of revolutionary activity in the months afterwards. Likewise, it reinforced the Assemblys strength and forced the King to formally request that voting occur based on head, not power. The Tennis Court Oath, which was taken in June 1789, preceded the 4 August 1789 abolition of feudalism and the 26 August 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
9. Women's March on Versailles – The Womens March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution. The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and their demonstrations quickly became intertwined with the activities of revolutionaries, who were seeking liberal political reforms and a constitutional monarchy for France. The market women and their various allies grew into a mob of thousands, encouraged by revolutionary agitators, they ransacked the city armory for weapons and marched to the Palace of Versailles. The crowd besieged the palace, and in a dramatic and violent confrontation, the next day, the crowd compelled the king, his family, and most of the French Assembly to return with them to Paris. These events ended the independence and signified the change of power. The march symbolized a new balance of power that displaced the ancient privileged orders of the French nobility and favored the common people. Bringing together people representing sources of the Revolution in their largest numbers yet, the deregulation of the grain market implemented by Turgot, Louis XVIs Controller-General of Finances, in 1774, was the main cause of the famine which led to the Flour War in 1775. Mere rumors of food led to the Réveillon riots in April 1789. Rumors of a plot aiming to destroy crops in order to starve the population provoked the Great Fear in the summer of 1789. When the October journéesa took place, Frances revolutionary decade, 1789–1799, had barely begun, the revolutions capacity for violence was as yet not fully realized. The storming of the Bastille had occurred less than three months earlier, flush with newly discovered power, the common citizens of France – particularly in the teeming capital, Paris – felt a newly discovered desire to participate in politics and government. The poorest among them were almost exclusively concerned with the issue of food, in the post-Bastille period, price inflation and severe shortages in Paris became commonplace, as did local incidents of violence in the marketplaces. Now their attention was turned to the creation of a permanent constitution, monarchists and conservatives of all degrees had thus far been unable to resist the surging strength of the reformers, but by September their positions were beginning, however slightly, to improve. In constitutional negotiations they were able to secure a veto power for the king. Many of the reformers were left aghast by this, and further negotiations were hobbled by contentiousness, quiet Versailles, the seat of royal power, was a stifling environment for reformers. The bustling metropolis lay within walking distance, less than 21 kilometres to the northeast, worse, many feared that the king, emboldened by the growing presence of royal troops, might simply dissolve the Assembly, or at least renege on the August decrees. The king was indeed considering this, and when on 18 September he issued a statement giving his approval to only a portion of the decrees. Stoking their anger even further, the king even stated on 4 October that he had reservations about the Declaration of the Rights of Man, despite its post-revolutionary mythology, the march was not a spontaneous event